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Danielle L Beatty Moody, Daniel K Leibel, Taylor M Darden, Jason J Ashe, Shari R Waldstein, Leslie I Katzel, Hans B Liu, Nan-Ping Weng, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
OBJECTIVE: Studies have linked self-reported discrimination to telomere attrition, a biological marker of accelerated cellular aging. However, it is unknown whether intersections between social categories-race, socioeconomic status (SES), sex, and age-influence the association of varying forms of discrimination with telomere length. We examined these associations in a socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse urban sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were from 341 middle-aged (30-64 years) African American and White, community participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study (HANDLS)...
December 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Natalie P Mota, Sarah Turner, Tamara Taillieu, Isabel Garcés, Kirby Magid, Japandeep Sethi, Shannon Struck, Renée El-Gabalawy, Tracie O Afifi
INTRODUCTION: The current study examined associations between DSM-5 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and three sexual risk outcomes: presence of a sexually transmitted disease/infection, frequency of condom use, and sex with a known user of injection drugs. METHODS: Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-2013, analyzed 2017), a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rebecka Maria Norman, Hilde Hestad Iversen, Ingeborg Strømseng Sjetne
Care workers' work environment is known to be associated with patient and nurse outcomes. To our knowledge no questionnaire is available for assessing this environment for all care workers in the Norwegian nursing-home setting. This paper describes the development, adaptation and assessment of such a questionnaire: the extended Norwegian version of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure for Nursing Homes (B-PEM-NH). This version was developed and assessed using semistructured interviews, a reference group meeting, translation, adaptation, and pretesting, and psychometric assessment including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and retest...
December 12, 2018: Geriatric Nursing
Soon Hee Lee, Jung-Hee Kim, Dukyoo Jung, Sook Jung Kang
New nursing graduates often experience difficulty adjusting to clinical work environments, despite completing well-structured education programs. This study explored the educational needs of recent nursing graduates from the perspectives of new nurses and their clinical educators in Korea. Four focus-group interviews with 7 nurse educators and 8 new nurses were conducted. Data were analyzed using Patton's inductive content analysis. Five analytic categories emerged: communication skills that build good relationships, managing unexpected situations, prioritization, practical experiences, and different ways of delivering education...
December 5, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Juliana N Scherer, Daiane Silvello, Vanessa L Volpato, Vinícius S Roglio, Letícia Fara, Felipe Ornell, Lisia von Diemen, Felix Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky
The incidence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances (DUI) and its recidivism can be curtailed by the proper identification of specific and predictive characteristics among drug users. In this sense, interpersonal violence (IV), psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity seem to play an important role in DUI engagement according to previous studies. There are, however, limited data originated from low and middle income countries. In the present study, drug-using Brazilian drivers reporting DUI (n = 75) presented a higher prevalence of bipolar disorders (BD; DUI: 8% vs...
December 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zhiqi You, Yingru Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yu Xu, Xuelian Chen
Low self-esteem is an important factor influencing mobile phone addiction, which has been well documented. However, little research focused on the mechanism underlying the association between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. We hypothesized that social anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity may mediate the relationship between self-esteem and mobile phone addiction. Six hundred and fifty three (353 girls among them) college students with the mean age of 19.94 (SD = 1.34) were recruited for the study...
December 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Joaquín Gaete, Inés Sametband, Sally St George, Dan Wulff, Karl Tomm, Gabriela Durán
Family therapy has often been conceptualized as a conversational process whereby therapists and clients generate new meanings. Based on a 3-year study of conversational practices observable in successful family therapy processes of Chilean families with a child/adolescent who is engaged in disruptive behaviors, we looked for clinical examples of Transforming Interpersonal Patterns (TIPs). TIPs are a key aspect of the IPscope, a framework we used to explore the meaning-making processes in family therapy. TIPs constitute a novel approach to explore therapeutic processes by identifying empirically traceable conversational practices involved in generating "new meanings...
December 15, 2018: Family Process
Leonardo Christov-Moore, Marco Iacoboni
Sex differences in empathy for pain have been repeatedly observed. However, it is unclear whether this is due to sex differences in "bottom-up" somatomotor representations of others' pain (self-other resonance) or to "top-down" prefrontal control of such responses. Here, we provide data from 70 subjects suggesting that sex differences in empathy for pain lie primarily in pre-reflective, bottom-up resonance mechanisms. Subjects viewed a right hand pierced by a needle during fMRI. They also filled out a self-report measure of trait empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index...
December 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Vicky Van Stappen, Julie Latomme, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Mina Lateva, Nevena Chakarova, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Odysseas Androutsos, Esther González-Gil, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Anna Nánási, László R Kolozsvári, Yannis Manios, Marieke De Craemer
This study investigated barriers towards health behaviours (physical activity, limiting sedentary behaviour and healthy dietary habits) experienced by young European families living in vulnerable areas, from multiple perspectives (parents, teachers, local community workers). Focus groups were conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Greece and Spain). In each country, three focus groups were conducted with parents, one with teachers and one with local community workers. Data were analysed using a deductive framework approach with a manifest content analysis using the software NVivo...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael S Ritsner, Yael Ratner, Nina Mendyk, Diane Carol Gooding
Although social hedonic capacity is often assessed in clinical settings, its operational definitions have not been evaluated for concurrent validity. One hundred and twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were classified according to their self-reported social hedonic functioning into three groups on the basis of their total scores on the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS). Participants were assessed before discharge using questionnaires and psychiatric rating scales...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kai-Tak Poon
Prior studies have mainly focused on the psychological correlates of Internet addiction, but scant research has tested how actual interpersonal experience can influence people's tendency to spend an excessive amount of time online. The present research aimed to fill the research gap by investigating the potential relationship between ostracism and Internet usage as well as the mechanisms underlying such a linkage. Participants completed a series of well-validated measures assessing their ostracism experience in school, solitude seeking, self-control, and Internet addiction...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Carolyn E Jones, Tom M Navis, Peyton Teutsch, Ryan A Opel, Miranda M Lim
Sensory gating, the ability to suppress sensory information of irrelevant stimuli, is affected in several neuropsychiatric diseases, notably schizophrenia and autism. It is currently unclear how these deficits interact with other hallmark symptoms of these disorders, such as social withdrawal and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. The highly affiliative prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) may be an ideal model organism to study the neurobiology underlying social behavior. In this study, we assessed unimodal acoustic sensory gating in male and female prairie voles using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm, whereby a lower amplitude sound (prepulse) decreases the startle response to a high amplitude sound (pulse) compared to the high amplitude sound alone...
December 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sigrid B H Olthof, Wouter G P Frencken, Koen A P M Lemmink
Olthof, SBH, Frencken, WGP, and Lemmink, KAPM. A match-derived relative pitch area facilitates the tactical representativeness of small-sided games for the official soccer match. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Small-sided games (SSGs) are a promising training format in soccer to replicate (situations of) the official match across all age groups. Typically, SSGs are played on a smaller relative pitch area (RPA; i.e., <150 m) than the match (320 m RPA), which results in different tactical demands...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Vanessa L Castro, Derek M Isaacowitz
Interpersonal accuracy refers to the ability to make accurate perceptions about others' social and emotional qualities. Despite this broad definition, the measurement of interpersonal accuracy remains narrow, as most studies focus on the accurate perception of others' emotional states. Moreover, previous research has relied primarily upon traditional tasks consisting of posed, prototypic expressions and behaviors as stimuli. These methodological limitations may constrain our understanding of how different interpersonal perception skills change in adulthood...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
James A Naifeh, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Alan M Zaslavsky, Matthew K Nock, Catherine L Dempsey, Danielle Bartolanzo, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Pablo A Aliaga, Kelly L Zuromski, Hieu M Dinh, Carol S Fullerton, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Holly B Herberman Mash, Nancy A Sampson, Gary H Wynn, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Most people with suicide ideation (SI) do not attempt suicide (SA). Understanding the transition from current/recent SI to SA is important for mental health care. Our objective was to identify characteristics that differentiate SA from 30-day SI among representative U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Using a unique case-control design, soldiers recently hospitalized for SA (n = 132) and representative soldiers from the same four communities (n = 10,193) were administered the same questionnaire...
December 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Frances Marcus Lewis, Kristin A Griffith, Zainab Alzawad, Patricia L Dawson, Ellen H Zahlis, Mary Ellen Shands
OBJECTIVE: To test the short-term efficacy of a brief, fully manualized marital communication and interpersonal support intervention for couples facing recently diagnosed breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 322 women diagnosed within 6 months with Stage 0-III breast cancer and their 322 spouse caregivers were enrolled. Spouses in the experimental group received five, 30 to 60-minute intervention sessions at 2-week intervals by Masters prepared patient educators; controls received the booklet, "What's Happening to the Woman I Love?" Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6 and 9 months using Linear Mixed Models within an intent to treat analysis...
December 13, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Laura E Hirshfield, Rachel Yudkowsky, Yoon Soo Park
CONTEXT: Medical school admissions committees use a variety of criteria to determine which candidates to admit to their programmes. Effective communication is increasingly considered a key requisite to the practice of effective medicine. Medical students with pre-medical backgrounds in the humanities and social sciences may be more likely to acquire skills relevant to patient-centred communication, either prior to or during medical school. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-medical backgrounds in the humanities and social sciences and outcomes in medical school, including in communication and interpersonal skills (CIS), licensure examination results and postgraduate specialty choice (primary care versus non-primary care specialties)...
December 13, 2018: Medical Education
Christopher A Kings, Tess Knight, Richard Moulding
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the importance of possessions as extensions of self-concept and connections to significant others for people that hoard. DESIGN: A total of 10 participants were recruited through hoarding group treatment programmes. Participants photographed significant possessions in their home and discussed these in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Analysis of transcripts using interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three interrelated superordinate themes: (1) time travels with you; (2) possessions are me, they're a reflection of my life; and (3) they're linked: I look at them and I think of people...
December 12, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Brittany M Mathes, Alastair Henry, Norman B Schmidt, Melissa M Norberg
OBJECTIVES: A prior study found that over 50% of treatment-seeking individuals who hoard incur at least one psychiatric work impairment day (i.e., they are unable to work or are less effective at work due to poor mental health) each month. The aim of the current study was to assess work-related variables associated with workplace impairment in a non-treatment-seeking sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. Self-report questionnaires were administered via Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
December 11, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Alba Pasini, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Filippo Scianò, Ursula Thun Hohenstein
In this paper we present the study of a skull belonging to a young male from the Italian Bronze Age showing three perimortem injuries on the frontal and parietal bones; the peculiarity of the frontal injury is represented by its singular shape, which may be indicative of the weapon that caused the lesion. The aim of the present study is to examine the traumatic evidence in relation to possible etiological factors, in order to attempt to establish if the lesion occurred peri or post-mortem, and to evaluate if these traumatic injuries could be interpreted as an evidence of interpersonal violence, by combining anthropological, taphonomic and ESEM investigations...
December 13, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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