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Gene AND Obesity

Pagona Panagiota Sfyri, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anastasia Tzimou, Natasa Giallourou, Vassili Crispi, Ahmed Aburima, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez, Ketan Patel, Vassilis Mougios, Jonathan R Swann, Mark T Kearney, Antonios Matsakas
Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- ) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hai-Na Zhang, Qiao-Qiao Xu, Abhimanyu Thakur, Martin Omondi Alfred, Manas Chakraborty, Arunima Ghosh, Xu-Ben Yu
The vascular endothelium acts as a barrier between the blood flow and the inner lining of the vessel wall, and it functions as a filtering machinery to filter out any unwanted transfer of materials from both sides (i.e. the blood and the surrounding tissues). It is evident that diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension disturb the normal endothelial functions in humans and lead to endothelial dysfunction, which may further precede to the development of atherosclerosis. Long non-coding RNAs and micro RNAs both are types of non-coding RNAs which, in the recent years, have increasingly been studied in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and others...
October 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Lukas Zlatohlavek, Vit Maratka, Eva Tumova, Richard Ceska, Vera Lanska, Michal Vrablik, Jaroslav A Hubacek
BACKGROUND This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the common TMEM-18 (rs4854344, G>T) and NYD-SP18 (rs6971091, G>A) gene variants and weight loss after lifestyle interventions (increased physical activity in conjunction with optimal dietary intake) in overweight/obese children/adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS We genotyped 684 unrelated, white, non-diabetic children (age 12.7±2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 30.66±4.80 kg/m²). Anthropometric and biochemical examinations were performed before and after 4 weeks of an intensive lifestyle intervention...
October 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tanja Schallschmidt, Sandra Lebek, Delsi Altenhofen, Mareike Damen, Yvonne Schulte, Birgit Knebel, Ralf Herwig, Axel Rasche, Torben Stermann, Anne Kamitz, Nicole Hallahan, Markus Jähnert, Heike Vogel, Annette Schürmann, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
To identify novel disease genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D) we generated two backcross populations of obese and diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO/HI) with the two lean mouse strains 129P2/OlaHsd and C3HeB/FeJ. Subsequent whole-genome linkage scans revealed 30 novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for T2D-associated traits. The strongest association with blood glucose (12 cM, LOD 13.3) and plasma insulin (17 cM, LOD 4.8) was detected on proximal chromosome 7 (designated Nbg7p , NZO blood glucose on proximal chromosome 7) exclusively in the NZOxC3H crossbreeding, suggesting that the causal gene is contributed by the C3H genome...
October 19, 2018: Genetics
Yan-Mei Wang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ning-Yuan Fang
Browning of white adipose tissue is a novel mechanism to counteract obesity in view of its thermogenic activity. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) can promote the browning of white fat. 9-PAHSA, an endogenous mammalian lipid, which is acting as the ligand of GPR120 to enhance glucose uptake and exert anti-inflammatory effect. In the study, we would like to investigate the biological effects of 9-PAHSA on adipocyte browning. Here, we show that 9-PAHSA induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat specific genes...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shihab Kochumon, Fatema Al-Rashed, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Sriraman Devarajan, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Chemokines produced by adipose tissue (AT) are involved in the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in obese humans and rodents. AT CCL19 expression in obesity and its association with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCL19 gene expression on inflammatory markers in subcutaneous AT and insulin resistance. METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose samples were collected from 56 non-diabetic (26-obese, 21-overweight, and 9-lean) individuals...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Qin Jiang, Baofa Sun, Qing Liu, Min Cai, Ruifan Wu, Fengqin Wang, Yongxi Yao, Yizhen Wang, Xinxia Wang
Intramuscular fat is considered a potential factor that is associated with meat quality in animal production and insulin resistance in humans. N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification of mRNA plays an important role in regulating adipogenesis. However, the effects of m6 A on the adipogenesis of intramuscular preadipocytes and associated mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we performed m6 A sequencing to compare m6 A methylome of the longissimus dorsi muscles (LDMs) between Landrace pigs (lean-type breed) and Jinhua pigs (obese-type breed with higher levels of intramuscular fat)...
October 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
C Borghi, U Indraccolo, G Scutiero, P Iannone, R Martinello, P Greco, F Greco, L Nappi
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer (EC) is a complex gynecological neoplasm with several clinical, histopathological and genetic features. Different hormonal, metabolic and biochemical axes are involved in pathogenesis. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for this disease and the role of local and systemic effects of adipose tissue, especially in the promotion of subclinical chronic inflammation, is an important issue. Indeed, inflammation is related to the pathogenesis of different tumors, including EC...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Julian Merz, Philipp Albrecht, Sunaina von Garlen, Ibrahim Ahmed, Daniel Dimanski, Dennis Wolf, Ingo Hilgendorf, Carmen Härdtner, Katja Grotius, Florian Willecke, Timo Heidt, Heiko Bugger, Natalie Hoppe, Ulrich Kintscher, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Marco Idzko, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Peter Stachon
Sterile inflammation of visceral fat, provoked by dying adipocytes, links the metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease. Danger-associated molecular patterns, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released by activated or dying cells and orchestrate leukocyte infiltration and inflammation via the purinergic receptor P2Y2 . The gene expression of ATP receptor P2Y2 did not change in several tissues in the course of obesity, but was increased within epididymal fat. Adipose tissue from P2Y 2 -/- mice consuming high-fat diet (HFD) contained less crown-like structures with a reduced frequency of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
October 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
B M Huibregtse, J D Boardman
Objective: Poor patient-provider interactions due to provider bias are associated with worse physiological and behavioural health outcomes for patients. Prior research has shown that patients with obesity perceive less favourable interactions compared with those with lower weights. This paper explores whether this association depends on patients' cumulative polygenic score with respect to genes linked to obesity (i.e. a single variable quantifying the individual's genome-wide risk factors for high body mass index [BMI] or genetic liability) and whether providers react differentially to patients whose obesity is more genetic in nature compared with patients with diabetes caused by environmental factors...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E Miller, Gene H Brody
INTRODUCTION: The transition to adulthood can be stressful for minority adolescents, and many may cope through unhealthy behaviors, including substance use and obesity-related behaviors. This study tested substance use and obesity trajectories over time in African American youth, longitudinal associations of trajectories with mental and physical health in adulthood, and whether self-control and sex predict trajectories. METHODS: Two longitudinal studies of 516 and 992 African American adolescents...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher M Mulligan, Rachel C Janssen, Peter R Baker, Bryan C Bergman, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Tyler A Dean, Diana L Takahashi, Paul Kievit, Carrie E McCurdy, Kjersti M Aagaard, Jacob E Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk begins in utero in offspring of obese mothers. A critical unmet need in this field is to understand the pathways and biomarkers underlying fetal hepatic lipotoxicity and whether maternal dietary intervention during pregnancy is an effective countermeasure. METHODS: We utilized a well-established non-human primate model of chronic, maternal, Western-style diet induced obesity (OB-WSD) compared with mothers on a healthy control diet (CON) or a subset of OB-WSD mothers switched to the CON diet (diet reversal; OB-DR) prior to and for the duration of the next pregnancy...
September 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Madusha Peiris, Rubina Aktar, Sarah Raynel, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, L Ashley Blackshaw
BACKGROUND: Nutrient-sensing receptors located on enteroendocrine (EEC) cells modulate appetite via detection of luminal contents. Colonic 'tasting' of luminal contents may influence changes to appetite observed in obesity and after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. We assessed the effects of obesity and gastric bypass-induced weight loss on expression of nutrient-sensing G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), EEC and enterochromaffin (EC) cells and mucosal innervation. METHODS: qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to study colonic tissue from (a) chow-fed/lean, (b) high-fat fed/obese, (c) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and (d) calorie restriction-induced weight loss mice...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Weifeng Tang, Shuchen Chen, Jun Liu, Chao Liu, Yafeng Wang, Mingqiang Kang
Esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) may be associated with obesity and overweight. Thus, any variant in energy metabolism-related gene may influence the development of EGJA. In this study, we recruited 720 EGJA cases and 1541 noncancer controls. We selected IGF2BP2 rs4402960 G > T, rs1470579 A > C, IGF1 rs5742612 A > G and IGFBP3 rs3110697 G > A, rs2270628 C > T and rs6953668 G > A loci and assessed the relationship of these polymorphisms with lymph node status and susceptibility of EGJA...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Madhusmita Rout, Sajitha Lulu S
Discerning the relationship between molecules involved in diseases based on their underlying biological mechanisms is one of the greatest challenges in therapeutic development today. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, which adversely affects both mothers and offspring during and after pregnancy. We have constructed two datasets of (GDM associated genes from affected mother and placenta to systematically analyze and evaluate their interactions like gene-gene, gene-protein, gene-microRNA (miRNA), gene-transcription factors, and gene-associated diseases to enhance our current knowledge, which may lead to further advancements in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Luz Yaqueline Ladino, Johanna Galvis, Diana Yasnó, Adriana Ramírez, Orietta Ivonne Beltrán
The Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder with vast locus heterogeneity that belongs to the so-called ciliopathies, whose proteins are localized in the primary cilia and present functional deficiency. The multisystemic features of the disease include ocular, renal, cognitive, skeletal, as well as gonadal involvement and obesity, among others, with high inter- and intrafamilial variability. We describe the clinical case of an adolescent male patient with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, including the approach, the results from a 22-gene sequencing panel, and the analysis of updated scientific literature...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
A F Dawood, M M Sabry, S A Estaphan, E A Mohamed, S F Younes, L A Rashed, A W Elzainy
Apelin, a peptide hormone that has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity and glucose metabolism, coexists with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons that control body fluid homeostasis. The significant correlation between serum glucose and serum osmolarity in uncontrolled DM indicates the need for adequate compensation, but how apelin and AVP contribute to this is still unsettled. This study aims to investigate the interaction between apelin and AVP in osmotic regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the underlying mechanism...
September 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Beverly H Brummett, Michael A Babyak, Abanish Singh, Elizabeth R Hauser, Rong Jiang, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus, Svati H Shah, Ilene C Siegler, Redford B Williams
The serotonin receptor 5-HTR2C is thought to be involved in the function of multiple brain structures. Consequently, the HTR2C gene has been studied extensively with respect to its association with a variety of phenotypes. One coding variant in the HTR2C gene, Cys23Ser (rs6318), has been associated with depressive symptoms. and adiposity; however, these findings have been inconsistent. The reasons for this mixed picture may be due to low statistical power or due to other factors such as failure to account for possible interacting environmental factors, such as psychosocial stress...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Shefaa AlAsfoor, Theresa V Rohm, Angela J T Bosch, Thomas Dervos, Diego Calabrese, Matthias S Matter, Achim Weber, Claudia Cavelti-Weder
Macrophages have been recognized as key players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to assess whether pharmacological attenuation of macrophages can be achieved by imatinib, an anti-leukemia drug with known anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, and how this impacts on NAFLD. We analyzed the pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression of murine macrophages and human monocytes in vitro in the presence or absence of imatinib. In a time-resolved study, we characterized metabolic disease manifestations such as hepatic steatosis, systemic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice at one and three months of imatinib treatment...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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