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Soldier System

Brandon M Carius, Peter M Dodge, Joshua D Randles
Since the National Smallpox Vaccination Program began in 2002, over 2.4 million military servicemembers have been inoculated. Use of bifurcated needles to introduce live vaccinia virus by repeated skin trauma is largely the same process that was first developed over 200 years ago, and is similar to that of tattoo administration. Both tattoos and smallpox inoculation can cause local immune dysregulation, with prior research cautioning further complications if they are placed in the same area within a close timeframe...
July 31, 2018: Military Medicine
António Lopes-João, J R Mesquita, R de Sousa, M Oleastro, C Silva, C Penha-Gonçalves, M S J Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal infections are among the most common foodborne and waterborne diseases in military populations, with direct implications in operational efficiency and force readiness. Through the surveillance system of reportable acute gastrointestinal illness in the Portuguese Army, four norovirus outbreaks were identified between October 2015 and October 2017 in mainland Portugal and the Azores archipelago. The present study documents the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory investigations of these norovirus outbreaks...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Subhojit Chatterjee, Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Suranjana Sen, Madhusudan Pal
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different uphill and downhill gradients on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of soldiers while carrying heavy military loads in two different modes. METHODS: Eight physically fit male soldiers with a mean age 32.0 ± 2.0 years, a mean height of 169.5 ± 4.9 cm, and a mean weight of 63.8 ± 8.4 kg volunteered for this study. Each volunteer completed treadmill walking trials at a speed of 3...
July 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Robert J Ursano, James A Naifeh, Ronald C Kessler, Oscar I Gonzalez, Carol S Fullerton, Holly Herberman Mash, Charlotte A Riggs-Donovan, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Gary H Wynn, Hieu M Dinh, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Nancy A Sampson, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Army suicide rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is limited information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors among soldiers in the Army's Reserve Component (RC), which is composed of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among activated RC soldiers. METHODS: Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty for the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1...
July 20, 2018: Psychiatry
Jeffrey M Pyne, Joseph I Constans, John T Nanney, Mark D Wiederhold, Douglas P Gibson, Timothy Kimbrell, Teresa L Kramer, Jeffery A Pitcock, Xiaotong Han, D Keith Williams, Don Chartrand, Richard N Gevirtz, James Spira, Brenda K Wiederhold, Rollin McCraty, Thomas R McCune
Introduction: There is a long history of pre-deployment PTSD prevention efforts in the military and effective pre-deployment strategies to prevent post-deployment PTSD are still needed. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial included three arms: heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I), and control. The hypothesis was that pre-deployment resilience training would result in lower post-deployment PTSD symptoms compared with control...
July 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Chan Yu, Yongping Huang, Shuai Zhan, Wu Li, Longyu Zheng, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotics can effectively protect livestock from pathogen infection, but residual antibiotics in manure bring risks to ecosystems and public health. Here, we demonstrated that black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) could provide an environmentally friendly manure treatment based on their ability to effectively and rapidly degrade tetracycline (TC). Investigation of the biological mechanisms and degradation pathways of TC by BSFL indicated that nearly 97% of TC was degraded within 12 days in a non-sterile BSFL treatment system, which is up to 1...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elsje Pieterse, Sara W Erasmus, Tulimo Uushona, Louwrens C Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Animal products (fishmeal etc.) are typically used in commercial broiler production systems. However, progressively more pressure is placed on the animal feed industry to find alternative protein sources that are more sustainable, ethical and green, such as insect meal, without having negative effects on the sensory and meat quality. Hence, this study aimed to validate the commercial value of black soldier fly (BSF) pre-pupae meal for broiler production by determining the effects of different dietary levels (0%, 5%, 10% or 15%) on carcass, sensory and meat quality...
July 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Podbielski, Bernd Kreikemeyer
The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in resource-poor settings affects the military medical service in case of deployments of soldiers to war and crisis zones. Patients with war injuries are prone to colonization or infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Resistant Gram-negative bacteria play a dominant role in military wound infections. Problematic hygiene conditions on deployment facilitate exposition of soldiers with subsequent colonization. Although colonizing strains are frequently cleared from their hosts after returning from deployment, transmission to close contacts of the soldiers in the home country cannot be excluded and therapeutic options are reduced if colonization progresses to invasive infection...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rachel Sayko Adams, Cindy Parks Thomas, Grant A Ritter, Sue Lee, Mayada Saadoun, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Little is known about long-term prescription opioid utilization in the Military Health System. The objectives of this study were to examine predictors of any prescription opioid receipt, and predictors of long-term opioid utilization among active duty soldiers in the year following deployment. Materials and Methods: The analytic sample consisted of Army active duty soldiers returning from deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn in fiscal years 2008-2014 (N = 540,738)...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Bogdan Kovcan, Janez Vodicar, Jožef Šimenko, Mateja Videmšek, Primož Pori, Hadžiž Vedran
Introduction: Injury registration is an important first step of the musculoskeletal injury (MSI) prevention process that helps establish the magnitude of the problem and focus prevention on the body parts that are most frequently injured. However, an injury definition used in that process may influence the reported prevalence of MSI, causing some injuries to be under-reported which in turn alters the prevention efforts. The primary goal of our study was to identify the 10-year prevalence of MSI in members of the Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF), to help plan and implement preventive measures for the reduction of MSI...
July 3, 2018: Military Medicine
Karl E Friedl
Wearable physiological status monitoring is part of modern precision medicine that permits predictions about an individual's health and performance from their real-time physiological status (RT-PSM) instead of relying on population-based predictions informed by estimated human, mission, and environmental/ambient conditions. RT-PSM systems have useful military applications if they are soldier-acceptable and provide important actionable information. Most commercially available systems do not address relevant military needs, typically lack the validated algorithms that make real time computed information useful, and are not open architected to be integrated with the soldier technological ecology...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Håvard Hamarsland, Gøran Paulsen, Paul A Solberg, Ole Gunnar Slaathaug, Truls Raastad
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an arduous one-week military course on measures of physical performance, body composition and blood biomarkers. METHODS: Participants were apprentices in an annual selection course for the Norwegian Special Forces. Fifteen soldiers (23±4 yrs., 1.81±0.06 m, 78±7 kg) completed a hell-week consisting of rigorous activity only interspersed by 2-3 hours of sleep per day. Testing was conducted before and 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after the hell-week...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel P Hsu, Shana L Hansen, Timothy A Roberts, Clinton K Murray, Vincent Mysliwiec
Introduction: In 2013, the U.S. Army Surgeon General implemented the Performance Triad (P3), an educational initiative to improve health-related behaviors of soldiers throughout the U.S. Army. The components of P3 are Sleep, Activity, and Nutrition with tenet behaviors for each component. This study reports the results of the 2015 U.S. Army Medical Corps survey regarding physician knowledge and adherence to the tenet behaviors of P3. Methods: In 2015, an anonymous survey was sent to all active duty U...
April 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Clément Lagrue, Colin D MacLeod, Laurent Keller, Robert Poulin
Colonial organisms with division of labour are assumed to achieve increased colony-level efficiency in task performance through functional specialisation of individuals into distinct castes. In social insects, ratios of individuals in different castes can adjust adaptively in response to external threats. However, whether flexibility in caste ratio also occurs in other social organisms with division of labour remains unclear. Some parasitic trematodes, in which clonal colonies within the snail intermediate host comprise a reproductive caste and a soldier caste, offer good systems to test the general nature of adaptive caste ratio adjustments...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Pei-Wei Weng, Chih-Yu Chen, Yang-Hwei Tsuang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Chian-Her Lee, Cheng-Kung Cheng
Background: Various surgical techniques are available to reduce chronic instability of the lateral ankle ligament complex. The most effective method for these procedures remains controversial. This report presents a surgical technique that is similar to the Broström procedure and uses a modified, nonaugmented repair technique. Materials and Methods: 38 soldiers with a history of chronic lateral ankle instability and poor ankle function underwent plication of the anterior talofibular ligament-lateral capsule complex with transosseous fixation of the calcaneofibular ligament through a fibular bone tunnel between 2004 and 2007...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Matthew J Smyth, J A Round, A J Mellor
Wearable technologies are making considerable advances into the mainstream as they become smaller and more user friendly. The global market for such devices is forecasted to be worth over US$5 billion in 2018, with one in six people owning a device. Many professional sporting teams use self-monitoring to assess physiological parameters and work rate on the pitch, highlighting the potential utility for military command chains. As size of device reduces and sensitivity improves, coupled with remote connectivity technology, integration into the military environment could be relatively seamless...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Maria K Talarico, Courtney A Haynes, Julianne S Douglas, Jose Collazo
Soldiers are fielded with a variety of equipment including battery powered electronic devices. An energy harvesting assault pack (EHAP) was developed to provide a power source to recharge batteries and reduce the quantity and load of extra batteries carried into the field. Little is known about the biomechanical implications of carrying a suspended-load energy harvesting system compared to the military standard assault pack (AP). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the impact of pack type and load magnitude on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters while walking at 1...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Blake J Lesselroth, Kathleen Adams, Victoria L Church, Stephanie Tallett, Yelizaveta Russ, Jack Wiedrick, Christopher Forsberg, David A Dorr
BACKGROUND:  The Veterans Affairs Portland Healthcare System developed a medication history collection software that displays prescription names and medication images. OBJECTIVE:  This article measures the frequency of medication discrepancy reporting using the medication history collection software and compares with the frequency of reporting using a paper-based process. This article also determines the accuracy of each method by comparing both strategies to a best possible medication history...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Adam R Cobb, Robert A Josephs, Cynthia L Lancaster, Han-Joo Lee, Michael J Telch
Introduction: The major challenges of efforts to reveal biological risk factors and biomarkers of depression include the complexity of underlying systems, interactions with other systems, and contextual factors governing their expression. Altered endocrine function is believed to be a central contributor to depressive illness, but across studies, evidence for a link between endocrine markers and depression has been mixed, inconclusive, or conditional in nature. In the present study, we evaluated basal testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and CO2 inhalation-stress-reactivity measures of these hormones (TR, CR) as pre-deployment moderators of the later impact of war-zone stressors on depression symptoms in-theater...
April 27, 2018: Military Medicine
Jillian Rosenberg, Jun Huang
CD8+ T cells and NK cells are both cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system, but the recognition, specificity, sensitivity, and memory mechanisms are drastically different. While many of these topics have been extensively studied in CD8+ T cells, very little is known about NK cells. Current cancer immunotherapies mainly focus on CD8+ T cells, but have many issues of toxicity and efficacy. Given the heterogeneous nature of cancer, personalized cancer immunotherapy that integrates the power of both CD8+ T cells in adaptive immunity and NK cells in innate immunity might be the future direction, along with precision targeting and effective delivery of tumor-specific, memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
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