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Soldier System

Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Rajendhran Rajakumar, Sophie Koch, Mélanie Couture, Marie-Julie Favé, Angelica Lillico-Ouachour, Travis Chen, Giovanna De Blasis, Arjuna Rajakumar, Dominic Ouellette, Ehab Abouheif
The origin of complex worker-caste systems in ants perplexed Darwin1 and has remained an enduring problem for evolutionary and developmental biology2-6 . Ants originated approximately 150 million years ago, and produce colonies with winged queen and male castes as well as a wingless worker caste7 . In the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, the wingless worker caste has evolved into two morphologically distinct subcastes-small-headed minor workers and large-headed soldiers8 . The wings of queens and males develop from populations of cells in larvae that are called wing imaginal discs7 ...
October 10, 2018: Nature
Manuel Holtgrewe, Alexej Knaus, Gabriele Hildebrand, Jean-Tori Pantel, Miguel Rodriguez de Los Santos, Kornelia Neveling, Jakob Goldmann, Max Schubach, Marten Jäger, Marie Coutelier, Stefan Mundlos, Dieter Beule, Karl Sperling, Peter Michael Krawitz
A genome-wide evaluation of the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction in the mouse germline has identified multisite de novo mutations (MSDNs) as marker for previous exposure. Here we present the results of a small pilot study of whole genome sequencing in offspring of soldiers who served in radar units on weapon systems that were emitting high-frequency radiation. We found cases of exceptionally high MSDN rates as well as an increased mean in our cohort: While a MSDN mutation is detected in average in 1 out of 5 offspring of unexposed controls, we observed 12 MSDNs in altogether 18 offspring, including a family with 6 MSDNs in 3 offspring...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sunil Kumar, Suraj Negi, Ashootosh Mandpe, Ran Vijay Singh, Athar Hussain
In the present scenario, solid waste management (SWM) has become one of the main concerns for urban waste managers in the developing world. This article reviews the recent trends and technologies associated with the process of composting. Utilization of black soldier fly (BSF) larvae can be one of the rapid methods for treatment of biodegradable wastes. A detailed review of the literature indicated that more importance is to be given on the pre-processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which includes segregation of biodegradables, inerts, metals for preparing the requisite substrate for application of the suitable technology...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, James A Naifeh, Holly B Herberman Mash, Matthew K Nock, Pablo A Aliaga, Carol S Fullerton, Gary H Wynn, Tsz Hin H Ng, Hieu M Dinh, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
Importance: The US Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Although soldiers with a prior mental health diagnosis (MH-Dx) are known to be at risk, little is known about risk among those with no history of diagnosis. Objective: To examine risk factors for suicide attempt among soldiers without a previous MH-Dx. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), person-month records were identified for all active-duty Regular Army enlisted soldiers who had a medically documented suicide attempt from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528)...
October 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Marco Meneguz, Laura Gasco, Jeffery K Tomberlin
Black soldier fly (BSF) is a generalist species able to reduce large quantities of organic substrates and is thus considered as an interesting solution for waste management. Moreover, as BSF larvae accumulate high quantities of nutrients during their growth, they are valued because of their potential to produce products such as protein meal or fat for livestock feeds. Abiotic factors can influence larva growth, and a more detailed knowledge and control of these parameters can lead to the development of mass BSF breeding for the production of innovative products for animal feeds...
2018: PloS One
Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Andrew L Mammen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the etiopathogenesis of dermatomyositis, including the predisposing factors, triggers, inflammatory cells, pathways and target antigens associated with dermatomyositis. RECENT FINDINGS: During the last few years, we have made considerable progress in unveiling the etiopathogenesis of dermatomyositis. In the first place, we have defined genes within the major histocompatibility complex locus as the greatest genetic risk factor for the disease...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
M Matsunami, M Nozawa, R Suzuki, K Toga, Y Masuoka, K Yamaguchi, K Maekawa, S Shigenobu, T Miura
Eusocial insects have polyphenic caste systems in which each caste exhibits characteristic morphology and behaviour. In insects, caste systems arose independently in different lineages, such as Isoptera and Hymenoptera. Although partial molecular mechanisms for the development of eusociality in termites have been clarified by the functional analysis of genes and hormones, the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) to caste differentiation is unknown. To understand the role of miRNAs in termite caste polyphenism, we performed small RNA sequencing in a subterranean termite (Reticulitermes speratus) and identified the miRNAs that were specifically expressed in the soldier and worker castes...
August 20, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Jae Hyoung Im, Kyungmin Huh, Chang-Gyo Yoon, Hyeongtaek Woo, Jin-Soo Lee, Moon-Hyun Chung, Terry A Klein, Jaehun Jung
BACKGROUND: Vivax malaria reemerged along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), Republic of Korea (ROK), in 1993. While it was hypothesized that vivax malaria would spread throughout the peninsula, nearly all cases were due to exposure near the DMZ. To reduce spillover of vivax malaria to the civilian community, the ROK Ministry of National Defense (MND) initiated malaria prevention policies including a large-scale chemoprophylaxis programme in malaria high-risk areas in 1997. The present study investigated the overall changes in the incidence of malaria among ROK soldiers and the mass chemoprophylaxis program from 1997 to 2016...
August 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Brandon M Carius, Peter M Dodge, Joshua D Randles
Since the National Smallpox Vaccination Program began in 2002, over 2.4 million military servicemembers have been inoculated. Use of bifurcated needles to introduce live vaccinia virus by repeated skin trauma is largely the same process that was first developed over 200 years ago, and is similar to that of tattoo administration. Both tattoos and smallpox inoculation can cause local immune dysregulation, with prior research cautioning further complications if they are placed in the same area within a close timeframe...
July 31, 2018: Military Medicine
António Lopes-João, J R Mesquita, R de Sousa, M Oleastro, C Silva, C Penha-Gonçalves, M S J Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal infections are among the most common foodborne and waterborne diseases in military populations, with direct implications in operational efficiency and force readiness. Through the surveillance system of reportable acute gastrointestinal illness in the Portuguese Army, four norovirus outbreaks were identified between October 2015 and October 2017 in mainland Portugal and the Azores archipelago. The present study documents the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory investigations of these norovirus outbreaks...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Subhojit Chatterjee, Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Suranjana Sen, Madhusudan Pal
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different uphill and downhill gradients on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of soldiers while carrying heavy military loads in two different modes. METHODS: Eight physically fit male soldiers with a mean age 32.0 ± 2.0 years, a mean height of 169.5 ± 4.9 cm, and a mean weight of 63.8 ± 8.4 kg volunteered for this study. Each volunteer completed treadmill walking trials at a speed of 3...
July 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Robert J Ursano, James A Naifeh, Ronald C Kessler, Oscar I Gonzalez, Carol S Fullerton, Holly Herberman Mash, Charlotte A Riggs-Donovan, Tsz Hin Hinz Ng, Gary H Wynn, Hieu M Dinh, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Nancy A Sampson, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Army suicide rate increased sharply during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is limited information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors among soldiers in the Army's Reserve Component (RC), which is composed of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among activated RC soldiers. METHODS: Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty for the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1...
July 20, 2018: Psychiatry
Jeffrey M Pyne, Joseph I Constans, John T Nanney, Mark D Wiederhold, Douglas P Gibson, Timothy Kimbrell, Teresa L Kramer, Jeffery A Pitcock, Xiaotong Han, D Keith Williams, Don Chartrand, Richard N Gevirtz, James Spira, Brenda K Wiederhold, Rollin McCraty, Thomas R McCune
Introduction: There is a long history of pre-deployment PTSD prevention efforts in the military and effective pre-deployment strategies to prevent post-deployment PTSD are still needed. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial included three arms: heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I), and control. The hypothesis was that pre-deployment resilience training would result in lower post-deployment PTSD symptoms compared with control...
July 18, 2018: Military Medicine
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Chan Yu, Yongping Huang, Shuai Zhan, Wu Li, Longyu Zheng, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotics can effectively protect livestock from pathogen infection, but residual antibiotics in manure bring risks to ecosystems and public health. Here, we demonstrated that black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) could provide an environmentally friendly manure treatment based on their ability to effectively and rapidly degrade tetracycline (TC). Investigation of the biological mechanisms and degradation pathways of TC by BSFL indicated that nearly 97% of TC was degraded within 12 days in a non-sterile BSFL treatment system, which is up to 1...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elsje Pieterse, Sara W Erasmus, Tulimo Uushona, Louwrens C Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Animal products (fishmeal etc.) are typically used in commercial broiler production systems. However, progressively more pressure is placed on the animal feed industry to find alternative protein sources that are more sustainable, ethical and green, such as insect meal, without having negative effects on the sensory and meat quality. Hence this study aimed to validate the commercial value of black soldier fly (BSF) pre-pupae meal for broiler production by determining the effects of different dietary levels (0%, 5%, 10% or 15%) on carcass, sensory and meat quality...
July 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Podbielski, Bernd Kreikemeyer
The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in resource-poor settings affects the military medical service in case of deployments of soldiers to war and crisis zones. Patients with war injuries are prone to colonization or infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Resistant Gram-negative bacteria play a dominant role in military wound infections. Problematic hygiene conditions on deployment facilitate exposition of soldiers with subsequent colonization. Although colonizing strains are frequently cleared from their hosts after returning from deployment, transmission to close contacts of the soldiers in the home country cannot be excluded and therapeutic options are reduced if colonization progresses to invasive infection...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rachel Sayko Adams, Cindy Parks Thomas, Grant A Ritter, Sue Lee, Mayada Saadoun, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Little is known about long-term prescription opioid utilization in the Military Health System. The objectives of this study were to examine predictors of any prescription opioid receipt, and predictors of long-term opioid utilization among active duty soldiers in the year following deployment. Materials and Methods: The analytic sample consisted of Army active duty soldiers returning from deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn in fiscal years 2008-2014 (N = 540,738)...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Bogdan Kovcan, Janez Vodicar, Jožef Šimenko, Mateja Videmšek, Primož Pori, Hadžiž Vedran
Introduction: Injury registration is an important first step of the musculoskeletal injury (MSI) prevention process that helps establish the magnitude of the problem and focus prevention on the body parts that are most frequently injured. However, an injury definition used in that process may influence the reported prevalence of MSI, causing some injuries to be under-reported which in turn alters the prevention efforts. The primary goal of our study was to identify the 10-year prevalence of MSI in members of the Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF), to help plan and implement preventive measures for the reduction of MSI...
July 3, 2018: Military Medicine
Karl E Friedl
Wearable physiological status monitoring is part of modern precision medicine that permits predictions about an individual's health and performance from their real-time physiological status (RT-PSM) instead of relying on population-based predictions informed by estimated human, mission, and environmental/ambient conditions. RT-PSM systems have useful military applications if they are soldier-acceptable and provide important actionable information. Most commercially available systems do not address relevant military needs, typically lack the validated algorithms that make real time computed information useful, and are not open architected to be integrated with the soldier technological ecology...
November 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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