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Human fertilization

Elmar W Tobi, Joost van den Heuvel, Bas J Zwaan, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Tobias Uller
An adverse intrauterine environment is associated with long-term physiological changes in offspring. These are believed to be mediated by epigenomic marks, including DNA methylation (DNAm). Changes in DNAm are often interpreted as damage or plastic responses of the embryo. Here, we propose that stochastic DNAm variation, generated during remodeling of the epigenome after fertilization, contributes to DNAm signatures of prenatal adversity through differential survival of embryos. Using a mathematical model of re-methylation in the early embryo, we demonstrate that selection, but not plasticity, will generate a characteristic reduction in DNAm variance at loci that contribute to survival...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Yuan Yuan, Qingyun Mai, Jiaxuan Ma, Mingfen Deng, Yanwen Xu, Guanglun Zhuang, Canquan Zhou
STUDY QUESTION: Do human embryos survive long-term cryopreservation (CP) (≥12 years) and implant after frozen embryo transfer (ET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human embryos remain usable after long-term CP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several cohort studies have reported the live birth rate or neonatal outcomes of human embryos after CP for up to 5 years. Only a few case reports have described successful live births from human embryos after long-term CP up to 12 years...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Filippo Pederzoli, Walter Cazzaniga, Francesco Chierigo, Edoardo Pozzi, Massimo Clementi, Paola Viganò, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
STUDY QUESTION: Does the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen impact seminal parameters and sperm DNA quality in white European men seeking medical help for primary couple's infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: HPV seminal infections involving high-risk (HR) genotypes are associated with impaired sperm progressive motility and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) values. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HPV is commonly present in semen samples. However, whether the presence of HPV in semen is actually associated with impaired sperm parameters and SDF values have yet to be elucidated...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, Michael C Madden
The epidemiologic investigation has successively delineated associations of air pollution exposure with non-malignant and malignant lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy outcomes, perinatal effects and other extra-pulmonary disease including diabetes. Defining these relationships between air pollution exposure and human health closely parallels results of an earlier epidemiologic investigation into cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), two other particle-related exposures...
December 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Steve E Glenn, Pamela K Geyer
Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] is a multifunctional zinc finger DNA binding protein. Transcriptional regulation by Su(Hw) is essential in the ovary and testis, where Su(Hw) functions primarily as a repressor. Recently, the HP1a and Insulator Partner Protein 1 (HIPP1) was found to extensively co-localize with Su(Hw) and other insulator binding proteins in euchromatic regions of the genome, and with Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a) in heterochromatic regions. As HIPP1 is the homologue of the human co-repressor Chromodomain Y-Like (CDYL), we tested its requirement in establishing transcriptional repression in flies...
December 4, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Madelyn Pandorf, George Hochmuth, Treavor H Boyer
The main reason for implementing human urine diversion is to produce a local and renewable source of fertilizer for agriculture. Accordingly, the goal of this research was to compare human urine fertilizer and synthetic fertilizer in the cultivation of snap beans and turnips by evaluating the yield, plant tissue chemical composition, nutrient uptake efficiency, soil nutrient content, and leachate nutrient content between plots. Four fertilizer treatments were evaluated: 1) synthetic fertilizer, 2) urine supplemented with synthetic fertilizer, 3) urine-only, and 4) a no-fertilizer control, referred to as treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nicoleta Anghel, Vreni Balmer, Joachim Müller, Pablo Winzer, Adriana Aguado-Martinez, Mona Roozbehani, Sovitj Pou, Aaron Nilsen, Michael Riscoe, J Stone Doggett, Andrew Hemphill
We report on the efficacy of selected endochin-like quinolones (ELQs) against N. caninum tachyzoites grown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), and in a pregnant BALB/c mouse model. Fourteen ELQs were screened against transgenic N. caninum tachyzoites expressing β-galactosidase (Nc-βgal). Drugs were added concomitantly to infection and the values for 50% proliferation inhibition (IC50 ) were determined after 3 days. Three compounds exhibited IC50 values below 0.1 nM, 3 ELQs had IC50 s between 0.1 and 1 nM, for 7 compounds values between 1 and 10 nM were noted, and one compound had an IC50 of 22...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Asghar Beigi Harchegani, Mahdiyeh Mirnam Niha, Milad Sohrabiyan, Mahdi Ghatrehsamani, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Alireza Shahriary
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic compound that can target human spermatozoa. SM induces a wide variety of pathological effects in human reproductive organs, including sexual hormone disturbance, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, poor sperm quality, defects in embryo development, childhood physical abnormalities, and severe fertility problems. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of SM action on male reproductive health and human sperm function are unclear. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress is likely a significant mechanism of SM action, and could be associated with sperm DNA damage, membrane lipid peroxidation, reduced membrane fluidity, mitochondrial deficiency, apoptosis, and poor sperm quality...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Beti Vidmar, Maša Vodovnik
Keratin is a complex and structurally stable protein found in human and animal hard tissues, such as feathers, wool, hair, hoof and nails. Some of these, like feathers and wool, represent one of the main sources of protein-rich waste with significant potential to be transformed into value-added products such as feed, fertilizers or bioenergy. A major limitation impeding valorization of keratinous substrates is their recalcitrant structure and resistance to hydrolysis by common proteases. However, specialized keratinolytic enzymes produced by some microorganisms can efficiently degrade these substrates...
September 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Guillermo Carvajal, Nicolás Gastón Brukman, Mariana Weigel Muñoz, María A Battistone, Vanesa A Guazzone, Masahito Ikawa, Miyata Haruhiko, Livia Lustig, Sylvie Breton, Patricia S Cuasnicu
Epididymal Cysteine Rich Secretory Proteins 1 and 4 (CRISP1 and CRISP4) associate with sperm during maturation and play different roles in fertilization. However, males lacking each of these molecules individually are fertile, suggesting compensatory mechanisms between these homologous proteins. Based on this, in the present work, we generated double CRISP1/CRISP4 knockout (DKO) mice and examined their reproductive phenotype. Our data showed that the simultaneous lack of the two epididymal proteins results in clear fertility defects...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Honglei Ji, Maohua Miao, Hong Liang, Huijuan Shi, Dasheng Ruan, Yongbo Li, Jian Wang, Wei Yuan
Although several human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to routine sperm parameters, evidence of BPA's effects on sperm movement characteristics is limited. We examined associations of BPA exposure with sperm parameters including sperm movement characteristics among fertile men. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Subjects provided semen samples analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system and urine samples for BPA assay. They were invited to complete an in-person interview with a structured questionnaire to obtain demographics, lifestyle factors, etc...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaohan Wang, Ling Liu, Shanmao Mou, Huishan Zhao, Jianye Fang, Yanjie Xiang, Tong Zhao, Tongye Sha, Jie Ding, Cuifang Hao
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains abundant growth factors and is gradually used in the field of reproduction. A thin endometrium is recognized as a critical factor in embryo implantation failure. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnMSCs), which were isolated from human menstrual blood, are highly proliferative and show multiple differentiation capacity. The current study was to investigate the effect of PRP on the proliferation and migration of EnMSCs, and the effectiveness of PRP in the treatment of patients with thin endometrium...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Azadeh Mohammad-Hasani, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Ali Fallah
Dioxins (eg, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/TCDD), as environmental endocrine disruptors and toxic carcinogens, can affect male reproductive health. The influence of dioxins is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and its repressor (AhRR). In this study, we investigated the association of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion polymorphism with male infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, 221 semen samples (111 infertile and 110 healthy controls) based on World Health Organization guidelines were collected from in vitro fertilization centers of Babol, Iran...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jelena Bujan, S Joseph Wright, Michael Kaspari
Humans are increasing nutrient deposition across the globe, and we know little about how these changes influence consumer populations in tropical rainforests. We used a long-term fertilization experiment conducted in a Panamanian forest to explore how nutrient availability and tree traits affect abundance of a higher-level consumer. We added nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a factorial design for 18 years. Given that phosphorus often limits ecosystem processes in lowland tropical forests, and added nitrogen reduces insect abundance in our experiment, we first hypothesized that phosphorus addition would increase nest density and nest size of Azteca chartifex ants while nitrogen addition would have the opposite effects...
December 1, 2018: Oecologia
Danielle O'Neill, Rachel Pounds, Josefa Vella, Kavita Singh, Jason Yap
Chronic ectopic pregnancy (CEP) is a rare condition caused by implantation of trophoblastic tissue in the fallopian tube, which causes protracted tissue destruction at the site of attachment. The process of minor rupture and bleeding results in chronic inflammation, giving rise to a haematocele which often resembles a pelvic mass. Unlike ectopic pregnancy, the level of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in patients with CEP is usually low or undetectable as chorionic villi are generally sparse. Therefore, CEP often poses a specific diagnostic challenge for clinicians, as both biochemical markers and imaging modalities are unreliable in its diagnosis...
October 2018: Case Reports in Women's Health
Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Esam Almalki, Saleh Al-Quarishy
Hydatidosis is considered to be one of the important zoonotic diseases and has a significant public health importance due to the difficulties of the diagnosis. Domestic animals act as intermediate hosts and the main reservoir for the disease in humans. The main purpose of this work therefore was to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in Najdi sheep slaughtered in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Cyst location and cyst fertility and viability were also estimated, together with effect of seasons, age and sex on the prevalence of the infection...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Xing-Xing Zhang, Yi Yu, Zhen-Gao Sun, Jing-Yan Song, Ai-Juan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the difference in the metabolomics profiles of follicular fluid between older and younger reproductive-aged women. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at the Centre of Reproduction and Genetics, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China and comprised patient data related to the period between July and October 2015. Follicular fluid was obtained from male-factor infertility women aged 28-35 years as the younger group A, and those aged 35-42 years as the older group B...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Wei Liu, Wei An, Erik Jeppesen, Jinfeng Ma, Min Yang, Dennis Trolle
Oospores of Cryptosporidium, a waterborne pathogen of great concern, are widely distributed in surface waters in China and pose a threat to human health. This study seeks to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of Cryptosporidium concentrations. We focus on the Daning River watershed (4166 km2 ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGR) during the period 2008 to 2013 and use the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to test two mitigation scenarios. Based on data on animal husbandry, population, agriculture and WWTPs (wastewater treatment plants), Cryptosporidium transport in the Daning River watershed was simulated using a calibrated hydrological and sediment transport model...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rachel B Mejia, Taylor W Cox, Edward B Nguyen, Karen M Summers, Patrick Ten Eyck, Amy E Sparks, Bradley J Van Voorhis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate which clinical characteristics influence early maternal β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone levels in in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Women with a live birth after single-blastocyst embryo transfer in either a fresh or frozen cycle between 2004 and 2017, comprising 1,282 pregnancies in 1,057 patients...
December 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Marilys Pradel, Lynda Aissani
Since phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable element essential for life, it is extremely important to explore any potential supply of P, including that recovered from human excreta and urban wastewater. This study aimed to assess, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), whether recovering dissipated P by producing sludge-based phosphate fertilizer can be a suitable method to reduce P depletion. Environmental impacts of four scenarios of production of sludge-based phosphate fertilizers were compared to those of production of triple super phosphate, a mineral phosphate fertilizer used as a reference scenario...
November 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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