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Soldier System

William Butler
This article considers the breakdown in discipline in the British Army which occurred in Britain and on the Western Front during the process of demobilization at the end of the First World War. Many soldiers, retained in the army immediately after the Armistice, went on strike, and some formed elected committees, demanding their swifter return to civilian life. Their perception was that the existing demobilization system was unjust, and men were soon organized by those more politically conscious members of the armed forces who had enlisted for the duration of the war...
December 13, 2018: 20 Century British History
Derek P Spangler, Katherine R Gamble, Jared J McGinley, Julian F Thayer, Justin R Brooks
Dynamic intra-individual variability (IIV) in cardiac vagal control across multiple situations is believed to contribute to adaptive cognition under stress; however, a dearth of research has empirically tested this notion. To this end, we examined 25 U.S. Army Soldiers (all male, mean age = 30.73, standard deviation (SD) = 7.71) whose high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was measured during a resting baseline and during three conditions of a shooting task (training, low stress, high stress). Response inhibition was measured as the correct rejection (CR) of friendly targets during the low and high stress conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gavin K Lenton, Tim L A Doyle, David G Lloyd, Jeremy Higgs, Daniel Billing, David J Saxby
Soldiers regularly transport loads weighing >20 kg at slow speeds for long durations. These tasks elicit high energetic costs through increased positive work generated by knee and ankle muscles, which may increase risk of muscular fatigue and decrease combat readiness. This study aimed to determine how modifying where load is borne changes lower-limb joint mechanical work production, and if load magnitude and/or walking speed also affect work production. Twenty Australian soldiers participated, donning a total of 12 body armor variations: six different body armor systems (one standard-issue, two commercially available [cARM1-2], and three prototypes [pARM1-3]), each worn with two different load magnitudes (15 and 30 kg)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Moritz Gold, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Stefan Diener, Christian Zurbrügg, Alexander Mathys
Processing of biowaste with larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is an emerging waste treatment technology. Larvae grown on biowaste can be a relevant raw material for animal feed production and can therefore provide revenues for financially viable waste management systems. In addition, when produced on biowaste, insect-based feeds can be more sustainable than conventional feeds. Among others, the scalability of the technology will depend on the availability of large amounts of biowaste with a high process performance (e...
December 2018: Waste Management
Daniele Bruno, Marco Bonelli, Francesca De Filippis, Ilaria Di Lelio, Gianluca Tettamanti, Morena Casartelli, Danilo Ercolini, Silvia Caccia
The larva of the black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens ) has emerged as an efficient system for the bioconversion of organic waste. Although many research efforts are devoted to the optimization of rearing conditions to increase the yield of the bioconversion process, microbiological aspects related to this insect are still neglected. Here we describe the microbiota of the midgut of H. illucens larvae showing the effect of different diets and midgut regions in shaping microbial load and diversity. The bacterial communities residing in the three parts of the midgut, characterized by remarkable changes in luminal pH values, differed in terms of bacterial numbers and microbiota composition...
November 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rollin McCulloch Gallagher, Friedhelm Sandbrink
War's burden on the health and well-being of combatants, civilians, and societies is well documented. Although the examination of soldiers' injuries in modern combat is both detailed and comprehensive, less is known about war-related injuries to civilians and refugees, including victims of torture. The societal burden of war-related disabilities persists for decades in war's aftermath. The complex injuries of combat survivors, including multiple pain conditions and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, challenge health care systems to reorganize care to meet these survivors' special needs...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Katrin Schuy, Simone Dors, Loni Brants, Marie Horzetzky, Gerd Willmund, Andreas Ströhle, Peter Zimmermann, Heinrich Rau, Stefan Siegel
BACKGROUND: Military families who have a family member with a mental illness see themselves confronted with many demands. Stigmatization is one of these challenges. Stigmatization affects not only the individual who suffers from a mental illness but also other family members via stigma by association and vicarious stigma. Stigma by association occurs when mental illness stigma spills over to individuals associated with an individual with a mental illness. Vicarious stigma describes the suffering of family members when they note the impact of stigma on their relative with mental illness...
November 29, 2018: Military Medical Research
Simon S W Li, Otto H T Chan, T Y Ng, L H Kam, C Y Ng, W C Chung, Daniel H K Chow
Measurement of postural stability is crucial for identifying predictors of performance, determining the efficacy of physical training and rehabilitation techniques, and evaluating and preventing injuries, particularly for heavy load carriage in hikers, mountain search and rescue personnel, and soldiers. This study investigated the effect of load distribution on postural stability in an upright stance using backpack and double pack loads under conflicting or impaired somatosensory, visual, and vestibular conditions...
November 28, 2018: Ergonomics
Peter Charles Rhee
Wide-awake hand surgery is versatile and can be performed in a variety of settings for various pathologies. The benefits associated with wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet hand surgery can be extremely beneficial in the military health care system. Military medicine focuses on supporting soldiers in areas of combat, providing humanitarian care to local nationals, and to delivering health care to active duty soldiers and veterans in the domestic setting. The ability to perform hand surgery without general or sedating anesthesia conserves limited anesthetic resources and allows patients to maintain situational awareness perioperatively...
February 2019: Hand Clinics
Debayan Das, Shovan Maity, Baibhab Chatterjee, Shreyas Sen
In this emerging data-driven world, secure and ubiquitous authentication mechanisms are necessary prior to any confidential information delivery. Biometric authentication has been widely adopted as it provides a unique and non-transferable solution for user authentication. In this article, the authors envision the need for an infield, remote and on-demand authentication system for a highly mobile and tactical environment, such as critical information delivery to soldiers in a battlefield. Fingerprint-based in-field biometric authentication combined with the conventional password-based techniques would ensure strong security of critical information delivery...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yun Choi, Geum Hee Jeong
Objectives: The aim of this study was to gather information about Korean Army soldiers' attitude towards tuberculosis to enable the development of an informed educational program and potential intervention plans. Methods: There were 500 male soldiers serving in the Korean Army who responded to questionnaires regarding knowledge of, attitudes towards, and preventive behavior towards tuberculosis. The questionnaires were collected between September 10 until October 1, 2014...
October 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Nancy A Skopp, Kristin M Holland, Joseph E Logan, Cynthia L Alexander, C Faye Floyd
To gain a better understanding of military suicide, we examined suicide narratives for 135 Soldiers extracted from two large-scale surveillance systems: the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Using coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement narratives captured in the NVDRS and mental health provider narrative data collected across multiple domains from the DoDSER, we examined circumstances surrounding military suicides using a qualitative content analysis approach...
October 29, 2018: Psychological Services
Zhongyi Liu, Maria Minor, Patrick C H Morel, Adriana J Najar-Rodriguez
This study aimed to determine the suitability of several organic waste substrates to be processed by the larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) (BSFL) in a value-added bioconversion system. Three types of organic waste (brewer's waste, solid phase of pig manure, and semidigested grass) were tested and compared with a standard larval diet, broll (wheat middling). Larval survival and growth, chemical composition of the resulting prepupae, conversion ratios of nutrients and waste dry matter, and waste reduction rate were measured...
October 26, 2018: Environmental Entomology
H Chen, P A Wierenga, W H Hendriks, A J M Jansman
In current feed evaluation systems, the nutritional value of protein sources in diets for pigs is based on the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, which does not account for the kinetics of protein digestion along the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present study was to determine the in vitro protein digestion kinetics of different protein sources (soya bean meal (SBM), wheat gluten (WG), rapeseed meal (RSM), whey powder (WP), dried porcine plasma protein, yellow meal worm larvae and black soldier fly larvae (BSF))...
October 29, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Reza Akhavan-Sigari, Dorothee Mielke, Afshin Farhadi, Veit Rohde
BACKGROUND: Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs produce complex wounds requiring management by multiple surgical specialities. AIM: We sought to determine the pattern of peripheral nerve injuries among Iraqi soldiers in the war. METHODS: We performed a 3 year retrospective cohort analysis based on medical records of patients with sustaining gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the upper limbs. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
F Vigouroux, C Choufani, A Grosset, O Barbier, S Rigal, L Mathieu
The purpose of this report was to analyze sequential management of patients with combat-related hand injuries in the Kabul International Airport Combat Support Hospital and to identify principles of hand damage control orthopedics (DCO). A retrospective study was conducted using the French Opex data system that included all the patients who received sequential treatment for combat-related hand injuries from 2009 to 2013. Demographics, mechanism, injury pattern, reasons for DCO application and surgical procedures performed during initial and definitive treatment were described...
October 14, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Rajendhran Rajakumar, Sophie Koch, Mélanie Couture, Marie-Julie Favé, Angelica Lillico-Ouachour, Travis Chen, Giovanna De Blasis, Arjuna Rajakumar, Dominic Ouellette, Ehab Abouheif
The origin of complex worker-caste systems in ants perplexed Darwin1 and has remained an enduring problem for evolutionary and developmental biology2-6 . Ants originated approximately 150 million years ago, and produce colonies with winged queen and male castes as well as a wingless worker caste7 . In the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, the wingless worker caste has evolved into two morphologically distinct subcastes-small-headed minor workers and large-headed soldiers8 . The wings of queens and males develop from populations of cells in larvae that are called wing imaginal discs7 ...
October 2018: Nature
Manuel Holtgrewe, Alexej Knaus, Gabriele Hildebrand, Jean-Tori Pantel, Miguel Rodriguez de Los Santos, Kornelia Neveling, Jakob Goldmann, Max Schubach, Marten Jäger, Marie Coutelier, Stefan Mundlos, Dieter Beule, Karl Sperling, Peter Michael Krawitz
A genome-wide evaluation of the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction in the mouse germline has identified multisite de novo mutations (MSDNs) as marker for previous exposure. Here we present the results of a small pilot study of whole genome sequencing in offspring of soldiers who served in radar units on weapon systems that were emitting high-frequency radiation. We found cases of exceptionally high MSDN rates as well as an increased mean in our cohort: While a MSDN mutation is detected in average in 1 out of 5 offspring of unexposed controls, we observed 12 MSDNs in altogether 18 offspring, including a family with 6 MSDNs in 3 offspring...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sunil Kumar, Suraj Negi, Ashootosh Mandpe, Ran Vijay Singh, Athar Hussain
In the present scenario, solid waste management (SWM) has become one of the main concerns for urban waste managers in the developing world. This article reviews the recent trends and technologies associated with the process of composting. Utilization of black soldier fly (BSF) larvae can be one of the rapid methods for treatment of biodegradable wastes. A detailed review of the literature indicated that more importance is to be given on the pre-processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which includes segregation of biodegradables, inerts, metals for preparing the requisite substrate for application of the suitable technology...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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