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Human fertilization

Christina Schiza, Dimitrios Korbakis, Efstratia Panteleli, Keith Jarvi, Andrei P Drabovich, Eleftherios P Diamandis
TEX101 is a testis-specific protein expressed exclusively in male germ cells and is a validated biomarker of male infertility. Studies in mice suggest that TEX101 is a cell-surface chaperone which regulates, through protein-protein interactions, the maturation of proteins involved in spermatozoa transit and oocyte binding. Male TEX101-null mice are sterile. Here, we identified by co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry the interactome of human TEX101 in testicular tissues and spermatozoa. The testis-specific cell-surface dipeptidase 3 (DPEP3) emerged as the top hit...
August 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Anna Rita Piras, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Federica Ariu, Laura Falchi, Maria Teresa Zedda, Salvatore Pau, Sergio Domenico Gadau, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Daniela Bebbere, Sergio Ledda, Luisa Bogliolo
BACKGROUND: Storage conditions during transportation of explanted ovaries are a critical step in setting up fertility preservation protocols in both animal and human fields. Here, we evaluated the effects of ovary storage at 4 °C on the preservation of preantral follicles and oocytes retrieved from antral follicles using the domestic cat as model. METHODS: Ovaries were harvested from fifty-five healthy domestic queens during ovariectomy and stored at 4 °C for 0 (control), 24, 48, 72 and 96 h...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Mariana A Ribeiro, Molly S Estill, Geysson J Fernandez, Leonardo N Moraes, Stephen A Krawetz, Wellerson R Scarano
Male fertility and spermatogenesis are directly linked to the Sertoli cell's ability to produce factors associated with germ cell development. Sertoli cells express receptors for FSH and testosterone, and are the major regulators of spermatogenesis. Recent studies report that regulatory RNA molecules, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), are able to modulate testicular function during spermatogenesis and that their altered expression may be involved in male infertility. miRNAs may play a role in the response to xenobiotics that have an adverse consequences to health...
August 7, 2018: Toxicology
Rami Mahmood Abazid, Mohamed Shoman, Osama A Smettie, Osama A Elamin
Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) is commonly used for ovulation induction and has been associated with arterial and venous thrombosis. We reported a case of BPVT related to in vitro fertilization in a 39-year-old female, who underwent redo mitral valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hMG-induced BPVT in a young female patient.
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
Dieter Egli, Michael V Zuccaro, Michael Kosicki, George M Church, Allan Bradley, Maria Jasin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Nature
Seiya Oura, Haruhiko Miyata, Taichi Noda, Keisuke Shimada, Takafumi Matsumura, Akane Morohoshi, Ayako Isotani, Masahito Ikawa
The CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently introduce biallelic mutations in ES cells (ESCs), and its application with fluorescently-tagged ESCs enables phenotype analysis in chimeric mice. We have utilized ESCs that express EGFP in the cytosol and acrosome [EGR-G101 129S2 x (CAG/Acr-EGFP) B6] in previous studies; however, the EGFP signal in the sperm cytosol is weak and the signal in the acrosome is lost after the acrosome reaction, precluding analysis between wild type and ESC derived spermatozoa. In this study, we established an ESC line from RBGS (Red Body Green Sperm) transgenic mice [B6D2-Tg(CAG/Su9-DsRed2, Acr3-EGFP)RBGS002Osb] whose spermatozoa exhibit green fluorescence in the acrosome and red fluorescence in the mitochondria within the flagellar midpiece that is retained after the acrosome reaction...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
Ali Younes, Cyrille Alliot, Marcel Mokili, Gilles Montavon
Anthropogenic radioactivity generated by nuclear or chemical events results in the liberation of quadrillions of Becquerel and tons of materials to the environment. These events include nuclear accidents, nuclear weapon experiments, and high levels of generated radioactive and chemical waste. 210 Po is a high-energy α emitter that presents in the environment at extremely low concentration. It is considered as one of the highly toxic elements and is estimated to contribute about 7% of the total effective dose equivalent to humans from ingested natural internal radiation...
August 8, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Mara Simopoulou, Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, Nikolaos Antoniou, Evangelos Maziotis, Anna Rapani, Panagiotis Bakas, George Anifandis, Theodoros Kalampokas, Stamatis Bolaris, Agni Pantou, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
Assisted reproductive technology has evolved tremendously since the emergence of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the course of the recent decade, there have been significant efforts in order to minimize multiple gestations, while improving percentages of singleton pregnancies and offering individualized services in IVF, in line with the trend of personalized medicine. Patients as well as clinicians and the entire IVF team benefit majorly from 'knowing what to expect' from an IVF cycle. Hereby, the question that has emerged is to what extent prognosis could facilitate toward the achievement of the above goal...
August 8, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
C Philip Gabel, James Carroll, Keith Harrison
Background: The effects of Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT) on cellular function arise predominantly from stimulation of ATP production and reduction of oxidative stress. These effects are dose dependent and a function of beam irradiance and irradiation time. Human sperm motility has been shown to increase with LLLT irradiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of laser and Light Emitting Diode (LED) LLLT photobiomodulation on human spermatozoa motility and DNA integrity...
June 30, 2018: Laser Therapy
Masaki Nishioka, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto, Tadafumi Kato
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are caused by complex gene-environment interactions. While recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the identification of several risk variants for psychiatric conditions, including single-nucleotide variants and copy-number variations, these factors can explain only a portion of the liability to these disorders. Although non-inherited factors had previously been attributed to environmental causes, recent genomic analyses have demonstrated that de novo mutations are among the main non-inherited risk factors for several psychiatric conditions...
August 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Ying-Cing Lin, Simone Pecetta, Jon M Steichen, Sven Kratochvil, Eleonora Melzi, Johan Arnold, Stephanie K Dougan, Lin Wu, Kathrin H Kirsch, Usha Nair, William R Schief, Facundo D Batista
Here, we describe a one-step, in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated strategy to generate knock-in mice. We produced knock-in (KI) mice wherein a 1.9-kb DNA fragment bearing a pre-arranged human B-cell receptor heavy chain was recombined into the native murine immunoglobulin locus. Our methodology relies on Cas9 nuclease-induced double-stranded breaks directed by two sgRNAs to occur within the specific target locus of fertilized oocytes. These double-stranded breaks are subsequently repaired via homology-directed repair by a plasmid-borne template containing the pre-arranged human immunoglobulin heavy chain...
August 7, 2018: EMBO Journal
Willem Verpoest, Catherine Staessen, Patrick M Bossuyt, Veerle Goossens, Gheona Altarescu, Maryse Bonduelle, Martha Devesa, Talia Eldar-Geva, Luca Gianaroli, Georg Griesinger, Georgia Kakourou, Georgia Kokkali, Jana Liebenthron, Maria-Cristina Magli, Monica Parriego, Andreas G Schmutzler, Monica Tobler, Katrin van der Ven, Joep Geraedts, Karen Sermon
STUDY QUESTION: Does preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) by comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) of the first and second polar body to select embryos for transfer increase the likelihood of a live birth within 1 year in advanced maternal age women aged 36-40 years planning an ICSI cycle, compared to ICSI without chromosome analysis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PGT-A by CCS in the first and second polar body to select euploid embryos for transfer does not substantially increase the live birth rate in women aged 36-40 years...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Tina N Tran, John C Schimenti
Whole exome or genome sequencing is becoming routine in clinical situations for identifying mutations underlying presumed genetic causes of disease, including infertility. While this is a powerful approach for implicating polymorphisms or de novo mutations in genes plausibly related to the phenotype, a greater challenge is to definitively prove causality. This is a crucial requisite for treatment, especially for infertility, in which validation options are limited. In this study, we created a mouse model of a putative infertility allele, DMC1M200V...
August 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Daniel Ferguson, Mitchell Blenden, Irina Hutson, Yingqiu Du, Charles A Harris
The global obesity epidemic is fueling alarming rates of diabetes, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that is a key regulator of body weight and energy expenditure. Leptin-deficient humans and mice are obese, diabetic, infertile, and have hepatic steatosis. While leptin replacement therapy can rescue the pathologies seen in leptin-deficient patients and mouse models, treatment is very costly and requires daily injections. Since adipocytes are the source of leptin secretion we investigated whether mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), capable of forming adipocytes, could be injected into ob/ob mice and prevent the metabolic phenotype seen in these leptin-deficient mice...
July 31, 2018: Endocrinology
Losasso Carmen, Di Cesare Andrea, Mastrorilli Eleonora, Patuzzi Ilaria, Cibin Veronica, Eckert Ester M, Fontaneto Diego, Vanzo Angiola, Ricci Antonia, Corno Gianluca
The massive use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered as the greatest contributor to the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) presence in food of animal origin. Nevertheless, sewage from treated animals may impact on vegetables grown on fertilized fields, but it is largely unknown whether and to what extent ARB are transferred to vegetables and to human gut. It could be hypothesized that food of animal and vegetal origin have a different role into ARB transfer to human gut and that different diets could be characterized by different antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) load...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Camila P Almeida, Márcia C F Ferreira, Camila O da Silveira, Jacira R Campos, Isabella T Borges, Pedro G Baeta, Felipe H S Silva, Fernando M Reis, Helen L Del Puerto
The quality of oocytes depends on interactions with surrounding granulosa cells. Granulosa cells are essential in normal follicular maturation process since they produce steroidal hormones and growth factors, and they play a crucial role in follicular atresia. The success in reproductive biology and medicine depends on reliable assessment of oocyte and embryo viability which presently mainly bases on oocyte and embryo morphology. Recent investigations have tried to establish an evaluation system for oocyte quality and to predict outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on the incidence of granulosa cells and cumulus cells apoptosis...
August 6, 2018: Cell Biology International
Maryam Hassanzadeh Bashtian, Talat Khadivzadeh, Shapour Badiee Aval, Habibollah Esmaily
CONTEXT: Infertility is one of the major stressful events in individual life, especially women. Self-efficacy means a person can perceive a potentially threatening and stressful situation as being amenable to influences of personal control. AIMS: This study was conducted to determine the acupressure effects on self-efficacy and pregnancy rate in infertile women under in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial in infertile women...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Antonio Simone Laganà, Amerigo Vitagliano, Marco Noventa, Guido Ambrosini, Rosario D'Anna
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether oral myo-inositol supplementation (MI) is able to reduce the amount of gonadotropins (GA) and the length of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (SL) in both Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: We performed a systematic review (PROSPERO ID: CRD42017069439) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched articles published in English between January 1985 to August 2017, using the combination of the Medical Subject Headings "Inositol" with "Ovulation Induction", "follicle-stimulating hormone, human, with HCG C-terminal peptide", "Reproductive Techniques, Assisted", and "Fertilization in Vitro"...
August 4, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
David T Ewart, Erik J Peterson, Clifford J Steer
Technology for precise and efficient genetic editing is constantly evolving and is now capable of human clinical applications. Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are chronic, disabling, sometimes life-threatening, conditions that feature heritable components. Both primary genetic lesions and the inflammatory pathobiology underlying these diseases represent fertile soil for new therapies based on the capabilities of gene editing. The ability to orchestrate precise targeted modifications to the genome will likely enable cell-based therapies for inflammatory diseases such as monogenic autoinflammatory disease, acquired autoimmune disease and for regenerative medicine in the setting of an inflammatory environment...
August 4, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Peter Arend
The metabolic relationship between the formation of the ABO(H) blood group phenotype and human fertility is evident in the case of the (Oh) or Bombay blood type, which Charles Darwin would have interpreted as resulting from reduced male fertility in consanguinities, based on the history of his own family, the Darwin/Wedgwood Dynasty. The classic Bombay type occurs with the extremely rare, human-specific genotype (h/h; se/se), which (due to point mutations) does not encode fucosyltransferases 1(FUT1) and 2 (FUT2)...
July 21, 2018: Immunobiology
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