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Tia Powell
In writing these essays, we were asked to consider, "What makes a good life in late life?" I thought instantly, perhaps like many people, of photos and stories of older people taking up new careers and new hobbies-running marathons and soup kitchens, starting organic farms. This response is right and proper. Older people can leverage wisdom and creativity to make wonderful contributions to their communities and should be celebrated for doing so. But this happy picture is incomplete. We live longer than ever before, and with that long life, many of us can expect disability...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Bruce Jennings
Aging brings about the ordeal of coping. Younger people also cope, but for those in old age, the ordeal is so often elegiac, forced upon the self by changing functions within the body and by the outside social world, with its many impediments to the continuity of former roles, pursuits, and self-identities. Coping with change can be affirming, but when what is being forgone seems more valuable than what lies ahead, it is travail. For most, the coping is managed more moderately by a sense of resignation. This is especially true for those who survive into profound old age, when one is viewed as if being old is one's essential identity and nature...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Lauren A Taylor
The health policy community has a growing interest in the impact of nonmedical determinants of health, such as housing, nutrition, and social supports, on both health outcomes and costs. This interest has been spurred by the Affordable Care Act's emphasis on prevention, Robert Wood Johnson's grant-making focus on a Culture of Health, and an uptick of research demonstrating the potential returns to health care from investments in social services. Much of this policy-making, grant making, and research has focused on older Americans...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Masoud Mahmoodzadeh, Gholam Hassan Khajavy
Why do some students frequently ask questions and actively seek out answers in the classroom, while others avoid this? Many language teachers might have commonly asked themselves this question. The present study is an empirical investigation of the concept of curiosity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). Using a mixed-methods design, we aim to conceptualize language learning curiosity (LLC) within the framework of interest/deprivation (I/D) model of curiosity (Litman and Jimerson in J Personal Assess 82(2): 147-157, 2004...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Gray Atherton, Ben Lummis, Susan X Day, Liam Cross
Autistic people are often described as being impaired with regard to theory of mind, though more recent literature finds flaws in the theory of mind deficit paradigm. In addition, the predominant methods for examining theory of mind often rely on "observational" modes of assessment and do not adequately reflect the dynamic process of real-life perspective taking. Thus, it is imperative that researchers continue to test the autistic theory of mind deficit paradigm and explore theory of mind experiences through more naturalistic approaches...
October 11, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Brent Teasdale, Leah E Daigle, Taylor Gann
Mixed effects of guardianship on victimization have been found in the literature. It is possible that these divergent findings have emerged because research has not recognized how the need for guardianship may shape the results. That is, individuals who are not suitable targets (i.e., individuals without mental health problems-those who are not perceived as vulnerable or incapable of defending themselves) do not need guardianship, resulting in null findings for the protective effects of guardianship on victimization...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Aparna I Narayana, Dhanasekar Balkrishanan
Mastication as we all know has always been related to its primary function of digestion, but little do we know that it produces an enhancing effect on general health, especially the cognitive performance related aspects of memory. Recent studies have shown its association with activation of various brain regions, however little is known about its effects on neuronal activity in these specified regions. According to the enormous evidences collected so far, mastication has proved to be effective in conducting huge amount of sensory information to the brain, and maintaining learning and memory functions of hippocampus...
November 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
Lara A Kahale, Batoul Diab, Assem M Khamis, Yaping Chang, Luciane Cruz Lopes, Arnav Agarwal, Ling Li, Reem Mustafa, Serge Koujanian, Reem Waziry, Jason W Busse, Abeer Dakik, Gordon Guyatt, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Missing data for the outcomes of participants in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a key element of risk of bias assessment. However, it is not always clear from RCT reports whether some categories of participants were followed-up or not (i.e., do or do not have missing data) nor how the RCT authors dealt with missing data in their analyses. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to describe how RCT authors: (1) report on different categories of participants that might have missing data; (2) handle these categories in the analysis; and (3) judge the risk of bias associated with missing data...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ekaterina A Shelepova, Alexandra V Kim, Vladimir Petrovich Voloshin, Nikolai N Medvedev
It is known that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) promotes the enhancement of the activity of several medicines. This is attributed to the fact that GA increases the membrane permeability of small drug molecules. There is an opinion that GA facilitates the formation of additional large voids in the membrane, which enhance passive diffusion of molecules across the membrane. In this work, we investigate how GA influences the intermolecular voids using the molecular dynamics simulation. We calculate the interstitial spheres (empty spheres inscribed between molecules) in model DPPC and DOPC bilayers, both pure and with the addition of cholesterol...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Amir Nutman, Dror Marchaim
BACKGROUND: Studying hospital outbreaks by using molecular tools, i.e. synthesizing the molecular-epidemiology data to its appropriate clinical-epidemiological context, is crucial in order to identify infection source, infer transmission dynamics and allocate appropriately prevention resources and implement appropriate control measures. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens has become the gold standard, as it is becoming more accessible and affordable. Consequently, sequencing of the full pathogen genome via WGS and major progress in fit-for-purpose genomic data analysis tools and interpretation is revolutionizing the field of outbreak investigations in hospitals...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Haiyan Li, Tangyu Wang, Yiying Tang, Jun Wu, Pengfei Yu, Lei Guo, Jianhua Chen, Yufeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Orientation field (OF) plays a very significant role in automatic fingerprint recognition systems. Many algorithms have been proposed for the estimation of fingerprints' OF but it is hard to solve the dilemma of correcting spurious ridge structure and avoiding singularity location deviation, especially for poor images. So far, the following drawbacks still need to be solved for OF construction methods for practical application: (1) How to adaptively choose block scales to resolve the contradiction between accuracy and anti-noise, since small scale is beneficial to accuracy but is sensitive to noise, while large scale is more resistant to noise, but the accuracy is deteriorated...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
María I Pozo, Jacek Bartlewicz, Annette van Oystaeyen, Alfredo Benavente, Gaby van Kemenade, Felix Wäckers, Hans Jacquemyn
Floral nectar represents an ephemeral habitat that is restricted in time and space to zoophilous flowering vegetation. To survive in these habitats, nectar-inhabiting microorganisms rely on animal vectors to disperse from one flower to the next. However, it remains unclear how nectar yeasts persist when flowers and nectar cease to be present. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hibernating bumblebee queens function as a reservoir for nectar yeasts in the absence of plants or pollinators during winter. Our results show that the nectar yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii, was present in the gastrointestinal tract of wild bumblebee queens that emerged from hibernation and that it could persist inside the gut of hibernating queens under experimental conditions...
October 3, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Timothée Masquelier, Saeed R Kheradpisheh
Repeating spatiotemporal spike patterns exist and carry information. Here we investigated how a single spiking neuron can optimally respond to one given pattern (localist coding), or to either one of several patterns (distributed coding, i.e., the neuron's response is ambiguous but the identity of the pattern could be inferred from the response of multiple neurons), but not to random inputs. To do so, we extended a theory developed in a previous paper (Masquelier, 2017), which was limited to localist coding...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Blaire Dube, Alanna Lumsden, Naseem Al-Aidroos
The effective use of our capacity-limited visual working memory (VWM) requires mechanisms that govern how it represents information. Validly cueing an item in VWM after encoding, for instance, enhances memory performance for that item and biases its state in VWM, bringing its representation to an active state such that attentional selection is biased towards perceptually similar inputs. Critically, when the retro-cue is less than 100% valid (i.e., probabilistic rather than deterministic), the effect of the cue on memory performance varies...
October 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Albert K Harris
A major step forward for developmental biology will be accomplished when someone figures out how to extend the concept of homeostasis to apply to shapes, in the sense of geometric properties of cells, tissues and organs (Andersen et al., 2009). I propose that the biggest obstacle to this forward step is that biological researchers are not yet familiar with the properties of tensor variables, as compared with scalars. This key difference is that tensor properties can and usually do have different amounts in different directions, whereas scalar properties cannot vary with direction...
September 27, 2018: Bio Systems
Pia Dellson, Kerstin Nilsson, Helena Jernström, Christina Carlsson
BACKGROUND: Clinical cancer trials are crucial for the implementation of new treatments in the clinical setting, but it is equally crucial that patients are given the opportunity to make a well-informed decision about participation. The inclusion process is complex, including both oral and written information about the trial. The process of patients' decision-making regarding clinical cancer trials has not yet been sufficiently studied. This interview study aims to explore the process of patients' reasoning regarding the decision to participate in a clinical cancer trial...
September 29, 2018: Trials
M C Hernández, Á Navarro-Castilla, A Planillo, B Sánchez-González, I Barja
Live trapping is an essential element of field ecological studies. However, the act of trapping provides two types of conditional benefits (food from the bait when hungry, and refuge from a predator when threatened) against one type of drawback (confinement). Our understanding of how animals assess the two benefits against the lone risk determines how we interpret classic field studies in chemical ecology and wildlife management. Here, we studied wood mice responses to these risks and rewards of field trapping by examining experience through recapture and faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) as a physiological response indicator...
September 26, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vural Özdemir
Industry 4.0 is an innovation framework launched initially at the 2011 Hanover Fair in Germany. It is premised on extreme digital connectivity to build smart factories and deliver extreme automation in science and society. Industry 4.0 has recently scaled up worldwide beyond Germany and Europe. Industry 4.0 employs the Internet of Things (IoT) to connect, communicate, and collect big data from embedded sensors in living and inanimate objects. When we add artificial intelligence (AI) powered real-time data analyses to the IoT, a state of worldwide extreme connectivity, or "The Quantified Planet," is created...
September 27, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Taiga Wakabayashi, Emanuele Felli, Patrick Pessaux
INTRODUCTION: Some articles have recently shown that robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is feasible and can be a safe method. On the other hand, pancreatic fistulas (PF) remain the most dreaded complication after PD, and a secured pancreaticoenteric reconstruction may be essential in this regard. Previous articles have highlighted the usefulness of telescoped pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) in open PD to reduce the risk of postoperative PF. Additionally, in 2016, Addeo et al. described a double purse-string telescoped PG (DPS-PG), simplified from previous techniques, with favorable short-term results...
September 25, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Adejumoke I Ayede, Amir Kirolos, Kayode R Fowobaje, Linda J Williams, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, Oluwaseun B Olorunfemi, Oluwaseun Kuna, Nkechi T Iwuala, Abolanle Oguntoye, Simeon O Kusoro, Mofeyisade E Okunlola, Shamim A Qazi, Harish Nair, Adegoke G Falade, Harry Campbell
Background: Childhood pneumonia is the single largest infectious cause of death in children under five worldwide. Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide health information on care sought for sick children in resource poor settings. Despite not being primarily designed to identify childhood pneumonia, there are concerns that reported episodes of "symptoms of acute respiratory infection" in DHS and MICS are often interpreted by other groups as a "proxy" for childhood pneumonia...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
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