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Bin Lee, Jae Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
Periplanetasin-2 is a 15-mer antimicrobial peptide (AMP), derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. This novel AMP exhibits potent antibacterial effect against several pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli. Distinct from the targeting cell membrane, which is the general antibacterial mechanism of AMP, periplanetasin-2 exerts its antibacterial activity via apoptosis-like death, which is physiologically and mechanistically similar to eukaryotic apoptosis. E. coli cells treated with periplanetasin-2 showed features of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, such as membrane depolarization, DNA fragmentation, caspase-like protein activation, and phosphatidylserine externalization...
December 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Daniel Younger, Madhuvika Murugan, Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Long-Jun Wu, Namas Chandra
Microglia have been implicated as a key mediator of chronic inflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The animal models of TBI vary significantly based on the type of brain injury (focal versus diffuse). This has made it extremely difficult to assess the role of microglia and the window of microglia activation. Hence, the focus of this review is to summarize the time course of microglia activation in various animal models of TBI. The review explores the repertoire of secondary injury mechanisms such as aberrant neurotransmitter release, oxidative stress, blood-brain barrier disruption, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that follow microglia activation...
December 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Fuli Zhang, Yunhua Wang, Chang Liu, Faju Chen, Honglian Ge, Fengshou Tian, Tongwen Yang, Keshi Ma, Yi Zhang
Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean plays an important role in controlling soybean root rot disease. However, the mechanism by which it improves plant tolerance to salt stress is not clear. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanism of T-soybean in mitigating the damage caused by salt stress in Cucumis sativus L plants. Our results suggest that T-soybean improved salt tolerance of cucumber seedlings by affecting the antioxidant enzymes including peroxidase (POD) (EC, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) (EC 1...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mei Yi, Yuanyuan Ban, Yixin Tan, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Bo Xiang
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells favor the use of less efficient glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to metabolize glucose, even in oxygen-rich conditions, a distinct metabolic alteration named the Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. In adult cells, bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) family members are responsible for controlling the steady-state cytoplasmic levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which allosterically activates 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, the key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting reaction of glycolysis...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Marie-Therese Rached, Steven J Millership, Silvia M A Pedroni, Agharul I Choudhury, Ana S H Costa, Darran G Hardy, Justyna A Glegola, Elaine E Irvine, Colin Selman, Megan C Woodberry, Vijay K Yadav, Sanjay Khadayate, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Samuel Virtue, Christian Frezza, Dominic J Withers
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system and immune cell interactions play key roles in the regulation of metabolism. For example, recent convergent studies have shown that macrophages regulate obesity through brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) via effects upon local catecholamine availability. However, these studies have raised issues about the underlying mechanisms involved including questions regarding the production of catecholamines by macrophages, the role of macrophage polarization state and the underlying intracellular signaling pathways in macrophages that might mediate these effects...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Caitlin E Tolbert, Matthew V Beck, Claire E Kilmer, Melissa C Srougi
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine kinase that is integral in the response to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). Cells and tissues lacking ATM are prone to tumor development and enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, ATM-deficient cells exhibit high levels of oxidative stress; however, the direct mechanism whereby ATM-associated oxidative stress may contribute to the cancer phenotype remains largely unexplored. Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, also plays an important regulatory role in cellular growth, motility, and cancer formation...
December 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lijie Wei, Qing Li, Yuan Chen, Jingjing Zhang, Yingqi Mi, Fang Dong, Chunqing Lei, Zhanyong Guo
In this paper, a series of 6-O-imidazole-based quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives via 6-O-chloroacetyl chitosan (CAClC) were successfully designed and synthesized. Detailed structural characterization was carried out by means of FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Furthermore, the antioxidant property against hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and DPPH radicals was evaluated in vitro. 2-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-6-O-(2-aminobenzimidazole)acetyl chitosan chloride (2NPhMC) and 2-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-6-O-(1-butylimidazole)acetyl chitosan chloride (NBMC) showed more than 90% scavenging indices at 1...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wanqing Hu, Meng Liu, Xiaoshuang Yang, Chang Zhang, Heyi Zhou, Weiguo Xie, Lihong Fan, Min Nie
Free radicals are closely related to the occurrence and development of aging, cancer and inflammation. In this paper, the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used as a catalyst to graft the collagen peptide (COP) molecules on the amino group of carboxymethyl chitosan sulfate (CMCS) to improve the antioxidant effects. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy were used to confirm the successful grafting of COP to CMCS. Degree of substitution (DS) of CMCS-COP could be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. With the increase of concentration, the ability of each sample on scavenging capacity and reducibility tends to increase obviously...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xubing Yuan, Junping Zheng, Lishi Ren, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
The polysaccharides of Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) displayed various bioactivities such as anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and immune-regulative effects. However, no studies were performed on the biological effect of Enteromorpha prolifera oligomers (EPO). In this study, we prepared EPO and evaluated their anti-diabetic effect. By enzymatic degradation, EPO were produced from PEP, and the average molecular weight was identified to be 44.1 kDa by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis. The major monosaccharide units of EPO were measured to be rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, xylose and galactose by capillary electrophoresis assay...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sara Zaccaron, Antje Potthast, Ute Henniges, Johannes Draxler, Thomas Prohaska, Patricia McGuiggan
Iron gall inks are known to be detrimental to the permanence of historic documents. Among the transition metals present, copper is the greatest threat and an open challenge due to the lack of Cu-specific treatments. In this study, we address the inhibition of copper by comparing extraction (a newly proposed glucose-based treatment) vs. chelation (phytate-based) approaches in terms of performances in scavenging copper and slowing the degradation rate, and of possibly induced side effects. Results show that the glucose treatment partially extracts copper, but it causes long-term damages to paper, i...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chikara Sato, Toshiko Yamazawa, Akiko Ohtani, Yuusuke Maruyama, Nassirhadjy Memtily, Mari Sato, Yuri Hatano, Takashi Shiga, Tatsuhiko Ebihara
Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Environmental capsule EM can directly observe cells in a more natural aqueous environment, but the size-limited capsules restrict cell culturability...
November 23, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Prabhat Upadhyay, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Awadhesh Kumar Mishra, Pradeep Kumar, Nidhi Pandey, Kavindra Nath Tiwari, Ragini Tilak, Suresh Purohit, G P Dubey
Reinwardtia indica (Lineceae) is a medicinal plant cultivated in the Himalayan region. It is effectively used in folk medicines for the treatment of various health complications. In the present study, the shade dried leaves and stem were extracted in three different solvents such as ethyl acetate, ethanol, and hydro-alcoholic. The antioxidant efficacy of these extracts was confirmed by using different in vitro assays: DPPH free radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation, metal ion chelating capability and reducing power determination...
December 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tong Xu, Chao Huang, Xiao-Tian Qi, Xiao-Chun Yang, Ning Zhang, Ji Cao, Chen Wang, Hong Zhu, Bo Yang, Qiao-Jun He, Xue-Jing Shao, Mei-Dan Ying
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, but the survival rate of patients has plateaued since the mid-1980s. Adriamycin is an integral component of the current first-line chemotherapies used for osteosarcoma, but dose-dependent severe side effects often limit its clinical application. Here, we propose a potential combination regimen in which adriamycin plus 2-bromopalmitate, a palmitoylation inhibitor, exhibited powerful therapeutic effects on osteosarcoma. First, 2-bromopalmitate strongly increased the proliferation inhibition of adriamycin in both human osteosarcoma cell lines and primary osteosarcoma cells...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ping Wu, Yiting Guo, Moses Kwaku Golly, Haile Ma, Ronghai He, Shilong Luo, Cheng Zhang, Liuping Zhang, Jinhua Zhu
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the feasibility of high-temperature solid-state fermentation using soybean meal (SBM) during the non-sterile process, Bacillus stearothermophilus was employed to assess the nutritional quality and bioactivity of SBM after fermentation. RESULTS: The fermented SBM (FSBM) without autoclaving showed significant improvements in nutritional quality and bioactivity. The contents of peptides and, crude and soluble proteins increased by 131.21%, 5...
December 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nguyen Thi Thanh Hai, Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Akira Shiota, Chiho Kadono, Atsuko Daikoku, Dinh Viet Hoang, Ninh Quoc Dat, Misako Sato-Matsubara, Katsutoshi Yoshizato, Norifumi Kawada
Cytoglobin (CYGB), discovered in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), is known to possess a radical scavenger function, but its pathophysiological roles remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we generated a new transgenic (TG) mouse line in which both Cygb and mCherry reporter gene expression were under the control of the native Cygb gene promoter. We demonstrated that the expression of Cygb-mCherry was related to endogenous Cygb in adult tissues by tracing mCherry fluorescence together with DNA, mRNA, and protein analyses...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Duncan Wilson
Pathogens often face zinc restriction due to the action of nutritional immunity - host processes which restrict microbial access to key micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Candida albicans scavenges environmental zinc via two pathways. The plasma membrane transporter Zrt2 is essential for zinc uptake and growth in acidic environments. Neutralisation to pH 7 severely decreases the solubility of ionic Zn2+ ; this increase in pH triggers expression and activity of a second zinc scavenging system, the zincophore...
December 11, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Edwin Heavisides, Caroline Rouger, Anna F Reichel, Cornelia Ulrich, Arlette Wenzel-Storjohann, Susanne Sebens, Deniz Tasdemir
The metabolism of seaweeds depends on environmental parameters, the availability of nutrients, and biotic/abiotic stresses; therefore, their chemical composition fluctuates throughout the year. This study investigated seasonal variations in the metabolome of the Baltic Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and its potential relation to the bioactivity profile. By using a definitive screening design (DSD) combined with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), an optimised protocol was developed to extract algal biomass monthly for a full calendar year...
December 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Na Xu, Yi Lu, Jumin Hou, Chao Liu, Yonghai Sun
Morchella conica Pers. ( M. conica ) has been used both as a medical and edible mushroom and possesses antimicrobial properties and antioxidant activities. However, the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides purified from M. conica have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide NMCP-2 (neutral M. conica polysaccharides-2) purified from M. conica, as determined by radical scavenging assay and H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress in HEK 293T cells...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olakunle Sanni, Ochuko L Erukainure, Chika I Chukwuma, Neil A Koorbanally, Collins U Ibeji, Md Shahidul Islam
The progression of secondary complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked to oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia. Therefore, the control of hyperglycemia is the main target in the treatment of diabetes. The present study investigated the scavenging and ameliorative potentials of different fractions of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) ethanol stem bark extract in Fe2+ -induced oxidative injury in hepatic tissue as well as their ability to inhibit enzymes linked to diabetes and in enhancing muscle glucose uptake via some in vitro and ex vivo experimental models...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fatma Guesmi, Marwa Ben Hmed, Sahdeo Prasad, Amit K Tyagi, Ahmed Landoulsi
This work focused on characterizing hydrophilic fractions of Clematis flammula (CFl). The data here clearly demonstrated that hydrolate fractions act as a free radical scavengers and inhibited proliferation of different cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, transwell, and with a significant cytotoxic effect. Treating cells with CFl had the effect of suppressing cell growth attenuated by ROS generation in colonic carcinoma. Moreover, CFl in HCT116 cells suppressed survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis in vitro by inhibiting gene expression...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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