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Thomas S Kraft, Vivek V Venkataraman, Ivan Tacey, Nathaniel J Dominy, Kirk M Endicott
Identifying the determinants of reproductive success in small-scale societies is critical for understanding how natural selection has shaped human evolution and behavior. The available evidence suggests that status-accruing behaviors such as hunting and prosociality are pathways to reproductive success, but social egalitarianism may diminish this pathway. Here we introduce a mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional dataset based on 45 years of research with the Batek, a population of egalitarian rain forest hunter-gatherers in Peninsular Malaysia, and use it to test the effects of four predictors of lifetime reproductive success: (i) foraging return rate, (ii) sharing proclivity, (iii) cooperative foraging tendency, and (iv) kin presence...
December 14, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Dalila Bensaddek, Armel Nicolas, Angus I Lamond
Proteomes are highly dynamic and can respond rapidly to environmental and cellular signals. Within cells, proteins often form distinct pools with different functions and properties. However, in quantitative proteomics studies it is common to measure averaged values for proteins that do not reflect variations that may occur between different protein isoforms, different subcellular compartments, or in cells at different cell cycle stages and so on. Here we review experimental approaches that can be used to enhance the signal from specific pools of protein that may otherwise be obscured through averaging across protein populations...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Hon Chi Yip, Xian Feng Xia, Shannon Melissa Chan, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, James Yun Wong Lau
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically challenging due to lack of depth perception. This report investigated effect of 3D endoscope for ESD and translate the technique from bench to clinical. In preclinical porcine experiment, the performance of ESD using 3D endoscope was compared between experienced and novice endoscopist. All ESD were completed without perforation. The median operative time per surface area was significantly lower for experienced endoscopist than that of novice (197.9s/cm2 vs 434...
December 14, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Grant S Shields, Chandler M Spahr, Andrew P Yonelinas
Acute stress impairs working memory (i.e., the ability to update and keep information in mind). Although that effect is well established, the boundaries around it are not. In particular, little is known about how recalling an unresolved stressor might influence working memory, or about how stress-or recalling a stressful event-influences the processes underlying working memory task performance (e.g., sustained/controlled attention vs. capacity). We addressed these issues in the present study (N = 171) by randomly assigning participants to write about an unresolved, extremely stressful experience (stressful writing condition; n = 85) or the events of the prior day (control condition; n = 86), and, subsequently, both measured change detection task performance and used computational cognitive modeling to estimate the processes underlying it-namely, attention, capacity, and bias...
December 13, 2018: Emotion
Bernadette Kun
This commentary addresses a recent article by Griffiths et al. (2018) about myths in work addiction. In response to the narrative review, I reflect on all the myths that the authors highlighted and the argument on how they tried to counter them. In comparison to an earlier overview by Robinson (1998), it is clear which myths about work addiction are persistent and represent the most important issues about this problem. Most of the myths were countered by the authors, but some of them need more evidence to be unequivocally defeated...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Dostálek Lukáš, Pavlišta David, Mašata Jaromír
BACKGROUND: Total 19% of patients diagnosed with breast cancer are younger than 50 years. Many of these patients will have postponed pregnancy into later life and many clinicians, who take care of these patients with mutations in tumor-suppressor genes, such as BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, and others, recommend that it is better not to have a child than take the risk of developing a relapse. However, this recommendation can significantly reduce quality of life. AIM: The purpose of this article was to answer the most common questions that clinicians are confronted with when dealing with breast cancer patients who express a desire to have a child later in life...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Rita Chen, Nora M Bello, Mark W Becker, Laura Bix
BACKGROUND: Unintentional exposure to medications is a noted problem in pediatric populations despite the prevalent use of child-resistant (CR) packaging and educational campaigns informing consumers about appropriate storage. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a proof-of concept study that evaluates how package designs that engage the attention of children in meaningless ways affect opening time and number of openings. STUDY DESIGN: Non-CR vials with or without distracters were provided to 108 children (24-51 months) in pairs...
2018: PloS One
Arnulfo Cornejo-Suarez, Maria Estela Chavez-Delgado, Ramon Perez-Ramirez, Isaac Montoya-Hernandez, Jose Regino Montoya-Valdez, Carlos Silvino Rosales-Orozco, Luis Humberto Govea-Camacho
PURPOSE: To present a modified method of local infiltration (MMLI) for endoscopic stapes surgery to reduce surgical time, bleeding and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 70 patients who underwent stapes surgery for otosclerosis by endoscopic and microscopic approaches. The MMLI was applied as follows: local infiltration was performed with one hand while the other hand inserted the endoscope into the ear canal to observe vasoconstriction signs on the monitor; the single site of infiltration was located at the center of the anterior conchal cartilage...
December 10, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Nicholas A Rattray, Mindy E Flanagan, Laura G Militello, Paul Barach, Zamal Franks, Patricia Ebright, Shakaib U Rehman, Howard S Gordon, Richard M Frankel
BACKGROUND: Poor communication during end-of-shift transfers of care (handoffs) is associated with safety risks and patient harm. Despite the common perception that handoffs are largely a one-way transfer of information, researchers have documented that they are complex interactions, guided by implicit social norms and mental frameworks. OBJECTIVES: We investigated communication strategies that resident physicians report deploying to tailor information during face-to-face handoffs that are often based on their implicit inferences about the perceived information needs and potential harm to patients...
December 10, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Kerstin Kämpf, Sergei A Izmailov, Sevastyan O Rabdano, Adam T Groves, Ivan S Podkorytov, Nikolai R Skrynnikov
Backbone (15 N) NMR relaxation is one of the main sources of information on dynamics of disordered proteins. Yet, we do not know very well what drives 15 N relaxation in such systems, i.e., how different forms of motion contribute to the measurable relaxation rates. To address this problem, we have investigated, both experimentally and via molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of a 26-residue peptide imitating the N-terminal portion of the histone protein H4. One part of the peptide was found to be fully flexible, whereas the other part features some transient structure (a hairpin stabilized by hydrogen bonds)...
November 20, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Eriko Aiba, Yutaka Sakaguchi
When sight-reading music, pianists have to decode a large number of notes and immediately transform them into finger actions. How do they achieve such fast decoding? Pianists may use geometrical features contained in the musical score, such as the distance between notes, to improve their efficiency in reading them. The aim of this study is to investigate the visual information pianists rely on when reading music. We measured the accuracy of the musical score reading of 16 skilled pianists and investigated its relationship with the geometrical features...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hugh Burling
This article sets out a formal procedure for determining the probability that God would do a specified action, using our moral knowledge and understanding God as a perfect being. To motivate developing the procedure I show how natural theology - design arguments, the problems of evil and divine hiddenness, and the treatment of miracles and religious experiences as evidence for claims about God - routinely appeals to judgments involving these probabilities. To set out the procedure, I describe a decision-theoretic model for practical reasoning which is deontological so as to appeal to theists, but is designed not to presuppose any substantive moral commitments, and to accommodate normative and non-normative uncertainty...
2018: Philosophia
Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards
Environmental hypoxia presents a metabolic challenge for animals because it inhibits mitochondrial respiration and can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the interplay between O2 use for aerobic respiration and ROS generation among sculpin fishes (Cottidae, Actinopterygii) that are known to vary in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance. We hypothesized that mitochondria from hypoxia tolerant sculpins would show more efficient O2 use with a higher phosphorylation efficiency and lower ROS emission...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Miriam E Bocarsly
Purpose of review: Obesity in the United States has been on a constant rise since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began tracking it over 50 years ago. Despite focused attention on this epidemic, pharmacological treatments aimed at obesity are lacking. Here, we briefly give perspective on the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying feeding behaviors and describe the existing pharmacological treatments for obesity. With this lens, I suggest future targets for the treatment of obesity...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Maria Fernanda Montiel-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe Diaz Quiroz, Joshua J C Rosenthal
Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA (ADARs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosines (A's) to inosines (I's) in a process known as RNA editing. Though ADARs can act on different types of RNA, editing events in coding regions of mRNA are of particular interest as I's base pair like guanosines (G's). Thus, every A-to-I change catalyzed by ADAR is read as an A-to-G change during translation, potentially altering protein sequence and function. This ability to re-code makes ADAR an attractive therapeutic tool to correct genetic mutations within mRNA...
November 28, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
David Colaço
In this paper, I investigate the nature of empirical findings that provide evidence for the characterization of a scientific phenomenon, and the defeasible nature of this evidence. To do so, I explore an exemplary instance of the rejection of a characterization of a scientific phenomenon: memory transfer. I examine the reason why the characterization of memory transfer was rejected, and analyze how this rejection tied to researchers' failures to resolve experimental issues relating to replication and confounds...
December 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Ying-Tung Lin
The connection between memory and self-consciousness has been a central topic in philosophy of memory. When remembering an event we experienced in the past, not only do we experience being the subject of the conscious episode, but we also experience being the protagonist in the memory scene. This is the "phenomenal presence of self." To explore this special sense of self in memory, this paper focuses on the issue of how one identifies oneself in episodic simulation at the retrieval of memory and draws attention to the field and observer perspectives in episodic memory...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologic condition that has been described in individuals who have been exposed to repetitive head impacts, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. CTE cannot currently be diagnosed during life. Clinical symptoms of CTE (including changes in mood, behavior, and cognition) are nonspecific and may develop after a latency phase following the injuries. Differential diagnosis based solely on clinical features is, therefore, difficult. For example, some younger patients who do not experience the latency phase (i...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Eno Lavrysen, Tomas Menovsky
BACKGROUND: Burr hole surgery for moyamoya disease and moyamoya syndrome is known to be an effective, versatile, and relatively simple revascularization technique. We will focus on the technical operative aspects of multiple burr hole surgery as we perform it in our center. METHODS: Periosteal flaps are prepared and placed in a burr hole with beveled edge, after opening the dura and arachnoid membrane, in order to facilitate neovascularization into the ischemic cortex...
November 24, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Sabrine El Baroudi, Svetlana N Khapova, Chen Fleisher, Paul G W Jansen
This paper examines how employees' career aspirations benefit organizations, i.e., contribute to strengthening organizational capabilities and connections, by means of two aspects of contemporary work: proactive and relational. Data were collected from alumni of a public university in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in two waves with a 1-year time lag. The results showed that employees with career aspirations strengthen: (a) organizational capabilities; and (b) organizational connections through their instrumental and psychosocial relationships...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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