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Liliana M Dávalos, Winston C Lancaster, Miguel S Núñez-Novas, Yolanda M León, Bonnie Lei, Jon Flanders, Amy L Russell
Determining the processes responsible for phenotypic variation is one of the central tasks of evolutionary biology. While the importance of acoustic traits for foraging and communication in echolocating mammals suggests adaptation, the seldom-tested null hypothesis to explain trait divergence is genetic drift. Here we derive FST values from multi-locus coalescent isolation-with-migration models, and couple them with estimates of quantitative trait divergence, or PST , to test drift as the evolutionary process responsible for phenotypic divergence in island populations of the Pteronotus parnellii species complex...
August 17, 2018: Heredity
Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Masato Nakatsukasa, Hiroshi Tsujikawa, Yoshihiko Nakano, Yutaka Kunimatsu, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Tomo Takano, Hideo Nakaya, Yoshihiro Sawada, Hidemi Ishida
Sexual size dimorphism in the African fossil ape Proconsul nyanzae (18 million years ago, 18 Ma) has been previously documented. However, additional evidence for sexual dimorphism in Miocene hominoids can provide great insight into the history of extant hominoid mating systems. The present study focused on body mass (BM) sexual dimorphism in Nacholapithecus kerioi from the Middle Miocene (16-15 Ma) in Africa. Bootstrap analysis revealed that P. nyanzae BM sexual dimorphism was lower than that in Pan troglodytes, which exhibits moderate sexual dimorphism, as reported previously...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Yongrong Ji, Changxin Lai, Lixu Gu, Xianqun Fan
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study was to establish a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system and to study the normal dimensions of intra-orbital structures in Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-five adult Chinese were selected from patients who had undergone cranio-facial computed tomography scans with diagnosis other than orbital or ocular abnormality. An orbital 3D coordinate system was built on the basis of the scans. Morphological variables of intra-orbital structures were measured in this coordinate system...
August 17, 2018: Current Eye Research
Rekha P Mangalore, Michael A Moso, Katie Cronin, Katrina Young, James H McMahon
Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH), an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. A patient with newly-diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with a violaceous, raised, indurated, pruritic rash over the face, arms and trunk on a background of significant weight loss, fevers with sweats, diarrhoea and worsening shortness of breath. His CD4+ T cell count was 14 cells/µl (12%). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed from histology, fungal stain and culture of skin biopsy...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Cheryl D Bushnell, Seemant Chaturvedi, Kathy R Gage, Paco S Herson, Patricia D Hurn, Monik C Jiménez, Steven J Kittner, Tracy E Madsen, Louise D McCullough, Mollie McDermott, Mathew J Reeves, Tatjana Rundek
Biologic sex influences many variables that are important to brain health in general, and to stroke or cerebral ischemia in particular, such as general health status, cerebrovascular anatomy and function, unique risk factors such as pregnancy and preeclampsia, symptomatology, and therapeutic response. A more complete understanding of the scale and depth of sexual dimorphism in the brain and the role of more general sex-based factors is crucial to reducing the burden of stroke in women and men. This focused review highlights recent findings in stroke, including sex differences in epidemiology, risk factor reduction, comparative use of stroke therapeutics in both sexes, the importance of frailty in women, and the biologic basis for sex differences in stroke...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Jegen Kandasamy, Kalsang Dolma, Manimaran Ramani, Ranjit Kumar, Landon Wilson, Zubair H Aghai, Stephen Barnes, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is not well understood. We previously identified differences in the airway microbiome at birth between preterm infants who were BPD-predisposed versus those who were BPD-resistant. In this study, we attempted to identify mechanisms by which the airway microbiome could modify the risk for BPD. We used a software-based method to predict the metagenome of the tracheal aspirate (TA) microbiome from 16s rRNA sequencing data in preterm infants and to identify functional ortholog genes that were differentially abundant in BPD-predisposed and BPD-resistant infants...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease where improper glycaemic control may induce severe complications in different organs. In this review, we will discuss alterations occurring in peripheral and central nervous system of patients with type 1 (i.e., insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,) or type 2 diabetes (i.e., non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), as well as related experimental models. A particular focus will be on the role exerted by neuroactive steroids (i.e., important regulators of nervous functions) in the nervous damage induced by diabetes...
August 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Molly M Hyer, Linda L Phillips, Gretchen N Neigh
Notable sex-differences exist between neural structures that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors such as reproduction and parenting. While anatomical differences have been well-characterized, advancements in neuroimaging and pharmacology techniques have allowed researchers to identify differences between males and females down to the level of the synapse. Disparate mechanisms at the synaptic level contribute to sex-specific neuroplasticity that is reflected in sex-dependent behaviors. Many of these synaptic differences are driven by the endocrine system and its impact on molecular signaling and physiology...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Alexis Arenz, Tiffanie Tran, Kristina Koyama, Astrid Marin Gomez, Ajna Rivera
Euphilomedes carcharodonta ostracods exhibit sex-specific eye-loss, with females lacking image-forming compound eyes compared to males and related species. The standard assumption is that sexual dimorphism is driven by sexual selection. However, previous work in E. carcharodonta suggests that male eyes are used to evade predators in the male-specific ecological niche, and that male-eyes lack the resolution to search for females. In this study, we examine whether sexual selection or ecological selection drives the retention of male eyes...
August 10, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Irene A Burger, Christine Lohmann, Michael Messerli, Susan Bengs, Anton Becker, Monika Maredziak, Valerie Treyer, Ahmed Haider, Moritz Schwyzer, Dominik C Benz, Ken Kudura, Michael Fiechter, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Tobias A Fuchs, Christoph Gräni, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann, Catherine Gebhard
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in cardiac sympathetic outflow has recently gained attention in the context of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Previous studies suggest that there are sex- and age-dependent differences in peripheral autonomic control, however, data on cardiac-specific sympathetic activation in aged women and men are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Regional quantitative analysis of cardiac fluorine-18 (18F)- Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) uptake was retrospectively performed in 133 patients (69 females, mean age 52...
2018: PloS One
Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L Haggerty, Roberta B Ness, David M Hougaard, Kristin Skogstrand, James M Roberts, Jørn Olsen
PROBLEM: A handful of studies report sexual dimorphism in the maternal angiogenic profile possibly influencing placental development and preeclampsia risk. This secondary analysis explored associations between fetal sex and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT) and endoglin (9-35 weeks gestation) using data from a nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHOD OF STUDY: A total of 448 preeclamptic women and 328 normotensive women had data on sFLT and endoglin...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Hwajin Jung, Haram Park, Yeonsoo Choi, Hyojin Kang, Eunee Lee, Hanseul Kweon, Junyeop Daniel Roh, Jacob Ellegood, Woochul Choi, Jaeseung Kang, Issac Rhim, Su-Yeon Choi, Mihyun Bae, Sun-Gyun Kim, Jiseok Lee, Changuk Chung, Taesun Yoo, Hanwool Park, Yangsik Kim, Seungmin Ha, Seung Min Um, Seojung Mo, Yonghan Kwon, Won Mah, Yong Chul Bae, Hyun Kim, Jason P Lerch, Se-Bum Paik, Eunjoon Kim
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are four times more common in males than in females, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We characterized sexually dimorphic changes in mice carrying a heterozygous mutation in Chd8 (Chd8+/N2373K ) that was first identified in human CHD8 (Asn2373LysfsX2), a strong ASD-risk gene that encodes a chromatin remodeler. Notably, although male mutant mice displayed a range of abnormal behaviors during pup, juvenile, and adult stages, including enhanced mother-seeking ultrasonic vocalization, enhanced attachment to reunited mothers, and isolation-induced self-grooming, their female counterparts do not...
August 13, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ryan N Montalvo, Brittany R Counts, James A Carson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We highlight evidence for sexual dimorphism in preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cause and treatment of cancer cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cachexia is unintended bodyweight loss occurring with cancer, and skeletal muscle wasting is a critical predictor of negative outcomes in the cancer patient. Skeletal muscle exhibits sexual dimorphism in fiber type, function, and regeneration capacity. Sex differences have been implicated in skeletal muscle metabolism, mitochondrial function, immune response to injury, and myogenic stem cell regulation...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Larissa V G Longo, Stephanie C Ray, Rosana Puccia, Chad A Rappleye
The fungal APSES protein family of transcription factors is characterized by a conserved DNA-binding motif facilitating regulation of gene expression in fungal development and other biological processes. However, their functions in the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum are unexplored. H. capsulatum switches between avirulent hyphae in the environment and virulent yeasts in mammalian hosts. We identified five APSES domain-containing proteins in H. capsulatum homologous to Swi6, Mbp1, Stu1, and Xbp1 proteins and one protein found in related Ascomycetes (APSES-family protein 1; Afp1)...
August 7, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Madhurendra Singh, Laura Bergmann, Alexander Lang, Katja Pexa, Fabian Kuck, Dennis Stibane, Linda Janke, Hakima Ezzahoini, Antje Lindecke, Constanze Wiek, Helmut Hanenberg, Karl Köhrer, Charlotte von Gall, Hans Reinke, Roland P Piekorz
The albumin D-box binding protein (DBP) is a member of the PAR bZip (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family and functions as important regulator of circadian core and output gene expression. Gene expression of DBP itself is under the control of E-box-dependent binding by the Bmal1-Clock heterodimer and CRE-dependent binding by the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). However, the signaling mechanism mediating CREB-dependent regulation of DBP expression in the peripheral clock remains elusive...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Florin Mircea Iliescu, George Chaplin, Niraj Rai, Guy S Jacobs, Chandana Basu Mallick, Anshuman Mishra, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Nina G Jablonski
OBJECTIVES: Skin color is a highly visible and variable trait across human populations. It is not yet clear how evolutionary forces interact to generate phenotypic diversity. Here, we sought to unravel through an integrative framework the role played by three factors-demography and migration, sexual selection, and natural selection-in driving skin color diversity in India. METHODS: Skin reflectance data were collected from 10 diverse socio-cultural populations along the latitudinal expanse of India, including both sexes...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Shelby Scott, Tanya R Peckmann, Mandi Amanda Alblas
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate the influence of environmental and functional factors associated with biological affinity and musculature on sexual dimorphism of the clavicle, and to develop population-specific methods of sex estimation from the clavicle. METHODS: The maximum length of the clavicle (MAXL), the sagittal diameter of the clavicle (SAGD), and the vertical diameter of the clavicle (VERD) were measured. The left clavicles of 198 South African coloured individuals (108 males and 90 females) were examined...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Xiaoming Yu, Keji Miao, Changsheng Zhou, Yuelin Cai, Xiaoying Huang, Yanfan Chen, Mayun Chen, Hui Cai, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus that often causes fatal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although T. marneffei-infected cases have been increasingly reported among non-HIV-infected patients in recent years, no cases of T. marneffei infection have been reported in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. In this case, we describe a T. marneffei infection in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis...
August 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yuhao Zhang, Xiaoyu Dong, Jasmine Shirazi, Jason P Gleghorn, Krithika Lingappan
Abnormal pulmonary vascular development is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of BPD, the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Exposure to high concentration of oxygen (hyperoxia) contributes to BPD and creates a pro-fibrotic environment in the lung. Our objective was to elucidate the sex-specific differences in neonatal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) in normoxic and hyperoxic conditions including propensity for endothelial to mesenchymal transition...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lino Arisqueta, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Ibone Labiano, Yuri Rueda, Olatz Fresnedo
High fat diet (HFD) feeding or leptin deficient mice are extensively used as models resembling features of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concurrence of experimental factors as fat content and source or total caloric intake leads to prominent differences in the development of the hepatic steatosis and related disturbances. In this work, we characterized the hepatic lipid accumulation induced by HFD in wild type (Wt) and ob/ob mice with the purpose of differentiating adaptations to HFD from those specific of increased overfeeding due to leptin deficiency-associated hyperphagia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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