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Culture Psychiatry

Hannah Kim, Shuichi Suetani, Malcolm Forbes, David Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: To review selected literature available on trainee welfare and reflect on our own experiences to provide practical advice to our colleagues and suggest strategies to enhance trainee welfare. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting the welfare of psychiatry trainees requires a three-pronged approach. We must care for ourselves through individual strategies; we must advocate for optimization of the systems we work in to minimize modifiable factors associated with burnout; and we must continue on the perennial challenge of culture change to reduce stigma around stress and mental illness and promote a healthier workplace...
October 8, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Bedford Palmer, Thomas A Parham, Michael Connor, Helen Neville
Presents an obituary of Joseph White (1932-2017), often called "the godfather of Black psychology." During a distinguished 56-year career, White held many professional roles, perhaps none more profound than that of mentor. Additionally, White served as a (supervising) psychologist to five hospitals and three clinical practices. He served as chairman of the California State Psychology Licensing Board for 3 years. He was also a member of the Board of Trustees of The Menninger Foundation in Houston, Texas, and held the title of professor emeritus of psychology and psychiatry at the University of California, Irvine, where he spent most of his career as a professor and director of ethnic studies and cross-cultural programs...
October 2018: American Psychologist
Lisa B Thorell, Hanna Chistiansen, Martin Hammar, Steve Berggren, Eric Zander, Sven Bölte
PURPOSE: The Conners Rating Scales are widely used in research and clinical practice for measuring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated problem behaviors, but country-specific norms are seldom collected. The current study presents the standardization of the Swedish Conners 3® Rating Scales. In addition, we compared the Swedish norms to those collected in the U.S. and Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included altogether 3496 ratings of children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from population-based samples...
September 29, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Nakita Natala, Ruth Owusu-Antwi, Gordon Donnir, Kwabena Kusi-Mensah, Heidi Burns, Sarah Mohiuddin, Thomas Fluent, Michelle Riba, Gregory Dalack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improving child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is a priority worldwide. The majority of children with psychiatric conditions in low-middle-income countries (LMIC), like Ghana, receive no treatment due largely to limited resources and few CAMH training opportunities. The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) and University of Michigan (UM) established a partnership to expand CAMH training for general psychiatrists in Ghana. Lessons learned from the early stages of the collaboration can serve as an adaptable roadmap for similar efforts to expand CAMH training in LMIC...
September 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Abdulmohsen Alhumoud, Muhammad Zahid, Sameh Ibrahim, Talal Syed, Ahmed Naguy
INTRODUCTION: The offending behavior arising from a mental disorder invokes criminal responsibility doctrines or insanity defenses and calls for legislative framework ensuring availability of care and treatment for the patient and protection of the public from harm from the offender. The conviction of mentally disordered offenders varies depending upon the local legislation and its socio-cultural context, so do the principles, procedures and guidelines for forensic assessments between different countries...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Ahmad N Alhadi, Mohammed A Alarabi, Abdulaziz T Alshomrani, Raafat M Shuqdar, Mohammad T Alsuwaidan, Roger S McIntyre
Objectives: Depression is a common mental disorder, the severity of which is frequently assessed via interview-based clinical scales such as the 7-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-7). The current study aimed to translate and examine the validity of an Arabic version of the HAMD-7 scale. Methods: This study took place between February and March 2016 in the Psychiatry Department of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The HAMD-7 scale was translated into Arabic using forward and backward translation methods...
May 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Raquel Jimenez Fernandez, Inmaculada Corral Liria, Rocio Rodriguez Vázquez, Susana Cabrera Fernandez, Marta Elena Losa Iglesias, Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo
In 1994, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) included "culture-bound syndromes" in its classification of psychiatric disorders and associated them with disease processes that manifest in behavioural or thought disorders that develop within a given cultural context. This study examines the definitions, explanatory models, signs and symptoms, and healthcare-seeking behaviours common to Fang culture-bound syndromes (i.e., kong, eluma, witchcraft, mibili, mikug, and nsamadalu)...
2018: PloS One
Anindya Das, Urvashi Rautela
The issue of culture in Indian psychiatry has endured increasing neglect with the burgeoning biological paradigm. This viewpoint debates and demystifies the connotation of "culture" in mainstream psychiatry. As a template to infer dominant thinking in mainstream psychiatry about culture, DLN Murty Rao Oration in 2011, "Indianizing Psychiatry - Is there a case enough?" by Avasthi (2011) (published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry) has been used. Engaging a broad interdisciplinary view helps unravel the inherent biases in psychiatry and opens up space for analysis of the Indian psyche from a different philosophic tradition and ways of researching it...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Narayana Manjunatha, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math, Jagadisha Thirthalli
Background: Primary Care Doctors (PCDs) are the first contact for majority of patients with psychiatric disorders across the world including India. They often provide symptomatic treatment which is naturally inadequate. Absence or inadequate exposure to psychiatric training during undergraduate medical education is one of the prime reasons. Classroom training (CRT), a standard practice to train PCDs is driven by specialist based psychiatric curriculum and inherently lacks clinical translational value...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Massimiliano Murgia, Rosanna Izzo, Alessandra Bettinelli, Chiara Di Maggio, Martina De Angelis, Massimiliano Mangone, Marco Paoloni, Andrea Bernetti, Andrea Torquati, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Valter Santilli
BACKGROUND: The Non-Communicating Children Pain Check List-Revised (NCCPC-R) is a clinical assessment tool used to assess and measure pain in children aged 3 to 18 years, with mental and intellectual disabilities, incapable to speaking. AIM: Aim of our study was to test the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the NCCPC- R in children with cognitive impairment, in order to obtain a valid tool for pain assessment in these children. DESIGN: Prospective observational study...
August 29, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Nathaniel J Williams, Rinad S Beidas
BACKGROUND: Scientists have developed evidence-based interventions that improve the symptoms and functioning of youth with psychiatric disorders; however, these interventions are rarely used in community settings. Eliminating this research-to-practice gap is the purview of implementation science, the discipline devoted to the study of methods to promote the use of evidence-based practices in routine care. METHODS: We review studies that have tested factors associated with implementation in child psychology and psychiatry, explore applications of social science theories to implementation, and conclude with recommendations to advance implementation science through the development and testing of novel, multilevel, causal theories...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Margarete Osterfeld, Hadil Lababidi, Marina Langfeldt
The article provides an overview of the origins and practical work on national and international control mechanisms, initiated by the United Nations, for the observance of human rights in psychiatry in Germany and worldwide. Historical, legal and psychiatric developments will be presented ranging from Pinel 200 years ago to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the United Nations Convention against Torture (CAT). The National Agency for the Prevention of Torture and Ill-treatment in Germany will be presented, which has visited about forty psychiatric institutions since its establishment and has reported its observations to the public...
August 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Esther Olunu, Ruth Kimo, Esther Olufunmbi Onigbinde, Mary-Amadeus Uduak Akpanobong, Inyene Ezekiel Enang, Mariam Osanakpo, Ifure Tom Monday, David Adeiza Otohinoyi, Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a state associated with the inability to move that occurs when an individual is about sleeping or just waking. It could occur in healthy individuals as isolated SP. It has also been linked with other underlying psychiatry, familial, and sleep disorders. Statistics show that 8% of the general population suffers from SP. Although this value has been described inaccurately, there is no standard definition or etiology to diagnose SP. There are several speculations describing SP in the current literature...
July 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Brandon A Kohrt, Francis G Lu, Emily Y Wu, Devon E Hinton, Neil Krishan Aggarwal, Ranna Parekh, Cécile Rousseau, Roberto Lewis-Fernández
Recent changes in U.S. immigration policies and enforcement have precipitated a 300% rise in arrests and planned deportations. Although some family members face deportation, other family members may have state-sanctioned status. Such mixed status puts hundreds of thousands of families at risk of forced separation and associated mental health problems. Building on cross-cultural work with refugee families and other groups and on work with families separated by parental incarceration, the authors provide recommendations to guide clinicians working with families who are separated or who fear separation...
August 20, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Ivan Crozier
PM Yap's most significant intellectual achievement was his development of the concept of the culture-bound syndrome, which synthesized years of research into transcultural psychiatry, and situated this work within this field by drawing on elaborated nosological schema that challenged some of the ethnocentric assumptions made by previous psychiatrists who had tried to understand mental illnesses that presented in non-western cultures. This introduction to Yap's 1951 paper emphasizes that Yap needs to be understood as working within the western tradition of transcultural psychiatry, and argues that his English training and his continual engagement with western psychiatric and philosophical frameworks is the best way to conceive of his contributions to this field...
September 2018: History of Psychiatry
Chiara Thumiger
This book on ancient medicine offers a unique resource for historians of medicine, historians of psychology, and classicists - and also cultural historians and historians of art. The Hippocratic texts and other contemporary medical sources have often been overlooked when it comes to their approaches to psychology, which are considered more mechanical and less elaborated than contemporary poetic and philosophical representations, but also than later medical works, notably Galenic. This book aims to do justice to early medical accounts by illustrating their richness and sophistication, their links with contemporary cultural products, and the indebtedness of later medicine to their observations...
August 13, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Thomas A Pollak, Belinda R Lennox
It is time that all patients with acute-onset psychosis are screened for autoimmune encephalitis, that lumbar puncture becomes a routine psychiatric investigation and that immunotherapy is available in indicated cases. We call for a culture change in the management of psychosis by psychiatry. Declaration of interest: None.
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Aaron M Bloch, Ezra Gabbay, Samantha F Knowlton, Joseph J Fins
Several socio-cultural factors complicate mental health care in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish population. These include societal stigma, fear of the influence of secular ideas, the need for rabbinic approval of the method and provider, and the notion that excessive concern with the self is counter-productive to religious growth. Little is known about how the religious beliefs of this population might be employed in therapeutic contexts. One potential point of convergence is the Jewish philosophical tradition of introspection as a means toward personal, interpersonal, and spiritual growth...
October 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Ellen B Rubinstein
This article presents an account of how Japanese parents in a family support group for mental illness constructed understandings of care for adult children with serious mental illness, primarily schizophrenia. I build from Janis H. Jenkins's research on the "extraordinary condition" of schizophrenia to discuss "extraordinary care," which parents practiced as a way to refute cultural and clinical beliefs about pathogenic families and degenerative diseases. Parents' accounts of extraordinary care revealed a reliance on biomedical knowledge to treat the symptoms of mental illness coupled with an ongoing determination to improve children's lives beyond what psychiatry could offer...
July 28, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Florian Hotzy, Jeff Kerner, Anke Maatz, Matthias Jaeger, Andres R Schneeberger
Involuntary hospitalization is a frequently discussed intervention physicians must sometimes execute. Because this intervention has serious implications for the citizens' civil liberties it is regulated by law. Every country's health system approaches this issue differently with regard to the relevant laws and the logistical processes by which involuntary hospitalization generally is enacted. This paper aims at analyzing the regulation and process of involuntary hospitalization in New York (United States) and Zurich (Switzerland)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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