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Gene AND Obesity

Kang Cheng, Zhihua Song, Yanan Chen, Simian Li, Yuying Zhang, Hao Zhang, Lili Zhang, Chao Wang, Tian Wang
Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the chronic kidney disease associated with obesity. Resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of RSV on renal inflammation and oxidative stress in obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were induced to have nephropathy associated obesity by high-fat diet for 12 weeks. After 8 weeks of feeding, oral supplementation with 100 mg RSV/kg body weight/day was applied with the high-fat-diet feeding for another 4 weeks...
December 15, 2018: Inflammation
Marie-Therese Rached, Steven J Millership, Silvia M A Pedroni, Agharul I Choudhury, Ana S H Costa, Darran G Hardy, Justyna A Glegola, Elaine E Irvine, Colin Selman, Megan C Woodberry, Vijay K Yadav, Sanjay Khadayate, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Samuel Virtue, Christian Frezza, Dominic J Withers
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic nervous system and immune cell interactions play key roles in the regulation of metabolism. For example, recent convergent studies have shown that macrophages regulate obesity through brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) via effects upon local catecholamine availability. However, these studies have raised issues about the underlying mechanisms involved including questions regarding the production of catecholamines by macrophages, the role of macrophage polarization state and the underlying intracellular signaling pathways in macrophages that might mediate these effects...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Fateheya Mohamed Metwally, Hend Mohamed Rashad, Asmaa Ahmed Mahmoud
Ethanolic extract of leaves of Morus alba L. (M. alba), known as white mulberry, was orally administered (100 mg/kg b.wt) for 8 weeks to female Wistar rats that were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), to investigate the potential of M. alba leaves in attenuation of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and deficits in mood, cognitive as well as motor activity that are linked to the adipokines secretions of visceral adipose tissue. Results showed that M. alba diminished body weight gain, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, atherogenic (AI) & coronary artery indices (CRI), and ameliorated glucose level and insulin resistance index in rats on HCD, compared with untreated HCD rats...
December 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Kaiqing Liu, Wensai Yu, Wei Wei, Xinbao Zhang, Ye Tian, Melak Sherif, Xin Liu, Chao Dong, Wangjun Wu, Lifan Zhang, Jie Chen
In obesity and diabetes, intramuscular fat (IMF) content correlates markedly with insulin sensitivity, which makes IMF manipulation an area of therapeutic interest. Melatonin, an important circadian rhythm-regulating hormone, reportedly regulates fat deposition, but its effects on different types of adipose vary. Little is known about the role of melatonin in IMF deposition. Here, using intramuscular preadipocytes in pigs, we investigated whether melatonin affects or regulates IMF deposition. We found that melatonin greatly inhibited porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Vian Peshdary, AnneMarie Gagnon, Anne Landry, Loretta Ma, Alexander Sorisky
OBJECTIVES: Obesity and type 2 diabetes often coexist. The effect of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue is, therefore, of interest. Although studies have shown that high glucose (HG) concentrations do not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, the resulting adipocyte phenotype has not been investigated. In particular, the levels of the glucose-responsive transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive response element binding protein (ChREBP) isoforms have not been assessed. METHODS: Human preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes in either normal glucose (NG) or HG conditions...
October 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Gilbert Audira, Sreeja Sarasamma, Jung-Ren Chen, Stevhen Juniardi, Bonifasius Putera Sampurna, Sung-Tzu Liang, Yu-Heng Lai, Geng-Ming Lin, Ming-Chia Hsieh, Chung-Der Hsiao
Leptin, a hormone secreted by peripheral adipose tissues, regulates the appetite in animals. Recently, evidence has shown that leptin also plays roles in behavioral response in addition to controlling appetite. In this study, we examined the potential function of leptin on non-appetite behaviors in zebrafish model. By using genome editing tool of Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), we successfully knocked out leptin a ( lepa ) gene by deleting 4 bp within coding region to create a premature-translation stop...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paola Illesca, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alejandra Espinosa, Francisca Echeverría, Sandra Soto-Alarcon, Macarena Ortiz, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) have a relevant metabolic and inflammatory function, in overweight or obesity conditions. In this regard, the WAT under over feeding nutrition present a significant increment in oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory status and depletion of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol with important cytoprotective effects, and this molecule can modulate the gene expression, transcription factors and enzymatic activity...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Donatella Paoli, Giulia Pecora, Francesco Pallotti, Fabiana Faja, Marianna Pelloni, Andrea Lenzi, Francesco Lombardo
STUDY QUESTION: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
M C Lardone, A Castro, A Pereira, C Corvalán, E Ortíz, V Mericq
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The Androgen Receptor (AR) harbors a variable repeat of a variable number of glutamine residues [(CAG)n] which seems to affect inversely AR transcriptional activity. We assessed whether (CAG)n affect the sequence of the androgen-sensitive pubertal events and body composition in prepubertal girls. DESIGN: and participants: Nested case-control study within the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study of 1196 low-middle income children (≈50% girls) from Santiago, Chile...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Kyung-Hui Moon
Periodontitis has been reported to relate to metabolic syndrome traits such as obesity, blood pressure, and so on. However, the relation between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. The present study aimed to confirm common genetic factors between periodontitis and metabolic traits using Candidate gene association study (CGAS) in the Korean population. Based on the analysis of CGAS, this study performed linear regression analyses to examine the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome traits...
December 13, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Martha-Spyridoula Katsarou, Aikaterini Karathanasopoulou, Angeliki Andrianopoulou, Vasileios Desiniotis, Efthymios Tzinis, Efthimios Dimitrakis, Maria Lagiou, Evangelia Charmandari, Michael Aschner, Aristeidis M Tsatsakis, George P Chrousos, Nikolaos Drakoulis
Genetic polymorphisms in β1 -, β2 - and β3 -adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) have been associated with chronic non-communicable disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity, as well as β-agonists and antagonists response and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of ADRB1 genetic variants Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly, ADRB2 variants Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu, ADRB3 variant Trp64Arg in a Southeastern European Caucasian (SEC) population sample and to establish a comparison with existing data from other human populations...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Navneet Matharu, Sawitree Rattanasopha, Serena Tamura, Lenka Maliskova, Yi Wang, Adelaide Bernard, Aaron Hardin, Walter L Eckalbar, Christian Vaisse, Nadav Ahituv
A wide-range of human diseases result from haploinsufficiency, where the function of one of the two gene copies is lost. Here, we targeted the remaining functional copy of a haploinsufficient gene using CRISPR-mediated activation (CRISPRa) in Sim1 and Mc4r heterozygous mouse models to rescue their obesity phenotype. Transgenic-based CRISPRa targeting of the Sim1 promoter or its distant hypothalamic enhancer upregulated its expression from the endogenous functional allele in a tissue-specific manner, rescuing the obesity phenotype in Sim1 heterozygous mice...
December 13, 2018: Science
Yohsuke Ohkubo, Takashi Sekido, Shin-Ichi Nishio, Keiko Sekido, Junichiro Kitahara, Satoru Suzuki, Mitsuhisa Komatsu
The thyroid hormone-binding protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) mediates thyroid hormone action by sequestering triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm and regulating the intracellular concentration of thyroid hormone. As thyroid hormone action is closely associated with glycolipid metabolism, it has been proposed that CRYM may contribute to this process by reserving or releasing triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm. We aimed to clarify the relationship between CRYM and glycolipid metabolism by comparing wild-type and CRYM knockout mice fed a high-fat diet...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maija Ruuth, Jarkko Soronen, Essi Kaiharju, Krista Merikanto, Julia Perttilä, Jari Metso, Miriam Lee-Rueckert, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni, Vesa M Olkkonen, Matti S Jauhiainen, Pirkka-Pekka Laurila
BACKGROUND: The focus of studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL) has shifted from HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) to HDL function. We recently demonstrated that low USF1 expression in mice and humans associates with high plasma HDL-C and low triglyceride levels, as well as protection against obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the impact of USF1 deficiency on HDL functional capacity and macrophage atherogenic functions, including inflammation, cholesterol efflux, and cholesterol accumulation...
December 13, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Seun Akindehin, Young-Suk Jung, Sang-Nam Kim, Yeon-Ho Son, Icksoo Lee, Je Kyung Seong, Hyun Woo Jeong, Yun-Hee Lee
Myricetin is a biologically active natural polyphenol with beneficial effects on metabolic health. This study aimed to examine the effects of myricetin on the expression levels of genes involved in lipolysis and mitochondrial respiration in adipocytes and the anti-obesity potential of myricetin. The results indicated that myricetin reduced triglyceride (TG) content and increased mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in adipocytes in vitro. To determine anti-obesity effect of myricetin, C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks and then treated with myricetin (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks...
December 12, 2018: Nutrients
Kuang-Tzu Huang, Li-Wen Hsu, Kuang-Den Chen, Chao-Pin Kung, Shigeru Goto, Chao-Long Chen
Adipogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the action of multiple signaling pathways. Characterization of regulators that are associated with adipose development is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying obesity and other metabolic disorders. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that was first described as a neurotrophic factor. The role of PEDF in lipid metabolism was established when adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a major triglyceride hydrolase, was characterized as its binding partner...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kensuke Nakajima, Narumi Maeda, Shigeru Oiso, Hiroko Kariyazono
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide hormone with an appetite-stimulating effect. Octanoylation on the serine-3 residue of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is essential for its orexigenic effect. Mature octanoylated ghrelin is generated by the C-terminal cleavage of octanoylated proghrelin via prohormone convertases (furin, PC1/3, or PC2). We previously established an AGS-GHRL8 cell line that produces octanoylated ghrelin in the presence of octanoic acid, and found that oleanolic acid suppresses octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Hubert Kolb, Michael Stumvoll, Werner Kramer, Kerstin Kempf, Stephan Martin
Lifestyle factors conferring increased diabetes risk are associated with elevated basal insulin levels (hyperinsulinaemia). The latter predicts later obesity in children and adolescents.A causal role of hyperinsulinaemia for adipose tissue growth is probable because pharmacological reduction of insulin secretion lowers body weight in people who are obese. Genetic inactivation of insulin gene alleles in mice also lowers their systemic insulin levels and prevents or ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity. Hyperinsulinaemia causes weight gain because of a physiological property of insulin...
December 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
Hua Li, Un-Hee Kim, Jeong-Hyun Yoon, Hyeon-Seon Ji, Hye-Mi Park, Ho-Yong Park, Tae-Sook Jeong
Yellow soybean leaf extract including kaempferol glycosides and pheophorbides reduces obesity and plasma glucose levels. This study researched the molecular mechanisms underlying the glucose-lowering effect of the extract of black soybean leaves (EBL), which mainly contains quercetin glycosides and isorhamnetin glycosides, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese diabetic mice and HepG2 cells. Twelve weeks of EBL supplementation decreased body weight, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stefan Z Lutz, Anita M Hennige, Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Charisis Totsikas, Jürgen Machann, Stefan M Kröber, Bianca Sperl, Erwin Schleicher, Fritz Schick, Martin Heni, Axel Ullrich, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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