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Silvia A Arredondo, Kristian E Swearingen, Thomas Martinson, Ryan Steel, Dorender A Dankwa, Anke Harupa, Nelly Camargo, William Betz, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Brian G Oliver, Niwat Kangwanrangsan, Tomoko Ishino, Noah Sather, Sebastian Mikolajczak, Ashley M Vaughan, Motomi Torii, Robert L Moritz, Stefan H I Kappe
Within the liver, Plasmodium sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the Plasmodium s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sergio Ruiz Santana
In order to make estimations on the evolution and near future of enteral nutrition in critically ill adult patients, we have revised the current clinical practices based on the latest guidelines for the provision and assessment of enteral nutrition support therapy. Once revised the suggested guideline recommendations we proceed to discuss the major recently published studies concerning these guidelines. Finally, we commented on several uncertainty areas highlighting priorities for clinical research in the near future...
April 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Joseph K Eibl, Andrew S Wilton, Alexandra M Franklyn, Paul Kurdyak, David C Marsh
OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepine (BZD) use is common in patients who are engaged in methadone as a treatment for opioid use disorder. BZD prescribing is generally discouraged for this patient population due to the increased risk of BZD dependence and BZD use disorder, medication-assisted treatment (MAT) discontinuation, and opioid-overdose death. However, some patients have concurrent mental health disorders, where BZD use may be clinically indicated. This study evaluates the impact of prescribed BZD on MAT outcomes...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Roxana Surugiu, Daniela Glavan, Mircea Popescu, Otilia Margaritescu, Radu Eugen, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Despite the clinical significance of post-stroke angiogenesis, a detailed phenotypic analysis of pre-stroke vascular remodeling and post-stroke angiogenesis had not yet been done in a model of focal ischemia. In this study, using BrdU-labeling of proliferating cells and immunofluorescence of pre- and post-stroke rats, we found that, (i) BrdU administered before stroke was incorporated preferentially into the nuclei of endothelial cells lining the lumen of existing blood vessels and newly born neurons in the dentate gyrus but not in the subventricular zone or proliferating microglia, (ii) BrdU injection prior to stroke led to the patchy distribution of the newly incorporated endothelial cells into existing blood vessels of the adult rat brain, (iii) BrdU injection prior to stroke specifically labeled neuronal precursors cells in a region of soft tissue beyond the inhibitory scar, which seems to be permissive to regenerative events, (iv) BrdU injection after stroke led to labeling of endothelial cells crossing or detaching from the disintegrating blood vessels and their incorporation into new blood vessels in the stroke region, scar tissue and the region beyond, (v) BrdU injection after stroke led to specific incorporation of BrdU-positive nuclei into the "pinwheel" architecture of the ventricular epithelium, (vi) blood vessels in remote areas relative to the infarct core and in the contralateral non-lesioned cortex, showed co-labeled BrdU/RECA+ endothelial cells shortly after the BrdU injection, which strongly suggests a bone marrow origin of the endothelial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Valerio Ciccone, Erika Terzuoli, Sandra Donnini, Antonio Giachetti, Lucia Morbidelli, Marina Ziche
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a member of aldehyde dehydrogenase family, is a marker of stemness in breast cancer. During tumor progression cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to secrete angiogenic factors to orchestrate the formation of pathological angiogenesis. This vasculature can represent the source of self-renewal of CSCs and the route for further tumor spreading. The aim of the present study has been to assess whether ALDH1A1 controls the output of angiogenic factors in breast cancer cells and regulates tumor angiogenesis in a panel of in vitro and in vivo models...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Lirong Li, Shaohua Ren, Xudong Hao, Zigang Zhen, Hongming Ji
Our aim was to explore the efficacy of minimally invasive intervention in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Seventy patients with ACI were randomized into either an experimental group or a control group. In addition to the regular treatment, patients in the control group also received intravenous thrombolysis with urokinase, while patients in the other group underwent percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting. Metrics included recanalization rate, serum cytokines, fibrinolytic markers and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey score were compared between the two groups...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mark E Cooper, Vlado Perkovic, Per-Henrik Groop, Berthold Hocher, Uwe Hehnke, Thomas Meinicke, Audrey Koitka-Weber, Sandra van der Walt, Maximilian von Eynatten
OBJECTIVE: Concomitant treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is increasingly common. Pharmacological studies have suggested a potential adverse drug interaction between ACE inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors resulting in unfavorable hemodynamic changes; very few studies have examined such an interaction between angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and DPP-4 inhibitors. We investigated blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin in individuals receiving either ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the MARLINA-T2D trial...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Naimi Leitaru, Stef Kremers, Jan Hagberg, Christina Björklund, Lydia Kwak
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between work-stress and physical activity (PA) with sleep quality while controlling for covariates, including social support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among employees of a municipality (n = 2765). Data from respondents (n = 1973) with good/poor sleep quality were included. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using modified Poisson Regression analyses. RESULTS: A significant interaction was observed between job-strain and self-reported health in the explanation of sleep quality...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Monica U Skarin, David A Rice, Peter J McNair, Michal T Kluger
BACKGROUND: Early postoperative mobilisation is important for enhanced recovery, but can be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, characterised by dizziness, nausea, vomiting, feeling of heat, blurred vision and ultimately syncope. Although the incidence of orthostatic intolerance following total hip arthroplasty has been identified, few studies have yet investigated potential risk factors for developing orthostatic intolerance after hip arthroplasty. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of orthostatic intolerance on the first postoperative day after total hip arthroplasty, potential predisposing risk factors for developing orthostatic intolerance and its effect on length of stay...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Roman M Sniecinski, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Linda Shore-Lesserson
We surveyed Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists members regarding anticoagulation practices for cardiopulmonary bypass and attitudes on heparin resistance. Of 550 respondents (18.5% response rate), 74.9% (95% CI, 71.3%-78.5%) used empiric weight-based dosing of heparin, and 70.7% (95% CI, 66.9%-74.5%) targeted an activated clotting time of either 400 or 480 seconds to initiate cardiopulmonary bypass. Of note, 17.1% (95% CI, 13.9%-20.2%) of respondents reported activated clotting time targets lower than those recommended by recent 2018 Society of Thoracic Surgeons/Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists/American Society of Extracorporeal Technology guidelines or failed to monitor heparin effects at all...
December 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ming-Hui Hung, Jin-Shing Chen, Ya-Jung Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on precise anesthesia for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with the goal of enhanced recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: VATS has become an established and widely used minimally invasive approach with broad implementation on a variety of thoracic operations. In the current environment of enhanced recovery protocols and cost containment, minimally invasive VATS operations suggest adoption of individualized tailored, precise anesthesia...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Antônio Zenon Antunes Teixeira
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the sodium content and additive usage in packaged food products targeted at Brazilian children. Commercial database and manufactures' websites were used to identify major brands of child-oriented foods. Samples were categorized as "children's foods" (n = 214) and "infant's foods" (n = 86). Nutrition Facts labels were used to calculate the median Na content (mg/serving, mg/kcal, and mg/100g); the ingredient lists to note the use of food additives...
December 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Junki Mine, Ming-Tsan Liu, Ji-Rong Yang, Masayuki Shirakura, Shinji Watanabe, Takato Odagiri, Takehiko Saito
Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. To date, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been isolated from poultry, mostly chickens, as well as the environment...
December 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jae Ryun Ryu, June Hoan Kim, Hyo Min Cho, Youhwa Jo, Boram Lee, Sunghoon Joo, Uikyu Chae, Yoonkey Nam, Il-Joo Cho, Woong Sun
Neurons reach their correct targets by directional outgrowth of axons, which is mediated by attractive or repulsive cues. Growing axons occasionally cross a field of repulsive cues and stop at intermediate targets on the journey to their final destination. However, it is not well-understood how individual growth cones make decisions, and pass through repulsive territory to reach their permissive target regions. We developed a microcontact printing culture system that could trap individual axonal tips in a permissive dot area surrounded by the repulsive signal, semaphorin 3F (Sema3F)...
December 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Michael Wolgin, Wilhelm Frank, Andrej M Kielbassa
The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical computer-supported assessment concept for the objective evaluation of students' practical skills, and to investigate the assessor-dependent differences by setting tolerance limits applied during the 'glance and grade' evaluation. A sample of 54 conventionally supervised dental undergraduates were given training in the preparation of a macroretentive Class II cavity. The course participants then took a mandatory practical examination. Three (plus one) course instructors performed the visual evaluations of the examination tasks according to predefined assessment criteria, followed by optical impressions (quadrant scan using Omnicam; Cerec; Dentsply Sirona, Wals, Austria) and subsequent assessment of the prepared cavities (tooth 46) using the prepCheck application (Dentsply Sirona)...
2018: International Journal of Computerized Dentistry
Sachin Kumar Gupta, Liming Luo, Laising Yen
One of the hallmarks of cancer is the formation of oncogenic fusion genes as a result of chromosomal translocations. Fusion genes are presumed to form before fusion RNA expression. However, studies have reported the presence of fusion RNAs in individuals who were negative for chromosomal translocations. These observations give rise to "the cart before the horse" hypothesis, in which the genesis of a fusion RNA precedes the fusion gene. The fusion RNA then guides the genomic rearrangements that ultimately result in a gene fusion...
December 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephen Weber, Bernhard Steiner, Amanda Welin, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of a pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The facultative intracellular bacterium employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) and a plethora of translocated "effector" proteins to interfere with host vesicle trafficking pathways and establish a replicative niche, the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). Internalization of the pathogen and the events immediately ensuing are accompanied by host cell-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) lipid changes and the Icm/Dot-controlled conversion of the LCV from a PtdIns(3) P -positive vacuole into a PtdIns(4) P -positive replication-permissive compartment, which tightly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Alba Gonzalez-Junca, Kyla Driscoll, Ilenia Pellicciotta, Shisuo Du, Chen Hao Lo, Ritu Roy, Renate Parry, Iliana Tenvooren, Diana Marquez, Matthew H Spitzer, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an effector of immune suppression and contributes to a permissive tumor microenvironment that compromises effective immunotherapy. We identified a correlation between TGFB1 and genes expressed by myeloid cells, but not granulocytes, in TCGA lung adenocarcinoma data, in which high TGFB1 expression was associated with poor survival. To determine whether TGFβ affected cell fate decisions and lineage commitment, we studied primary cultures of CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors...
December 11, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Christina Gillies, Anna Farmer, Katerina Maximova, Noreen D Willows
AIM: School nutrition policies can improve healthy food access for Indigenous First Nations children in Canada. This study explored First Nations students' perceptions of a school nutrition policy. METHODS: The research was a process evaluation of school nutrition policy implementation using a mixed-methods design. Students in grades 4-12 (n = 94) completed a 17-question survey to capture their perceptions of the policy. Survey data informed an 11-question semi-structured interview guide...
November 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Filipa P Reis, Cátia Bárria, Eduardo López-Viñas, Paulino Gomez-Puertas, Cláudio M Gomes, Cecília M Arraiano
The RNase II family of ribonucleases is ubiquitous and critical for RNA metabolism. The rnb500 allele has been widely used for over 30 years; however, the underlying genetic changes which result in RNase II thermolabile activity remain unknown. Here, we combine molecular and biophysical studies to carry out an in vivo and in vitro investigation of RNase II mutation(s) that confer the rnb500 phenotype. Our findings indicate that RNase II thermolability is due to the Cys284Tyr mutation within the RNB domain, which abolishes activity by increasing protein kinetic instability at the non-permissive temperature...
December 8, 2018: FEBS Letters
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