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Human fertilization

Anne P Hutchinson, Nigel Pereira, Eric R Chung, Nirali J Shah, Megi Zeku, Pak H Chung, Zev Rosenwaks
This retrospective cohort study investigates the risk factors and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) trends in patients with ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancies (EPs) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment. All patients receiving MTX for sonographically confirmed tubal EPs at our fertility center between 2004 and 2014 were included. Baseline demographics and β-hCG trends of patients with EP rupture after MTX were compared to patients with resolved EPs after MTX. One-hundred-thirty-seven patients with EPs were treated with MTX during the study duration; 27 experienced EP rupture and 110 EP resolution...
October 15, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Laura Picchi, Guénaël Cabanes, Claire Ricci-Bonot, Maria Cristina Lorenzi
Reciprocity [1] is one of the most controversial evolutionary explanations of cooperation among non-kin [2, 3]. For some authors, cognitive capacity of non-human organisms is limiting, and more parsimonious mechanisms should apply [3-5]; for others, the debate is mainly semantic [2, 6], and empirical evidence can be found in a wide range of taxa [7]. However, while the ability to alternate cooperative behaviors does not settle the reciprocity controversy, the capacity to adjust cooperative behavior to the value of received help could prove decisive...
October 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Arturo Bevilacqua, Jessica Dragotto, Alessandro Giuliani, Mariano Bizzarri
Mice exposed to continuous light undergo functional and histological changes that mimic those of human Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). We herein induced the syndrome by exposing 30-day-old females to 10 weeks of permanent light. Ovarian morphology and histology, as well as reproductive parameters (time of observed pregnancy/delivery) were investigated. Ovaries of PCOS-modeled mice showed lack of tertiary follicles and corpora lutea, altered ovarian architecture, and increased thickness of the theca layer...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yumei Huang, Muting Yan, Huayue Nie, Wenjing Wang, Jun Wang
Analysis of persistent halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) in human follicular fluid is important given previous reports of their adverse effects on the reproductivity of women. In the present work, HOPs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were analyzed in 127 follicular fluid samples collected from patients who were undergoing in vitro fertilization in Central China. The concentrations of ∑7 BDEs (sum of BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) in follicular fluid ranged from not detected (n...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
McCauley T Vailes, Sarah R McCoski, Lydia K Wooldridge, Sydney T Reese, Ky G Pohler, David A Roper, Vitor R Mercadante, Alan D Ealy
This work examined the downstream fetal and placental outcomes of introducing a cocktail of uterine-derived growth factors during bovine embryo culture. Abattoir-derived bovine oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro. On day 4 post-fertilization, ≥ 8-cell embryos were harvested, pooled and exposed to an embryokine mix, termed EFI, which contained recombinant human epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml), bovine fibroblast growth factor-2 (10 ng/ml) and human insulin-like growth factor 1 (50 ng/ml) or to a carrier-only control treatment (CON)...
September 24, 2018: Theriogenology
Jingtao Guo, Edward J Grow, Hana Mlcochova, Geoffrey J Maher, Cecilia Lindskog, Xichen Nie, Yixuan Guo, Yodai Takei, Jina Yun, Long Cai, Robin Kim, Douglas T Carrell, Anne Goriely, James M Hotaling, Bradley R Cairns
Human adult spermatogenesis balances spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal and differentiation, alongside complex germ cell-niche interactions, to ensure long-term fertility and faithful genome propagation. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of ~6500 testicular cells from young adults. We found five niche/somatic cell types (Leydig, myoid, Sertoli, endothelial, macrophage), and observed germline-niche interactions and key human-mouse differences. Spermatogenesis, including meiosis, was reconstructed computationally, revealing sequential coding, non-coding, and repeat-element transcriptional signatures...
October 12, 2018: Cell Research
Ainhoa Alzualde, Mamta Behl, Nisha S Sipes, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Aintzane Alday, Raymond R Tice, Richard S Paules, Arantza Muriana, Celia Quevedo
Following the voluntary phase-out of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) due to their environmental persistence and toxicity, the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are emerging replacements. However, there is limited information on the potential human health effects of the OPFRs. Zebrafish embryos are a viable vertebrate model organism with many advantages for high throughput testing toward human hazard assessment. We utilized zebrafish embryos to assess developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, of eight replacement OPFRs: (triphenyl phosphate [TPHP], isopropylated phenyl phosphate [IPP], 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate [EHDP], tert-butylated phenyl diphenyl phosphate [BPDP], trimethyl phenyl phosphate [TMPP], isodecyl diphenyl phosphate [IDDP], tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate [TDCIPP], and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [TCEP]) and two BFRs (3,3',5,5'- tetrabromobisphenol A [TBBPA] and 2,2'4,4'-brominated diphenyl ether [BDE-47])...
October 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jonathan F Will
If you blinked you may have missed it. The Department of Health and Human Services published its strategic plan for the 2018-2022 fiscal years, which includes the statement that HHS accomplishes its mission through programs and initiatives that serve and protect "Americans at every stage of life, from conception." Of note, the "from conception" language is new and, depending on the direction President Trump's administration plans to go, could have profound implications for the regulation of reproductive services ranging from abortion to in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Zhaoyang Yan, Xiaoyong Huang, Yangzhouyun Xie, Meirong Song, Kui Zhu, Shuangyang Ding
Macrolide antibiotics (MALs) are widely used for both human and animal health. Most MALs and their metabolites transfer into aquatic organisms and environment resulting in violent consequences. Previous studies show that MALs cause cardiotoxicity in humans and mammals. However, the potential risk of these chemicals in aquatic organisms remains unclear. Here, we used zebrafish embryos as a model to evaluate the toxicity of MALs. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to four typical MALs including azithromycin (AZM), clarithromycin (CLR), tilmicosin (TMS) and tylosin (TYL) to study their cardiotoxicity...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Augusto Weber, Jayse Alves, Ana Lucia Abujamra, Ivan Cunha Bustamante-Filho
Human secondary hypogonadism is associated with impaired testicular function, however, little is known about its impact on sperm epididymal maturation. Endocrine disruption in the epididymis could impair the secretion of key proteins, such as β-defensins, responsible for spermatozoa maturation during epididymal transit. This study evaluated the sequence and structural similarities between porcine epididymal β-defensins pBD3, pBD4, pBD125, and pEP2C and their human homologs using bioinformatics integrated with information derived from protein databanks...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Francisco A García-Vázquez, C Soriano-Úbeda, R Laguna-Barraza, M José Izquierdo-Rico, Felipe A Navarrete, Pablo E Visconti, A Gutiérrez-Adán, P Coy
Besides its fibrinolytic function, the plasminogen-plasmin (PLG-PLA) system is also involved in fertilisation, where plasminogen activators bind to plasminogen to produce plasmin, which modulates sperm binding to the zona pellucida. However, controversy exists, depending on the species, concerning the role of the different components of the system. This study focused its attention on the role of the PLG-PLA system on fertilisation in the mouse with special attention to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The presence of exogenous plasminogen reduced in vitro fertilisation (IVF) rates and this decline was attenuated by the presence of plasmin inhibitors in combination with plasminogen...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ann-Sofie Jemth, Robert Gustafsson, Lars Bräutigam, Linda Henriksson, Karl S A Vallin, Antonio Sarno, Ingrid Almlöf, Evert Homan, Azita Rasti, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Pål Stenmark, Thomas Helleday
Nucleotides in the free pool are more susceptible to nonenzymatic methylation than those protected in the DNA double helix. Methylated nucleotides like O6-methyl-dGTP can be mutagenic and toxic if incorporated into DNA. Removal of methylated nucleotides from the nucleotide pool may therefore be important to maintain genome integrity. We show that MutT homologue 1 (MTH1) efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of O6-methyl-dGTP with a catalytic efficiency similar to that for 8-oxo-dGTP. O6-methyl-dGTP activity is exclusive to MTH1 among human NUDIX proteins and conserved through evolution but not found in bacterial MutT...
October 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Kun Huang, Yujie Dang, Pan Zhang, Cong Shen, Xuesong Sui, Guoliang Xia, Yingying Qin, Xue Jiao, Chao Wang, Ran Huo, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the function of CAV1 in folliculogenesis and female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: CAV1 regulates germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle (PF) formation in mice, and CAV1 mutation may be related to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pre-granulosa cells are essential for the establishment of the PF pool, which determines female fertility and reproductive lifespan. Cav1 participates in vascularization in fetal mouse ovaries...
October 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Maggie C Evans, Greg M Anderson
Optimal fertility in humans and animals relies on the availability of sufficient metabolic fuels, information about which is communicated to the brain via levels of the hormones leptin and insulin. The circadian clock system is also critical; this input is particularly evident in the precise timing of the female-specific surge of GnRH and LH secretion that triggers ovulation on the following day. Chronodisruption or metabolic imbalance can both impair reproductive activity, and these two disruptions exacerbate each other, such that they often occur simultaneously...
October 9, 2018: Endocrinology
Katherine J Robinson, Kristy C Yuan, Emily K Don, Alison L Hogan, Claire G Winnick, Madelaine C Tym, Caitlin W Lucas, Hamideh Shahheydari, Maxinne Watchon, Ian P Blair, Julie D Atkin, Garth A Nicholson, Nicholas J Cole, Angela S Laird
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. ALS can be modeled in zebrafish (Danio rerio) through the expression of human ALS-causing genes, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Overexpression of mutated human SOD1 protein causes aberrant branching and shortening of spinal motor axons. Despite this, the functional relevance of this axon morphology remains elusive. Our aim was to determine whether this motor axonopathy is correlated with impaired movement in mutant (MT) SOD1-expressing zebrafish...
October 9, 2018: Zebrafish
Lynn M Morgan
The Costa Rican Constitutional Court banned in vitro fertilization in 2000, citing the inviolability of life. Conservatives hoped the ban would initiate a hemispheric movement to protect the unborn. But in 2012 the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that reproductive rights are human rights and that women's rights take precedence over embryo rights. The episode precipitated a national identity crisis: how could a country that supports universal health care be labeled a human rights violator as a result of its efforts to protect nascent human life? Expanding the health and human rights framework helps us appreciate how IVF became Costa Rica's human rights crucible...
October 9, 2018: Medical Anthropology
Daniela Baldantoni, Giovanni Saviello, Anna Alfani
The effects of long-term soil fertilizations on nutrient and non-essential element concentrations in edible parts of three crops important in human diet were investigated repeating four treatments (biowaste compost, biowaste compost plus mineral nitrogen, mineral NPK, unfertilized control) for seven consecutive years (2007-2014). Fruits of Solanum lycopersicum cv San Marzano collected in 2011 and 2012, bulbs of Allium cepa cv Bianca di Pompei collected in 2012 and 2013, and bulbs of Foeniculum vulgare cv Orbit collected in 2014 were analyzed...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Biaobang Chen, Wenjing Wang, Xiandong Peng, Huafeng Jiang, Shaozhen Zhang, Da Li, Bin Li, Jing Fu, Yanping Kuang, Xiaoxi Sun, Xueqian Wang, Zhihua Zhang, Ling Wu, Zhou Zhou, Qifeng Lyu, Zheng Yan, Xiaoyan Mao, Yao Xu, Jian Mu, Qiaoli Li, Li Jin, Lin He, Qing Sang, Lei Wang
Human oocyte maturation is a precondition for fertilization and ensuing embryonic development. Previously, we identified TUBB8 variants as a genetic determinant of human oocyte maturation arrest and showed that these variants cause variable and mixed phenotypes in oocyte maturation and early embryo development. We also estimated that rare inherited or de novo variants in the TUBB8 gene accounted for 30% of individuals in a small cohort of patients affected by oocyte maturation arrest. In the present study, we recruited a further 87 patients from unrelated families diagnosed with oocyte maturation or early embryonic arrest and identified 30 patients carrying TUBB8 variants...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Fiona J A van Pul, Jai Ramesar, Ahmad Syibli Othman, Hans Kroeze, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Kim C Williamson, Robert W Sauerwein, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Two members of 6-cysteine (6-cys) protein family, P48/45 and P230, are important for gamete fertility in rodent and human malaria parasites and are leading transmission blocking vaccine antigens. Rodent and human parasites encode a paralog of P230, called P230p. While P230 is expressed in male and female parasites, P230p is expressed only in male gametocytes and gametes. In rodent malaria parasites this protein is dispensable throughout the complete life-cycle; however, its function in P. falciparum is unknown...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luis Alejandro Arias-Sosa
In modern society, fertility problems and demand of treatment seem to be on the rise, which led to an increased interest in research regarding human reproduction. Among these efforts, the study of the molecular senescence process has gain notorious popularity as aging is one of the most important variables involved in reproductive capacity and since the comprehension of telomere dynamics has become an important and influential theme. This new knowledge regarding the reproductive aging process is expected to offer new tools to understand the acquisition, maintenance, and loss of fertility potential...
October 8, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
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