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Tim C van de Grift, Lian Elfering, Marijke Greijdanus, Jan Maerten Smit, Mark-Bram Bouman, Anne F Klassen, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of gender confirming surgery is best evaluated on the basis of patient-reported outcomes such as appearance satisfaction and health-related quality of life. This is the first explorative study using the BODY-Q chest module, administered in trans men before and after mastectomy. METHODS: Between October 2016 and May 2017, trans men were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Data collection included standardized anamnesis and examination, screening questions on depression/anxiety, and seven BODY-Q scales, including new scales measuring satisfaction of the chest and nipples...
August 7, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Thomas R Vetter, Patrick Schober, Edward J Mascha
To use a diagnostic test effectively and consistently in their practice, clinicians need to know how well the test distinguishes between those patients who have the suspected acute or chronic disease and those patients who do not. Clinicians are equally interested and usually more concerned whether, based on the results of a screening test, a given patient actually: (1) does or does not have the suspected disease; or (2) will or will not subsequently experience the adverse event or outcome. Medical tests that are performed to screen for a risk factor, diagnose a disease, or to estimate a patient's prognosis are frequently a key component of a clinical research study...
August 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Michael W van Emden, Jeroen J Geurts, Patrick Schober, Lothar A Schwarte
BACKGROUND: Manikins are widely used in airway management training; however, simulation of realism and interpatient variability remains a challenge. We investigated whether cadavers embalmed with the novel Fix for Life (F4L) embalmment method are a suitable and realistic model for teaching 3 basic airway skills: facemask ventilation, tracheal intubation, and laryngeal mask insertion compared to a manikin (SimMan 3G) and formalin-fixed cadavers. METHODS: Thirty anesthesiologists and experienced residents ("operators") were instructed to perform the 3 airway techniques in 10 F4L, 10 formalin-fixed cadavers, and 1 manikin...
August 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Pieter-Jan Coenraads, Werner Aberer, Antonio Cristaudo, Thomas Diepgen, Catherine Holden, Lukas Koch, Marie-Louise Schuttelaar, Elke Weisshaar, Anne Fuchs, Kordula Schlotmann, Carsten Goebel, Brunhilde Blömeke, Maya Krasteva
BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis to hair dyes remains a health concern. Regulations in many countries require consumer self-testing for hair dyes, but no standardized procedure exists. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-test protocol for an allergy alert test (AAT) that can elicit a self-noticeable alert signal in p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-allergic consumers. METHODS: Simulating consumer use conditions (open application after mixing with a developer for 45 minutes), PPD-positive hair dye-allergic subjects and PPD-negative control subjects were tested on the forearm and behind the ear with experimental products containing 0...
August 9, 2018: Dermatitis
Wan-Tseng Hsu, Cheng-Hsin Lin, Hsiang-Yiang Jui, Ya-Hsuan Tseng, Chia-Tung Shun, Ming-Chu Hsu, Kenneth Kun-Yu Wu, Chii-Ming Lee
BACKGROUND: CXCR4 blockade is pursued as an alternative to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment in transplantation based on our previous report that burixafor, through CXCR4 antagonism, mobilizes immunomodulatory MSCs. Here, we explored the efficacy of combining mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based immunosuppressants with repetitive burixafor administration. METHODS: Swine heterotopic cardiac allograft recipients received MMF and corticosteroids (control, n = 10) combined with burixafor as a 2-dose (burixafor2D, n = 7) or 2-dose plus booster injections (burixafor2D+B, n = 5) regimen...
August 8, 2018: Transplantation
Savannah Ross, Kristen Eisenman, Kelly W Maloney
Pediatric Burkitt lymphoma has historically been treated with intensive methotrexate-based chemotherapy, which improves patient survival while causing severe toxicities. Young patients typically have better outcomes with intensive therapies, while adults and immunocompromised patients have higher toxicities and worse outcomes. Newer treatment regimens, including etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, rituximab (EPOCH-R), show promise for these patients. However, few studies exist to demonstrate efficacy and improved toxicity profile with EPOCH-R...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Barbara B Brewer, Kathleen M Carley, Marge M Benham-Hutchins, Judith A Effken, Jeffrey Reminga, Michael Kowalchuck
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare information sharing and advice networks' relationships with patient safety outcomes. BACKGROUND: Communication contributes to medical errors, but rarely is it clear what elements of communication are key. METHODS: We investigated relationships of information-sharing and advice networks to patient safety outcomes in 24 patient care units from 3 hospitals over 7 months. Web-based questionnaires completed via Android tablets provided data to create 2 networks using ORA, a social network analysis application...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Lisa M Hillen, Milan S Geybels, Dorit Rennspiess, Ivelina Spassova, Cathrin Ritter, Jürgen C Becker, Marjan Garmyn, Axel Zur Hausen, Joost Van den Oord, Véronique Winnepenninckx
The molecular properties of benign melanocytic lesions are poorly understood. Only a few studies have been carried out on specific nevi subtypes, including common nevocellular nevi (NCN) or Spitz nevi (SN). Genomic alterations in melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent in SN. In the present study, mRNA expressions of 25 SN and 15 NCN were analyzed. Molecular profiling was performed using the RNA NanoString nCounter Gene Expression Platform (number of genes=770). Marker discovery was performed with a training set consisting of seven SN and seven NCN samples from the same patients, and validation was performed using a second set consisting of 18 SN and eight NCN samples...
August 7, 2018: Melanoma Research
Jojanneke J G T van Summeren, Jan Willem Klunder, Gea A Holtman, Boudewijn J Kollen, Marjolein Y Berger, Janny H Dekker
OBJECTIVE: Functional constipation (FC) has a major impact on the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children. The aim of this study was to evaluate parent-child agreement on HRQoL in children (8 to 17 years) with FC in primary care. METHODS: Children diagnosed with FC by their clinician were eligible. HRQoL was measured with the Defecation Disorder List (DDL, score 0-100), and the EuroQol™-5-Dimension-Youth Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D-Y-VAS, scale 0-100)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jennifer Petrillo, Laura Balcer, Steven Galetta, Yi Chai, Lei Xu, Diego Cadavid
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing Nogo receptor-interacting protein 1(LINGO-1 is a key suppressor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and axonal remyelination and regeneration. This analysis evaluated the potential benefit of opicinumab, a human monoclonal antibody against LINGO-1, vs placebo on exploratory clinical endpoints of patient-reported vision-related functioning and high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) in RENEW participants with acute optic neuritis (AON)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Owen D Gustafson, Matthew J Rowland, Peter J Watkinson, Stuart McKechnie, Simon Igo
OBJECTIVES: Identify the prevalence of shoulder impairment in ICU survivors within 6 months of discharge from ICU. Evaluate the impact of shoulder impairment on upper limb functional status in patients treated on an ICU. Identify risk factors for the development of shoulder impairment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary care medical-surgical-trauma ICU at a U.K. hospital over 18 months, with a further 6-month follow-up after hospital discharge...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Pii B Baltzarsen, Jeanette B Georgsen, Patricia S Nielsen, Torben Steiniche, Magnus Stougaard
Telomerase is reactivated in most cancers and is possibly an early driver event in melanoma. Our aim was to test a novel in situ hybridization technique, RNAscope, for the detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and to compare the mRNA expression of melanomas and benign naevi. Furthermore, we wanted to see if hTERT mRNA could be a diagnostic or prognostic marker of melanoma. In situ hybridization for the detection of hTERT mRNA was performed on FFPE tissue of 17 melanomas and 13 benign naevi...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Amelia Fiske, Alena Buyx, Barbara Prainsack
Health care is increasingly data-driven. Concurrently, there are growing concerns that health professionals lack the time and training to guide patients through the growing medical "data jungle." In the age of big data, ever wider domains of people's lives are "datafied," which renders ever more information-at least in principle-usable for health care purposes. Turning data into meaningful information for clinical practice-and deciding what data or information should not be used for this purpose-requires a significant amount of time, resources, and skill...
August 7, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Alexandra E Butler, David Kirakossian, Tatyana Gurlo, Fuying Gao, Giovanni Coppola, Peter C Butler
The pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment has been proposed as a potential stem cell niche based on its coiled tubular structure embedded in mesenchyme, its proliferation and expansion in response to pancreatic injury, and the fact that it contains endocrine and exocrine epithelial cells. Little is known of the molecular signature of the PDG compartment in either a quiescent state or the potentially activated state during beta cell stress characteristic of diabetes. To address this, we performed RNA sequencing on RNA obtained from PDGs of wild type versus pre-diabetic HIP rats, a model of type 2 diabetes...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Nadezhda Golubkina, Erdene Erdenetsogt, Inna Tarmaeva, Odontsetseg Brown, Sambuu Tsegmed
Mongolia is characterized by restricted sources of drinking water and intensive water pollution due to high rates of urbanization, mining industry development, enormous amount of livestock, and ever-growing attempts in domestic production of cereals and vegetables. Among others, Se is the least studied element in Mongolian water resources. Based on fluorimetric method of analysis, the first results on Se levels in drinking water of five aimags, Ulaanbaatar, and Erdenet were obtained. Uneven distribution of Se in Mongolia was manifested, the highest Se concentrations being typical for the southern resources (up to 18,600 μg/L) and the lowest, for the Northern ones (up to 0...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jenny Guido, Britany Telford, Luis E Llerena, Spiros Spiropoulos, Charlotte Huber, Andrew Cross, Michael Brannick
BACKGROUND: The Advanced Trauma Life Support® (ATLS® ) course provides a standard approach to trauma. Participants must pass the ATLS® post-test. We deployed the test online to allow ongoing psychometric item analysis and potential objective refinement. METHODS: A two-phase study was undertaken with the ACS COT permission. In the first phase, ATLS® post-test #2 was computerized and deployed using Qualtrics© . Data were collected from fourteen courses conducted between 2014 and 2015 (n = 306) at one ACS AEI site...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Junjie Zhang, Jun Zhao, Simin Xu, Junhua Li, Shanping He, Yi Zeng, Linshen Xie, Na Xie, Ting Liu, Katie Lee, Gil Ju Seo, Lin Chen, Alex C Stabell, Zanxian Xia, Sara L Sawyer, Jae Jung, Canhua Huang, Pinghui Feng
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes infections in humans and mice, but some non-human primates exhibit resistance via unknown mechanisms. Innate immune recognition pathways are highly conserved but are pivotal in determining susceptibility to DNA virus infections. We report that variation of a single amino acid residue in the innate immune sensor cGAS determines species-specific inactivation by HSV-1. The HSV-1 UL37 tegument protein deamidates human and mouse cGAS. Deamidation impairs the ability of cGAS to catalyze cGAMP synthesis, which activates innate immunity...
August 8, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Celine Lewis, Zahira Latif, Melissa Hill, Megan Riddington, Monica Lakhanpaul, Owen J Arthurs, John C Hutchinson, Lyn S Chitty, Neil J Sebire
BACKGROUND: Perinatal and paediatric autopsy rates are at historically low levels with declining uptake due to dislike of the invasiveness of the procedure, and religious objections particularly amongst Muslim and Jewish parents. Less invasive methods of autopsy including imaging with and without tissue sampling have been shown to be feasible alternatives. We sought to investigate attitudes including religious permissibility and potential uptake amongst members of the Muslim and Jewish communities in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Mehboob Alam, Maaz Khan, Anwarzeb Khan, Shah Zeb, Muhammad Amjad Khan, Noor Ul Amin, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak
The present study was carried out to assess heavy metal concentrations in ready-to-eat vegetables (RTEs) collected from open markets. Samples of RTEs including lettuce, coriander, and carrot were collected from five different local markets of Peshawar, Pakistan including Industrial estate, Board, Agriculture University, Firdos, and Hashtnaghri on four different dates, i.e., 21st March, 04th April, 19th April, and 05th May, 2016. The samples were analyzed through atomic absorption spectrophotometer to see the amount of heavy metals present in them...
August 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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