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Fred Leland McClure, Justin K Niles, Harvey W Kaufman, Jeffrey Gudin
OBJECTIVES: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945-1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers. METHODS: This retrospective study included prescription drug consistency (March-December 2015) and HCV (2011-2015) patient test results performed at a large national clinical reference laboratory...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Fay H Johnston, Farhad Salimi, Grant J Williamson, Sarah B Henderson, Jiayun Yao, Martine Dennekamp, Karen Smith, Michael J Abramson, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Ambulance data provide a useful source of population-based and spatiotemporally resolved information for assessing health impacts of air pollution in non-hospital settings. We used the clinical records of paramedics to quantify associations between PM2.5 and diabetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions commonly managed by those responding to calls for emergency ambulance services. METHODS: We evaluated 394,217 paramedic assessments from three states in Southeastern Australia (population 13...
October 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Rolf F Maier, Béatrice Blondel, Aurélie Piedvache, Bjoern Misselwitz, Stavros Petrou, Patrick Van Reempts, Francesco Franco, Henrique Barros, Janusz Gadzinowski, Klaus Boerch, Arno van Heijst, Elizabeth S Draper, Jennifer Zeitlin
OBJECTIVES: To compare duration and changes over time in length of hospital stay for very preterm and extremely preterm infants in 10 European regions. DESIGN: Two area-based cohort studies from the same regions in 2003 and 2011/2012. SETTING: Ten regions from nine European countries. PATIENTS: Infants born between 22 + 0 and 31 + 6 weeks of gestational age and surviving to discharge (Models of Organising Access to Intensive Care for Very Preterm Births cohort in 2003, n = 4,011 and Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe cohort in 2011/2012, n = 4,336)...
October 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Zachary J Sirois, Sarah M Kreul, Craig F Shank
Management of displaced pediatric radial neck fractures can be fraught with challenges. This unique case presents an 11-year-old female with a Salter-Harris type II radial neck fracture and how her radial head overturned 180° with the articular surface facing the radial shaft rather than the capitellum during closed manipulation under anesthesia. The malreduction subsequently required open reduction and highlights the importance of a careful stepwise approach to managing markedly displaced radial neck fractures...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Romulo Celli, Pei Hui, Hannah Triscott, Sidney Bogardus, Joanna Gibson, Michael Hwang, Marie E Robert
Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a rare condition, usually managed at specialized centers. However, gastroenterologists and pathologists in general practices are often the first to consider a diagnosis of RCD in celiac patients with persistent symptoms. The distinction between type I and type II RCD is crucial as patients with RCD II have a shortened life expectancy. The diagnosis of RCD II requires the demonstration of abnormal intraepithelial lymphocytes and/or monoclonal T-cell populations in duodenal biopsies, typically assessed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Ling Wang, Fu-Biao Kang, Juan Wang, Chao Yang, Dong-Wei He
Our aim was to study the regulatory molecule networks involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and thus promoting the early onset of metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Forty pairs of human TNBC and their adjacent normal breast tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunochemistry to demonstrate the correlation between the miR-205 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. In vitro, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, cell migration, and invasion assay were used to detect the cell growth and invasive ability of TNBC cells after upregulation or downregulation of miR-205 expression...
October 16, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ifrah Sohail, Sumit Ghosh, Santhosh Mukundan, Susan Zelewski, M Nadeem Khan
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Spn ) is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx (NP), causing a variety of infections in humans including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The NP is an immune permissive site which allows for the persistence of commensal bacteria. Acute or chronic respiratory airway inflammation constitutes a significant risk factor for the manifestation of Spn infections. The inflammatory conditions caused by an upper respiratory viral infection or respiratory conditions such as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPDs) are implicated in the dysregulation of airway inflammation and tissue damage, which compromise the respiratory barrier integrity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Judit Zsuga, Csaba E More, Tamas Erdei, Csaba Papp, Szilvia Harsanyi, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Introduction: The term "diseasome of physical inactivity" was coined by Pedersen to explain clustering of chronic diseases linked to physical inactivity. Accordingly, physical inactivity per se contributes to the accumulation of visceral fat, which, generates chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, contributes to emergence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. Diversity of these disorders posits the possible involvement of a supraphysiological system. Methods: Hypothesis driven literature search and deductive reasoning was used to review relevant literature and formulate a novel theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Magdalena Banach-Orłowska, Kamil Jastrzębski, Jarosław Cendrowski, Małgorzata Maksymowicz, Karolina Wojciechowska, Michał Korostyński, Dimitri Moreau, Jean Gruenberg, Marta Miaczynska
Cytokine receptors, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFRI) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), activate inflammatory NF-κB signaling upon stimulation. We previously demonstrated that depletion of ESCRT components leads to endosomal accumulation of TNFRI and LTβR, and their ligand-independent signaling to NF-κB. Here, we studied if other perturbations of the endolysosomal system could trigger intracellular accumulation and signaling of ligand-free LTβR. While depletion of CORVET had no effect, knockdown of HOPS or Rab7, or pharmacological inhibition of lysosomal degradation, caused endosomal accumulation of LTβR and its increased interactions with TRAF2/TRAF3 signaling adaptors...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Sonia R Mayoral, Ainhoa Etxeberria, Yun-An A Shen, Jonah R Chan
Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal signaling is important for oligodendrocyte myelination; however, the necessity of this signaling during development is unclear. By eliminating dynamic neuronal signaling along the developing optic nerve, we find that oligodendrocyte differentiation is not dependent on neuronal signaling and that the initiation of myelination is dependent on a permissive substrate, namely supra-threshold axon caliber. Furthermore, we show that loss of dynamic neuronal signaling results in hypermyelination of axons...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Bence Daniel, Gergely Nagy, Zsolt Czimmerer, Attila Horvath, David W Hammers, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Szilard Poliska, Petros Tzerpos, Zsuzsanna Kolostyak, Tristan T Hays, Andreas Patsalos, René Houtman, Sascha Sauer, Jean Francois-Deleuze, Fraydoon Rastinejad, Balint L Balint, H Lee Sweeney, Laszlo Nagy
Macrophages polarize into distinct phenotypes in response to complex environmental cues. We found that the nuclear receptor PPARγ drove robust phenotypic changes in macrophages upon repeated stimulation with interleukin (IL)-4. The functions of PPARγ on macrophage polarization in this setting were independent of ligand binding. Ligand-insensitive PPARγ bound DNA and recruited the coactivator P300 and the architectural protein RAD21. This established a permissive chromatin environment that conferred transcriptional memory by facilitating the binding of the transcriptional regulator STAT6 and RNA polymerase II, leading to robust production of enhancer and mRNAs upon IL-4 re-stimulation...
October 16, 2018: Immunity
Mariia Novikova, Lucas J Adams, Juan Fontana, Anna T Gres, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Dennis C Winkler, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Ferri Soheilian, Stefan G Sarafianos, Alasdair C Steven, Eric O Freed
Late in the HIV-1 replication cycle, the viral structural protein Gag is targeted to virus assembly sites at the plasma membrane of infected cells. The capsid (CA) domain of Gag plays a critical role in the formation of the hexameric Gag lattice in the immature virion, and, during particle release, CA is cleaved from the Gag precursor by the viral protease and forms the conical core of the mature virion. A highly conserved Pro-Pro-Ile-Pro (PPIP) motif (CA residues 122 to 125) [PPIP(122-125)] in a loop connecting CA helices 6 and 7 resides at a 3-fold axis formed by neighboring hexamers in the immature Gag lattice...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Mohammed M Alqahtani, Lynda T Goodfellow, Ralph D Zimmerman, Gerald S Zavorsky
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe (hookah) smoking is a form of tobacco smoking that is noticeably increasing worldwide, particularly among young adults. A growing body of literature indicates that college students may not be as knowledgeable as they should be in making decisions about waterpipe smoking. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes regarding waterpipe smoking use among college-based health-care students. METHODS: Two instruments were found to be appropriate to the study, and permission was obtained to modify usage in this specific study...
October 16, 2018: Respiratory Care
Carine Claeys, Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekaran, José García-Sicilia, Roman Prymula, Javier Díez-Domingo, Jerzy Brzostek, Josep Marès-Bermúdez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Andrew J Pollard, Renata Růžková, Alfonso Carmona Martinez, Angels Ulied, Mariano Miranda Valdivieso, Saul N Faust, Matthew D Snape, Damien Friel, Thierry Ollinger, Jyoti Soni, Anne Schuind, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Varsha K Jain
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months. METHODS: Children were randomized to two doses of IIV4 or control in the primary phase III study (NCT01439360). One year later, in an open-label revaccination extension study (NCT01702454), a subset of children who received IIV4 in the primary study (primed group) received one IIV4 dose and children who received control in the primary study (unprimed) received two IIV4 doses 28 days apart...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ning A Rosenthal, Kirstin H Heinrich, Jessica Chung, Holly Yu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To assess hospital resource utilization and costs associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection within 180 days post elective posterior instrumented spinal fusion surgeries (index surgery) between 2010-2015. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs) post spinal fusion surgeries are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased costs...
October 15, 2018: Spine
P F Day, E Petherick, J Godson, J Owen, G Douglas
Birth cohort initiatives, such as 'Born in Bradford', provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of socio-economic and environmental factors acting in pregnancy, birth and infancy on the development of dental caries in later life. This paper describes a feasibility study which established the processes required, and outcomes of, successful linkage of oral health data collected by the 2013 three-year-old national dental epidemiology survey with the Born in Bradford birth cohort database. The necessary processes included achieving research permissions and ethical approval; creation of a data sharing agreement; ensuring data security and encrypted data transfer...
October 16, 2018: Community Dental Health
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Grazia Vernaci, Valentina Guarneri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current standard for HER2+ early breast cancer patients includes chemotherapy and trastuzumab for 1 year. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence on escalated treatment strategies for high-risk patients and de-escalated treatments for patients at low risk of relapse or high risk of cardiac toxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results have led to the approval of two adjuvant escalated treatment strategies: pertuzumab and trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy for up to 1 year for high-risk patients; extension of adjuvant anti-HER2 treatment with 1 year of neratinib...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Jackson A Buss, Vadim Baidin, Michael A Welsh, Josué Flores-Kim, Hongbaek Cho, B McKay Wood, Tsuyoshi Uehara, Suzanne Walker, Daniel Kahne, Thomas G Bernhardt
New antibiotics are needed to combat the growing problem of resistant bacterial infections. An attractive avenue towards the discovery of such next generation therapies is to identify novel inhibitors of clinically validated targets like cell wall biogenesis. We have therefore developed a pathway-directed, whole-cell screen for small molecules that block the activity of the Rod system of Escherichia coli This conserved multi-protein complex is required for cell elongation and the morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria...
October 15, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Muhammad Nawaz, Neelam Shah, Bruna Riedo Zanetti, Marco Maugeri, Renata Nacasaki Silvestre, Farah Fatima, Luciano Neder, Hadi Valadi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane enclosed micro- and nano-sized vesicles that are secreted from almost every species, ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and from almost every cell type studied so far. EVs contain repertoire of bioactive molecules such as proteins (including enzymes and transcriptional factors), lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids including DNA, coding and non-coding RNAs. The secreted EVs are taken up by neighboring cells where they release their content in recipient cells, or can sail through body fluids to reach distant organs...
October 13, 2018: Cells
Bahram Choubin, Ehsan Moradi, Mohammad Golshan, Jan Adamowski, Farzaneh Sajedi-Hosseini, Amir Mosavi
Floods, as a catastrophic phenomenon, have a profound impact on ecosystems and human life. Modeling flood susceptibility in watersheds and reducing the damages caused by flooding is an important component of environmental and water management. The current study employs two new algorithms for the first time in flood susceptibility analysis, namely multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA), and classification and regression trees (CART), incorporated with a widely used algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), to create a flood susceptibility map using an ensemble modeling approach...
October 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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