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Yang Yang, Ling Li, Qiyun Hang, Yuan Fang, Xiaoliang Dong, Peng Cao, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection and characterized by redox imbalance and severe oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) serves several vital functions, including scavenging free radicals and maintaining intracellular redox balance. Extracellular GSH is unable to be taken into the majority of human cells, and the GSH prodrug N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) does not exhibit promising clinical effects. γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC), an intermediate dipeptide of the GSH-synthesis pathway and harboring anti-inflammatory properties, represents a relatively unexplored option for sepsis treatment...
September 26, 2018: Redox Biology
Yawen Hong, Tiejin Ying
A water-soluble polysaccharide WSP1 was extracted from the fruiting body of Termitornyces albuminosus. Its molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and molecular structure were determined by GPC, GC-MS, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, NMR (1D and 2D) and AFM. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of WSP1 was evaluated in vitro by the tests of reducing power, scavenging ability on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, and chelating ability on ferrous ion. The results indicated that the molecular weight of WSP1 was 9 kDa, and it was mainly composed of fucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:3...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jung Hyun Park, Hyeong Jun Ku, Jeen-Woo Park
OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have suggested that acrolein-induced lung injury and pulmonary diseases are associated with the depletion of antioxidants and the production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species may exert protective effects against acrolein-induced apoptosis. Because hesperetin, a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have an antioxidant activity, we investigated the effect of hesperitin against acrolein-induced apoptosis of lung cells...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Man Yuan, Ying Chun Xu, Ye Qing Niu, Hui Zhou, Yi Lin An, Qi Jiang Jin, Yan Jie Wang
Under the background of Cd (50 μmol·L-1 ) stress, we added ethylene precursor ACC (100 μmol·L-1 ), ACC + nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NNA (200 μmol·L-1 ), ACC + nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor Tu (1 mmol·L-1 ), ACC + nitric oxide (NO) scavenger PTIO (200 μmol·L-1 ), NO donor SNP (500 μmol·L-1 ), SNP + ethylene signal inhibitor STS (100 μmol·L-1 ) to examine their effects on the damage degree of leaves and response mechanisms of AsA-GSH cycle in lotus 'Weishanhuhonglian'. Results showed toxic symptom of lotus leaves under Cd stress...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Peipei Wang, Jinming Wu, Zhonghong Gao, Hailing Li
Serum albumin (SA) has been shown to act as a heme scavenger in hemolysis and can protect cell against the toxic effect of heme. However, the mechanism of SA in heme detoxification is not well understood. Interestingly, increasing studies indicate that heme/H2 O2 -dependent reaction is unlikely to be the principal cause of heme toxicity in excessive intravascular hemolysis conditions. Moreover, high levels of NO2 - and NO3 - were also found in patients with severe hemolytic diseases, which seem to involve in heme toxic effect as well...
October 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Rajappa Rashmi, Salai Bojan Magesh, Kunka Mohanram Ramkumar, Sarvajayakesavulu Suryanarayanan, Madhunapantula Venkata SubbaRao
Background: Naringenin is a bioactive flavonoid found in grapes and citrus fruits including tangelo, blood orange, lemons, and tangerines. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of naringenin to scavenge free radicals and determine its ability to protect animals from streptozotocin (STZ) -induced liver damage. Methods: The free radical-scavenging activity of naringenin was evaluated by in vitro cell-free assay systems. In animals, the antioxidant potential of orally administered 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight naringenin for 45 days was assessed by measuring TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides, SOD, catalase, GST, GPx, and glutathione levels in liver homogenates prepared from animals injected intraperitoneally with multiple low dose streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg for five consecutive days...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Meng-Ling Yuan, Pei Li, Zi-Hao Xing, Jin-Ming Di, Hui Liu, An-Kui Yang, Xi-Jun Lin, Qi-Wei Jiang, Yang Yang, Jia-Rong Huang, Kun Wang, Meng-Ning Wei, Yao Li, Jin Ye, Zhi Shi
WEE1 is a tyrosine kinase that regulates G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and frequently overexpressed in various tumors. However, the expression and clinical significance of WEE1 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are still unknown. In this study, we found that WEE1 was highly expressed in LSCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, overexpression of WEE1 was correlated with T stages, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages and poor prognosis of LSCC patients. Furthermore, inhibition of WEE1 by MK-1775 induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in LSCC cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lin Yan, Yu-Xuan Dai, Guo-Long Gu, Miao-Bo Pan, Shuai-Cong Wu, Yu Cao, Wen-Long Huang
A series of new hybrids of dehydroandrographolide (TAD), a biologically active natural product, bearing nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moieties were synthesized and designated as NO-donor dehydroandrographolide. The biological activities of target compounds were studied in human erythroleukemia K562 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Biological evaluation indicated that the most active compound I-5 produced high levels of NO and inhibited the proliferation of K562 (IC50 1.55 μmol·L-1 ) and MCF-7 (IC50 2.91 μmol·L-1 ) cells, which were more potent than the lead compound TAD and attenuated by an NO scavenger...
October 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Lobna Mansouri, Chedly Tizaoui, Sven-Uwe Geissen, Latifa Bousselmi
Several Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) including O3 /H2 O2 , O3 /TiO2 , O3 /activated carbon (AC), O3 /Al2 O3 , O3 /Fe2+ /H2 O2 and UV/TiO2 have been investigated and compared for the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP), an endocrine disrupting compound, in aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were the main species responsible for DEP degradation and this was supported by computational chemistry calculation, scavenger experiments, and LC/MS/MS analysis. The change of the abundance of reaction products over time was determined...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Dachang Chen, Xiaoxing Zhang, Ju Tang, Zhaolun Cui, Hao Cui
We carried out the first-principle study of four types of SF6 decompositions adsorbed on pristine and Cu atom decorated hexagonal InN monolayer. The adsorption structures, adsorption energy, electron transfer, band structure, density of states and desorption properties were discussed to evaluate the possible application of InN monolayer in field of adsorbent and gas sensor. The results revealed that the pristine InN monolayer has the largest adsorption energy to SO2 with evident chemical interactions. The introduction of Cu adatom on InN monolayer significantly enhanced the chemical interactions between the InN monolayer and the SO2 , SOF2 , SO2 F2 gas molecule but declined the adsorption energy of HF...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
James E Moore, Bindi S Brook, Robert J B Nibbs
Leukocyte migration is critically important during all protective and pathological immune and inflammatory responses. Chemokines play fundamental roles in this process, and chemokine concentration gradients stimulate the directional migration of leukocytes. The formation and regulation of these gradients is poorly understood. These are complex processes that depend on the specific properties of each chemokine and interactions between physical, biological and biochemical processes, including production, diffusion, advection, scavenging, post-translational modification, and extracellular matrix (ECM) binding...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Hong-Xin Cui, Fang-Fang Duan, Shan-Shan Jia, Fang-Rong Cheng, Ke Yuan
Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. is a plant belonging to the Taxaceae family and Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii is the only grafted and thoroughbred species belonging to this species. In this study, we extracted five different seed oils, including T. grandis seed oil (TGSO), T. grandis "Xiangyafei" seed oil (XYSO), T. grandis "Zhimafei" seed oil (ZMSO), T. grandis "Majus"seed oil (TGMSO), and T. grandis "cunguangfei" seed oil (CGSO) using physical pressure. The resulting extracts were analyzed to determine their fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory activity towards tyrosinase...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xinbo Zhang, William C Sessa, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Seminal studies from Nikolai Anichckov identified the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries as the initial event that lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Further studies by Gofman and colleagues demonstrated that high levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was responsible for the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in humans. These findings were confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies which identified elevated LDL-C levels as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Seoyoun Lee, Won-Baek Kim, So Hae Park, Minji Kim, Doohyun Kim, Jumin Park, Dae Youn Hwang, Heeseob Lee
This study examined the biological functions of the butanol extracts of green pine cones (GPCs) that had not ripened completely. The butanol extracts of GPC showed 78.22% DPPH-scavenging activity, 53.55% TEAC and 71.50% hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity. They also exhibited inhibition activity against food poisoning microorganisms. The contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were 296.75 and 26.07 mg/g, respectively. Biologically active compounds were analyzed and separated using HPLC related to the DPPH-scavenging and HAase inhibition activities...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Haein Lee, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated contribution of minor compounds naturally present in peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) to the iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation of oil-in-water emulsion. Emulsions consisted of tocopherol-stripped soybean oil and pH 4.0 citrate buffer (4:6, w/w) with iron. Minor compounds included α-tocopherol, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, β-carotene, and chlorophyll b at natural concentration in 400 ppm of the peppermint extract. The emulsions were oxidized in the dark, and headspace oxygen contents, hydroperoxide contents, and p -anisidine values were determined...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Jihee Kim, Eunok Choe
This study evaluated the pH effect on the lipid oxidation and polyphenols of the emulsions consisting of soybean oil, citric acid buffer (pH 2.6, 4.0, or 6.0), and peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) extract (400 mg/kg), with/without FeSO4 . The emulsions in tightly-sealed bottles were placed at 25 °C in the dark, and lipid oxidation and polyphenol contents and composition were determined. The lipid oxidation was high in the emulsions at pH 4.0 in the absence of iron, however, iron addition made them more stable than the emulsions at pH 2...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Yu Jeong Kim, Yongcheol Lee, Jaecheol Kim, Sun Young Park, Kiuk Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
Physicochemical characteristics and anti-oxidant capacities of seeds from two farm-cultivated and one mountain-cultivated ginsengs ( Panax ginseng Meyer) (MG) were determined. The seeds had 17.9-22.1% (dry basis) crude lipids, 11.5-15.2% crude proteins, and 1.4-1.7% ash. Oleic acid (77.9-78.5%) was the predominant fatty acid in the seed oils, followed by linoleic acid (16.6-17.4%). The highest Hunter b value, carotenoids, (β + γ)-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol, and the lowest α-tocotrienol were observed in the seed oils from MG...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Habib Md Reazaul Karim, Manish Keshwani
Use of nitrous oxide (N2 O) as an anaesthetic gas has been on contradicting views for various reasons; operating room (OR) pollution and occupational exposure is one of those controversies. The present pilot experiment was planned to analyze the anaesthesia gas waste at the machine end of scavenging outlet and calculate the probable portion of N2 O in the OR air, which is likely to help us in informed decision making. Anaesthesia gas waste was sampled at the machine end of scavenging outlet and was connected directly and analyzed using a gas analyzer attached to Mindray A7 anaesthesia workstation...
July 2018: Medical Gas Research
Jannick Prentoe, Jens Bukh
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the cause of about 400,000 annual liver disease-related deaths. The global spread of this important human pathogen can potentially be prevented through the development of a vaccine, but this challenge has proven difficult, and much remains unknown about the multitude of mechanisms by which this heterogeneous RNA virus evades inactivation by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The N-terminal motif of envelope protein 2 (E2), termed hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), changes rapidly in immunoglobulin-competent patients due to antibody-driven antigenic drift...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pietro Minuz, Alessandra Meneguzzi, Laura Fumagalli, Maurizio Degan, Stefano Calabria, Roberta Ferraro, Marco Ricci, Dino Veneri, Giorgio Berton
The thromboxane (TX) A2 elicits TP-dependent different platelet responses. Low amounts activate Src kinases and the Rho-Rho kinase pathway independently of integrin αIIb β3 and ADP secretion and synergize with epinephrine to induce aggregation. Aim of the present study was to investigate the role Src kinases and the interplay with calcium signals in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the activatory pathways engaged by TXA2 in human platelets. All the experiments were performed in vitro or ex vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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