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Gene AND Obesity

Yuan-Cheng Chen, Chao Xu, Ji-Gang Zhang, Chun-Ping Zeng, Xia-Fang Wang, Rou Zhou, Xu Lin, Zeng-Xin Ao, Jun-Min Lu, Jie Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
Previous studies have demonstrated the genetic correlations between type 2 diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, and indicated that many genes have pleiotropic effects on them. However, these pleiotropic genes have not been well-defined. It is essential to identify pleiotropic genes using systematic approaches because systematically analyzing correlated traits is an effective way to enhance their statistical power. To identify potential pleiotropic genes for these three disorders, we performed a systematic analysis by incorporating GWAS (genome-wide associated study) datasets of six correlated traits related to type 2 diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia using Meta-CCA (meta-analysis using canonical correlation analysis)...
2018: PloS One
Edith J Arany, Muhammad Waseem, Brenda J Strutt, Astrid Chamson-Reig, Adam Bernardo, Elizabeth Eng, David J Hill
Both bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve glycemic control in diabetic mice, but their kinetics and associated changes in pancreatic morphology have not been directly compared. Our goal was to examine the time course of improvements in glucose tolerance and associated changes in β-cell mass and proliferation following transplantation of equivalent numbers of HSC or MSC from the same bone marrow into diabetic non-obese diabetic severe combined immune deficiency (NOD...
August 15, 2018: Islets
Ramkumar Mohan, Daniel C Baumann, Emilyn U Alejandro
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 (T2D) diabetes is a major health concern in the United States and around the world. T2D is a complex disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell failure in association with obesity and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Although several genes associated with T2D have been identified, it is speculated that genetic variants account for only less than 10% of the risk for this disease. A strong body of data from both human epidemiological and animal studies shows that fetal nutrient factors in utero confer significant susceptibility to T2D...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Inga C Teller, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Hella Brönneke, Pia Nosthoff-Horstmann, Annemarie Oosting, Gregor Lippach, Maria Wohlfarth, Manfred Rauh, Eline M van der Beek, Jörg Dötsch, Kai D Nüsken
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse metabolic outcome later in life. Healthy mice challenged with a Western-style diet (WSD) accumulated less body fat when previously fed a diet containing large lipid globules (complex lipid matrix (CLM)). This study was designed to clarify whether an early-life CLM diet mitigates 'programmed' visceral adiposity and associated metabolic sequelae after IUGR. In rats, IUGR was induced either by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG) or sham operation (i...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Arwen W Gao, Mark G Sterken, Jelmi Uit de Bos, Jelle van Creij, Rashmi Kamble, Basten L Snoek, Jan E Kammenga, Riekelt H Houtkooper
Metabolic homeostasis is sustained by complex biological networks that respond to nutrient availability. Genetic and environmental factors may disrupt this equilibrium, leading to metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. To identify the genetic factors controlling metabolism, we performed quantitative genetic analysis using a population of 199 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans We focused on the genomic regions that control metabolite levels by measuring fatty acid (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition in the RILs using targeted metabolomics...
August 14, 2018: Genome Research
Thomas J Hoffmann, Hélène Choquet, Jie Yin, Yambazi Banda, Mark N Kvale, Maria Glymour, Catherine Schaefer, Neil Risch, Eric Jorgenson
Body mass index (BMI), a proxy measure for obesity, is determined by both environmental (including ethnicity, age, and sex) and genetic factors with over 400 BMI-associated loci identified to date. However, the impact, interplay, and underlying biological mechanisms among BMI, environment, genetics, and ancestry are not completely understood. To further examine these relationships, we utilized 427,509 calendar-year averaged BMI measurements on 100,418 adults from the single large multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort...
August 14, 2018: Genetics
Limei Wu, Surya Amarachintha, Jian Xu, Frank Oley, Wei Du
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (niche) plays important roles in supporting normal/abnormal haematopoiesis. We investigated the interaction between leukaemic mesenchymal niche and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using the model of Fanconi anaemia (FA), a genetic disorder characterized by BM failure and leukaemia. Healthy donor HSPCs co-cultured on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from FA patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) exhibited higher human engraftment and myeloid expansion in Non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency IL-2γ-/- /SGM3 recipients...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Er-Cui Feng, Li Jiang
Preterm infants face lifelong disabilities, including learning disorders, as well as visual, auditory and behavioral problems. Recent studies have demonstrated that leptin, an adipocytokine encoded by a gene associated with obesity and expressed in adipose tissue, affects neurocognitive and motor function; however, the mechanisms of brain damage in preterm infants are unclear. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of leptin in a rat model of preterm hypoxic‑ischemic brain damage were investigated...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Giorgio Biasiotto, Isabella Zanella, Federica Predolini, Ivonne Archetti, Moris Cadei, Eugenio Monti, Marcello Luzzani, Barbara Pacchetti, Paola Mozzoni, Roberta Andreoli, Giuseppe De Palma, Federico Serana, Annika Smeds, Diego Di Lorenzo
7-Hydroxymatairesinol (7-HMR) is a plant lignan abundant in various concentrations in plant foods. The objective of this study was to test HMRLignan™, a purified form of 7-HMR, and the corresponding Picea abies extract (total extract P. abies; TEP) as dietary supplements on a background of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in mice and in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model. Mice, 3 weeks old, were fed a HFD for 60 d. Subgroups were treated with 3 mg/kg body weight 7-HMR (HMRLignan™) or 10 mg/kg body weight TEP by oral administration...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Pirjo Käkelä, Ville Männistö, Maija Vaittinen, Sari Venesmaa, Vesa Kärjä, Kirsi Virtanen, Hannu Paajanen, Jussi Pihlajamäki
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Different bariatric procedures have been associated with variable weight loss and decrease in serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins. This variation could be partly related to the length of the small intestinal bypass. We evaluated the association of the small intestinal length with the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at baseline and with lipid metabolism before and after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS: Seventy consecutive morbidly obese patients were recruited to this prospective study...
August 13, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Xiaolan Deng, Rui Su, Savanna Stanford, Jianjun Chen
Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been linked to increased body mass and obesity in humans by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) since 2007. Although some recent studies suggest that the obesity-related SNPs in FTO influence obesity susceptibility likely through altering the expression of the adjacent genes such as IRX3 and RPGRIP1L , rather than FTO itself, a solid link between the SNP risk genotype and the increased FTO expression in both human blood cells and fibroblasts has been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Tainara Emilia Rodrigues da Silva, Nayara Lopes Andrade, Daiane de Oliveira Cunha, Jacqueline Andréia Bernardes Leão-Cordeiro, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa, Antonio Márcio Teodoro Cordeiro Silva
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aims evaluate the association of the polymorphism rs9939609 of FTO with the risk of obesity among children and adolescents, based on the assessment of four genetic models: codominant, dominant, recessive alleles model. METHODS: Case-control studies, published between the years 2011-2015, were selected from tree available databases (PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) and were analysed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations...
August 10, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Agata Muzsik, Joanna Bajerska, Henryk H Jeleń, Anna Gaca, Agata Chmurzynska
Fatty acid (FA) status is associated with the risk of several diet-related diseases. Since postmenopausal women are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disturbances, determinants of FA metabolism should be fully understood in this group. We hypothesize that FA metabolism in postmenopausal Polish women may depend on current macronutrient intake and on fatty acid desaturase ( FADS ) gene polymorphism. One-hundred-and-twenty-eight postmenopausal women with central obesity were recruited to the study and their dietary intake, FA composition in red blood cells (RBC), and rs174556, rs174561, rs174547, and rs3834458 polymorphism of the FADS gene were analyzed...
August 10, 2018: Nutrients
Marcela Parra-Vargas, Ana Sandoval-Rodriguez, Roberto Rodriguez-Echevarria, Jose Alfredo Dominguez-Rosales, Arturo Santos-Garcia, Juan Armendariz-Borunda
Anthocyanin consumption is linked to benefits in obesity-related metabolic alterations and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), though the functional role of delphinidin (Dp) is yet to be established. Therefore, this study examined the effects of Dp on metabolic alterations associated with NAFLD, and molecular mechanisms in HepG2 cells and diet-induced obese mice. Cells incubated with palmitate to induce lipid accumulation, concomitantly treated with Dp, reduced triglyceride accumulation by ~53%, and downregulated gene expression of CPT1A , SREBF1 , and FASN without modifying AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels...
August 10, 2018: Nutrients
Donald A McClain, Neeraj K Sharma, Shalini Jain, Alexandria Harrison, Lipika N Salaye, Mary E Comeau, Carl D Langefeld, Felipe R Lorenzo, Swapan K Das
Context: Excessive body iron stores are a risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity (SI) and diabetes. We hypothesize that transcriptional dysregulation of genes involved in iron metabolism in adipocytes cause insulin resistance. Objective and Design: To define the genetic regulation of iron metabolism and its role in SI, we used gene expression, genotype, and insulin sensitivity data from an African American cohort (N=256). Replication studies were performed in independent European ancestry cohorts...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jia Chen, Qiankun Zhu, Gang Liu, Xinzhuang Yang, Sen Zhao, Weisheng Chen, Zhihong Wu, Nan Wu, Guixing Qiu
BACKGROUND The present study aimed to evaluate whether the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in a largest Chinese Han population. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 502 IDD patients and 497 healthy controls enrolled in this study. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene were tested using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test, followed by allelic, genotypic, haplotypic association, and SNP interaction analyses were used for SNP evaluation...
August 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Irina V Marchenko, Yevhen I Dubovyk, Olha I Matlai, Antonina A Biesiedina, Polina V Kniazkova, Yelizaveta A Harbuzova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: More than 100 genes have been described associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Among these candidate genes, Ectonucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), is located on the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q23.2) and encodes for a protein which is one of the factors determining the insulin sensitivity. An allelic polymorphism in exon 4 of ENPP1 (rs1044498) has been designated K121Q and widely investigated in T2DM in different populations...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Aline Isabel da Silva, Glauber Rudá F Braz, Severina Cássia de A Silva, Anderson Apolonio da S Pedroza, Nelson Correia de Lima-Júnior, Tércya Lúcidi de A Silva, Claudia Jacques Lagranha
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a regulatory role in coordinating the neural circuits regulating energy balance, with differences in both 5-HT availability at the synapse and the activity of 5-HT receptors mediating anorectic (via POMC/CART activation) and orexigenic (via NPY/AgRP activation) responses. In conditions of overweight and obesity the control of energy balance is clearly deregulated, and serotonergic modulation appears to make a significant contribution to weight gain. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that increases 5-HT availability in the synaptic cleft may thus have potential effects on energy balance...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
August 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mensur Osman Yassin
Nanomaterials (NMs) are receiving remarkable attention due to their unique properties and structure. They vary from atoms and molecules along with those of bulk materials. They can be engineered to act as drug delivery vehicles to cross blood-brain barriers (BBBs) and utilized with better efficacy and safety to deliver specific molecules into targeted cells as compared to conventional system for neurological disorders. Depending on their properties, various metal chelators, gold nanoparticles (NPs), micelles, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, liposomes, solid lipid NPs, microparticles, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes have been utilized for various purposes including the improvement of drug delivery system, treatment response assessment, diagnosis at early stage, and management of neurological disorder by using neuro-engineering...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
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