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Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporotrichosis is a neglected, deep-seated fungal infection traditionally associated with Sporothrixschenckii, a dimorphic organism that was first described more than a century ago in human andrat specimens [1].[...].
October 12, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Simon J Tunster, Raquel Boqué-Sastre, Gráinne I McNamara, Susan M Hunter, Hugo D J Creeth, Rosalind M John
Hormones from the fetally derived placenta signal to the mother throughout pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth and prepare the mother for her new role in nurturing her offspring. Through evolution, placental hormones have under gone remarkable diversification and species-specific expansions thought to be due to constant rebalancing of resource allocation between mother and offspring. Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic process in which parental germlines silence genes in the offspring, is thought to be the physical embodiment of a second conflicting interest, between the male and female mammal...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Timm Intemann, Idoia Labayen, Ana B Peinado, Josep Vidal-Conti, Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi, Diego Moliner-Urdiales, Manuel A Rodriguez Perez, Jorge Cañete Garcia-Prieto, Jorge Del Rosario Fernández-Santos, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Marie Löf, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega
OBJECTIVES: Reference values are necessary for classifying children, for health screening, and for early prevention as many non-communicable diseases aggravate during growth and development. While physical fitness reference standards are available in children aged 6 and older, such information is lacking in preschool children. Therefore, the purposes of this study were (1) to provide sex-and age-specific physical fitness reference standards for Spanish preschool children; and (2) to study sex differences across this age period and to characterise fitness performance throughout the preschool period...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Samik Bhattacharya, Sara Mayland-Quellhorst, Caroline Müller, Klaus Mummenhoff
Fruit dimorphism and the production of glucosinolates (GSLs) are two specific life-history traits found in the members of Brassicales, which aid to optimize seed dispersal and defense against antagonists, respectively. We hypothesized that the bipartite dispersal strategy demands a tight control over the production of fruit morphs with expectedly differential allocation of defensive anticipins (GSLs). In dimorphic Aethionema, herbivory by Plutella xylostella at a young stage triggered the production of more dehiscent (seeds released from fruit) than indehiscent fruit morphs (seeds enclosed within persistent pericarp) on the same plant upon maturity...
October 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Joseph R Knoedler, Nirao M Shah
A long-standing goal in developmental neuroscience is to understand the mechanisms by which steroid sex hormones pattern the mammalian central nervous system along male or female pathways to enable subsequent displays of sexually dimorphic behaviors. In this article, we review recent advances in understanding the epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms mediating sexual differentiation of the brain in mammals, flies, and worms. These studies suggest a model of sexual differentiation wherein master regulators of sex determination initiate a cascade of sexually dimorphic gene expression that controls development of neural pathways and behavioral displays in a strikingly modular manner...
October 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
G Singh, V Singh, J S Schneider
Sex differences in the risk for and expression of various brain disorders have been known for some time. Yet, the molecular underpinnings of these sex differences as well as how sex modifies normal brain development are still poorly understood. It has recently become known that epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in establishing and maintaining sex differences in neurodevelopment and disease susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histones (histone PTMs) integrate various hormonal and external environmental influences to affect genomic output, and this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Lucia Buccarello, Clara Alice Musi, Arianna Turati, Tiziana Borsello
Pathological Tau (P-Tau) leads to dementia and neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. The P301L transgenic mice well mimic human tauopathy features; P-Tau localizes also at the dendritic spine level and this correlates with synaptic markers down-regulation. Importantly, tg female present a more severe pathology compared to male mice. We describe JNK activation in P301L-tg mice, characterizing by P-JNK and P-c-Jun, cleaved-Caspase-3, P-PSD95 and P-Tau (direct JNK-targets) increased levels in tg vs control mice...
October 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Aastha Pokharel, SriDurgaDevi Kolla, Klara Matouskova, Laura N Vandenberg
The CD-1 mouse mammary gland is sexually dimorphic, with males lacking nipples. Recent studies have revealed that the underlying epithelium in the male mammary gland is sensitive to estrogenic environmental chemicals. In ongoing investigations, we observed asymmetric morphology in the left and right male mouse mammary glands. Here, we quantified these asymmetries in the embryonic, prepubertal, pubertal and adult male mammary gland. We found that the right gland was typically larger with more branching points compared to the left gland...
October 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ke-Feng Wang, Chen Guo, Fang Ju, Nadia A Samak, Guo-Qiang Zhuang, Chun-Zhao Liu
As the first fungal quorum sensing molecule, farnesol-induced morphological transition is usually studied in dimorphic fungi, but in basidiomycetes the morphological changes regulated by farnesol are rarely investigated. In this study, we found that farnesol made the basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor develop into a hyperbranched morphology with short hyphae and bulbous tips. Farnesol treatment resulted in a significant increase of intracellular oxidative stress level, which influenced the expression of several morphogenesis-related genes, and thereby led to the morphological changes...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dacotah Melicher, Kathy F Y Su, Rudolf Meier, Julia H Bowsher
BACKGROUND: The males of some sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera) have abdominal appendages that are remarkable in several ways. They are sexually dimorphic, have a complex evolutionary history of gain and loss, and can be jointed and thus highly mobile. The sternite brushes are used extensively in complex courtship behaviors that differ considerably between species and during mating. The abdominal appendages have a novel developmental pathway developing from histoblast nests rather than imaginal discs...
October 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Kambiz Minaei, Lida Fekrat, Laurence Mound
Neoheegeria astragali sp.n. is described as the first known member of this genus to exhibit wing-dimorphism. Collected on Astragalus sp. [Fabaceae] in Iran, it is also unique among Neoheegeria species in having the tube unusually short. Neoheegeria sinaitica is recorded from Iran for the first time, and an illustrated key is provided to the five species of Neoheegeria. Wing reduction among Haplothripini is discussed briefly, and it is concluded that most species of Neoheegeria are associated with species of Astragalus...
August 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Aparna Kalawate, Oliver Hillert
The genus Bolboceras Kirby, 1819 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae: Bolboceratinae: Bolboceratini) currently contains more than 20 species, which are distributed from Lebanon in the Palaearctic region and eastern Africa through Pakistan, India, and Myanmar in the Oriental Region (Král et al. 2006; Krikken 2011, 2013a, 2013b; Nikolajev et al. 2016; Gupta Chandra 2016a, 2016b). Krikken (2013a, 2013b) and Gupta Chandra (2016a, 2016b) conducted recent taxonomic studies on the Oriental members of the genus. Species groups can be identified using the following characters: the shape of laterally rounded eye canthus with anterior protrusion, presence of interocular ridge, quadrituberculate pronotum, medially marginate pronotal base, elytral stria 1 not reaching the base, mesocoxae separated by a simple (non-hooked) meso-metaventral process, lack of grooves on outer side of last lamella of antennal club and limited sexual dimorphism (Krikken 2013a)...
August 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Zi-Wei Yin, Gu-Chun Zhou
Two new cavernicolous pselaphines, Araneibatrus curvitibialis Yin and Zhou, sp. n. and Tribasodites biyun Yin and Zhou, sp. n., are described from southern China, with diagnostic characters illustrated. Both new species can be readily distinguished from their respective congeners by the male dimorphic features on the antennae, legs, and (or) metaventrite, as well as by the configurations of the aedeagi.
August 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Adriano B Kury, Glauco Machado
Lomanius annae sp. nov. is described from southern Vietnam. The species is characterized by the greatly developed dorso-basal process on cheliceral hand of males and by the partial effacement of all mesotergal grooves. The genus Lomanius contains four generic synonyms and currently comprises eight valid species distributed in China, Java, peninsular Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. The new species displays a general morphology similar to the former genus Paralomanius, with a combination of sexually dimorphic interocular mound (which is very large and strongly leaned back in males) and pedipalpus (which is extremely elongate in males)...
June 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Tridip Kumar Datta, Moumita Bhowmik, Amalesh Choudhury
A new species, Cobbia bengalensis sp. nov., of free-living marine nematodes is described from an island of Sundarban, Indian coast and compared with other eight valid species of the genus. Cobbia bengalensis sp. nov. is characterized and differentiated from the others by a unique combination of sexually dimorphic tail, arrangement of anterior sensilla, amphid position, presence of four subcephalic sensilla at the level of amphid, buccal cavity with one dorsal and two subventral teeth, elongated cardia and the shape of gubernaculum...
July 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Brittany N Damron, Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha, Stuart J Longhorn
A new species, Eucynorta rooneyi sp. nov. (Opiliones, Cosmetidae), is described from Parque Nacional Cusuco, Cortés, Honduras, a tropical montane cloud forest habitat. This is the thirty-fifth species of Eucynorta Roewer, 1912, and is characterized by the combination of three sexually dimorphic characters in males: enlarged chelicerae, some armature on femur III and IV, and swollen basitarsi on leg I. This new species is distinct from other Eucynorta species due to its unique pattern of yellow markings on area I of the dorsal scutum, and unarmed free tergites with line markings...
July 23, 2018: Zootaxa
Yadong Zhou, Yueyun Wang, Dongsheng Zhang, Chunsheng Wang
A new species of Branchinotogluma, found at two hydrothermal vent fields on Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, is described herein. It can be distinguished from its congeners by the small acicular lobe on the tentacular segment, the stout smooth notochaetae, 5 pairs of dorsal and ventral papillae surrounding the pharynx, 2 pairs of long ventral papillae and 4 pairs of ventral lamellae on males, and modified parapodia on posterior segments. Sexual dimorphism is also reported in the new species, as male and female individuals display differences in characters on the ventral papillae and posterior segments...
September 19, 2018: Zootaxa
Andrei V Grischenko, Dennis P Gordon, Viacheslav P Melnik
This work describes Bryozoa of the orders Cyclostomata and Ctenostomata found associated with polymetallic nodules collected by box-coring in the eastern part of the Russian exploration area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) under contract to Yuzhmorgeologiya. Scanning electron microscopic study of 358 cyclostome colonies and 14 ctenostome colonies from 4510-5280 m depth has resulted in the recognition of two new species of Ctenostomata, and 14 new species, nine new genera and two new families of Cyclostomata; three additional species of Cyclostomata are left in open nomenclature pending the discovery of missing reproductive characters...
September 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Anil Kumar Dubey
Puparia of a new whitefly genus and species, Aleuroparvus theae Dubey gen. et sp. nov. are described along with drawings, habitus and type images of habitus and types, and scanning electron microscope microphotographs. It is found infesting an economically important plant, Assam tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) (Theaceae) in Assam, and Cinnamomum bejolghota (Hamilton) (Lauraceae) in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Puparia of A. theae are dimorphic, the females being larger than males. The puparia of the new genus differ from all other genera in having smaller ventral surface, submarginal wax secreting pores and dorsal submargin separated from the dorsal disc by a submarginal ridge...
September 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Katiane M Ferreira, Érika de Faria, Alexandre C Ribeiro, JÚlio C O Santana, Irani Quagio-Grassioto, NaÉrcio A Menezes
Gephyrocharax machadoi, new species, is described from tributaries of the rio Sepotuba, upper rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except Gephyrocharax major, by presenting two modified scales on the ventral caudal-fin lobe (pouch scales): a larger, sexually dimorphic scale, slightly superior and anterior in position, followed by a smaller, posterior and ventrally placed accessory scale (vs. a single modified pouch scale without ventrally placed accessory scales)...
April 27, 2018: Zootaxa
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