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Matjaž Kuntner, Chris A Hamilton, Ren-Chung Cheng, Matjaž Gregoric, Nik Lupše, Tjaša Lokovšek, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Ingi Agnarsson, Jonathan A Coddington, Jason E Bond
Instances of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) provide the context for rigorous tests of biological rules of size evolution, such as Cope's Rule (phyletic size increase), Rensch's Rule (allometric patterns of male and female size), as well as male and female body size optima. In certain spider groups, such as the golden orbweavers (Nephilidae), extreme female-biased SSD (eSSD, female:male body length ≥ 2) is the norm. Nephilid genera construct webs of exaggerated proportions, which can be aerial, arboricolous, or intermediate (hybrid)...
December 4, 2018: Systematic Biology
Renata Prado Vasconcelos, Milena Simões Peixoto, Keciany Alves de Oliveira, Andrea C F Ferreira, Andrelina Souza, Denise P Carvalho, Ariclecio Cunha de Oliveira, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato
The development of obesity related-metabolic disorders is more evident in male in comparison to female subjects, but the mechanisms are unknown. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, but the majority of them were performed in male animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sex-related differences in the subcutaneous adipose tissue redox homeostasis and inflammation of rats chronically fed a high fat diet. NADPH oxidase (NOX), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were evaluated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SC) of adult male and female rats fed either a standard chow (SCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 11 weeks...
December 5, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lily J Doershuk, Jaap P P Saers, Colin N Shaw, Tea Jashashvili, Kristian J Carlson, Jay T Stock, Timothy M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: This project investigates trabecular bone structural variation in the proximal humerus and femur of hunter-gatherer, mixed-strategy agricultural, medieval, and human groups to address three questions: (a) What is the extent of trabecular bone structural variation in the humerus and femur between populations with different inferred activity levels? (b) How does variation in the proximal humerus relate to variation in the proximal femur? (c) Are trabecular bone microstructural variables sexually dimorphic? METHODS: The proximal humerus and femur of 73 adults from five human groups with distinct subsistence strategies were scanned using a micro-computed tomography system...
January 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
R Brito, A Specht, G L Gonçalves, G R P Moreira, E Carneiro, F L Santos, V F Roque-Specht, O H H Mielke, M M Casagrande
Spodoptera marima (Schaus, 1904) and Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852) are noctuid moths recognized for their economic importance in the New World. Historically, they have been considered cryptic species, being supposedly differentiated from each other by the absence of sexual dimorphism in S. marima, subtle differences in coloration on the hindwings and scale tufts of the ovipositor and the shape of male valva. The species are allopatric: North and Central America for S. ornithogalli and South America for S...
December 4, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Simone L Otto, Jerrel L Yakel
Disruption in cholinergic signaling has been linked to many environmental and/or pathological conditions known to modify adult neurogenesis. The α7 nAChRs are in the family of cys-loop receptor channels which have been shown to be neuroprotective in adult neurons and are thought to be critical for survival and integration of immature neurons. However, in developing neurons, poor calcium buffering may cause α7 nAChR activation to be neurotoxic. To investigate whether the α7 nAChR regulates neurogenesis in the hippocampus, we used a combination of mouse genetics and imaging to quantify neural stem cell (NSC) densities located in the dentate gyrus of adult mice...
December 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Martha Legorreta-Herrera, Karen E Nava-Castro, Margarita I Palacios-Arreola, Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes, Jesús Aguilar-Castro, Luis A Cervantes-Candelas, Jorge Morales-Montor
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the major complication associated with death in malaria patients, and its pathogenesis is associated with excessive proinflammatory cytokine production. Notably, the severity and mortality of natural infections with Plasmodium are higher in males than females, suggesting that sexual hormones influence both the pathogenesis of and immune response in CM. However, no studies on inflammation mediators in the brains of both sexes have been reported. In this work, the mRNA expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , IFN- γ , TNF- α , and IL-2 were measured in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, and lateral cortex regions of gonadectomized female and male CBA/Ca mice infected with P...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Carl van der Linden, Susanne Jakob, Pooja Gupta, Catherine Dulac, Stephen W Santoro
Within the mammalian olfactory sensory epithelium, experience-dependent changes in the rate of neuronal turnover can alter the relative abundance of neurons expressing specific chemoreceptors. Here we investigate how the mouse olfactory sensory receptor repertoire changes as a function of exposure to odors emitted from members of the opposite sex, which are highly complex and sexually dimorphic. Upon housing mice either sex-separated or sex-combined until six months of age, we find that sex-separated mice exhibit significantly more numerous differentially expressed genes within their olfactory epithelia...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Charles H Lang
Previous studies indicate women have a higher blood alcohol (i.e., ethanol) and acetaldehyde concentration after consuming an equivalent amount of alcohol, and that women are more susceptible to the long-term negative health effects of alcohol. However, there is a paucity of data pertaining to whether there is a sexual dimorphic response in skeletal muscle to alcohol. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and the primary endpoint was in vivo determined muscle (gastrocnemius) protein synthesis (MPS)...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Yanzhu Fan, Xizi Yue, Fei Xue, Jianguo Cui, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Guangzhan Fang
Sex differences in both vocalization and auditory processing have been commonly found in vocal animals, although the underlying neural mechanisms associated with sexual dimorphism of auditory processing are not well understood. In this study we investigated whether auditory perception exhibits sexual dimorphism in Xenopus laevis To do this we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by white noise (WN) and conspecific calls in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon respectively. Results showed that (1) the N1 amplitudes evoked in the right telencephalon and right diencephalon of males by WN are significantly different from those evoked in females; (2) in males the N1 amplitudes evoked by conspecific calls are significantly different from those evoked by WN; (3) in females the N1 amplitude for the left mesencephalon was significantly lower than for other brain areas, while the P2 and P3 amplitudes for the right mesencephalon were the smallest; in contrast these amplitudes for the left mesencephalon were the smallest in males...
December 3, 2018: Biology Open
Xoaquín Moreira, Colleen S Nell, Maria M Meza-Lopez, Sergio Rasmann, Kailen A Mooney
Plants are able to adjust their anti-herbivore defenses in response to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by herbivore-damaged neighbors, and some of these changes increase resistance against subsequent herbivory. This phenomenon of plant-plant communication is thought to be widespread, but recent investigations have cautioned that it can be context dependent, including variation in the strength of communication based on the identity of plants and their associated herbivores. Here, we performed three greenhouse experiments using multiple male and female genotypes of the dioecious woody shrub Baccharis salicifolia and its specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai to test for specificity of plant-plant communication with respect to plant sex and genotype...
December 2018: Ecology
Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Verônica Priscila da Silva, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão, Evaldo Martins Pires, Marco Antonio Oliveira
Atta bisphaerica (Forel) is a leaf-cutting ant that specializes on grass and causes productivity losses in sugar cane fields and pastures. Three phorid species, Apocephalus attophilus (Borgmeier), Myrmosicarius grandicornis (Borgmeier) and Eibesfeldtphora bragancai (Brown), have been found parasitizing A. bisphaerica workers. These parasitoids can reduce plant material transported into the nests and ant traffic on the trails. Therefore, phorid flies have been considered potential biological control agents for leaf-cutting ants...
2018: PloS One
Julie B Linden, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio, Lynne A Isbell
Sexual dimorphism in body size, aggression, and dispersal patterns may affect the degree to which males and females perceive aggression from either sex as stressful. Whereas male macaques typically disperse to new groups at maturity, thus encountering many unfamiliar individuals of both sexes, females are philopatric, usually only encountering unfamiliar males who transfer into their natal groups. In rare circumstances, however, group fusions can expose both males and females to many novel individuals, which often increases aggression...
November 30, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Xiuyun Yuan, Yun Xia, Xiaomao Zeng
Background: In the general model of sex chromosome evolution for diploid dioecious organisms, the Y (or W) chromosome is derived, while the homogametic sex presumably represents the ancestral condition. However, in the frog species Quasipaa boulengeri , heteromorphisms caused by a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 6 are not related to sex, because the same heteromorphic chromosomes are found both in males and females at the cytological level. To confirm whether those heteromorphisms are unrelated to sex, a sex-linked locus was mapped at the chromosomal level and sequenced to identify any haplotype difference between sexes...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Francisco José Amo-Setién, César Leal-Costa, Rebeca Abajas-Bustillo, Domingo González-Lamuño, Carlos Redondo-Figuero
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. INTRODUCTION: The muscle strength has been studied in different populations in relation with individual and other factors. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to determine values of grip strength in adolescents and to examine its association with sex, age, weight, height, nutritional status, handedness, and academic performance. METHODS: A total of 452 adolescents (246 men and 206 women) aged 12 to 17 years were included in the study...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Sandra Duharcourt, Linda Sperling
We present here methods to study a eukaryotic microorganism with two nuclear genomes, both originating from the same zygotic genome. Paramecium, like other ciliates, is characterized by nuclear dimorphism, which is the presence of two types of nuclei with distinct organization and functions in the same cytoplasm. The two diploid germline micronuclei (MIC) undergo meiosis and fertilization to transmit the genetic information across sexual generations. The highly polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC) contains a reduced version of the genome optimized for gene expression...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Carolina Tropea, Sabrina María Luisa Lavarías, Laura Susana López Greco
The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of male presence on ovarian maturation in juvenile females and the role of potential chemical, visual and tactile cues emitted by males in that physiological process. A highly gregarious caridean shrimp with sexual dimorphism, Neocaridina davidi, was used as experimental model. We tested the hypothesis that male presence accelerates ovarian maturation, mainly through chemical cues. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, juvenile females were reared with adult males, adult females or alone, allowing full contact among shrimps...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Firas Alsoleihat, Farah A Al-Omari, Ayat R Al-Sayyed, Ayah A Al-Asmar, Ameen Khraisat
Accurate information regarding the horizontal location and size of mental foramen (MF) has a well-known clinical importance. In addition, these variables have been reported to exhibit inter-population variation. The aims of the present study were to study the horizontal position and size of MF, as seen on cone beam CT (CBCT) images, and to assess sexual dimorphism in these variables. Total of 139 CBCT images of a random Jordanian sample (50 males, 89 females, average age = 43.5, SD = 13.0, range = 23-69 years) were included...
November 24, 2018: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
E A A Christou, A Banos, D Kosmara, G K Bertsias, D T Boumpas
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by aberrant production of auto-antibodies and a sexual dimorphism both in the phenotypic expression and frequency of the disease between males and females. The striking female predominance was initially attributed primarily to sex hormones. However, recent data challenge this simplistic view and point more towards genetic and epigenetic factors accounting for this difference. More specifically, several SLE-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to play an important role in the gender predilection in SLE...
December 1, 2018: Lupus
Huasong Peng, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Herein, we reviewed laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) along with their health-related biological risks to provide an evidence base to tackle biosafety/biosecurity and biocontainment issues. Over the past years, a broad spectrum of pathogenic agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, or genetically modified organisms, have been described and gained a substantial concern due to their profound biological as well as ecological risks. Furthermore, the emergence and/or re-emergence of life-threatening diseases are of supreme concern and come under the biosafety and biosecurity agenda to circumvent LAIs...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mathis Grossmann, Margaret E Wierman, Peter Angus, David J Handelsman
The liver and the reproductive system interact in a multifaceted bidirectional fashion. Sex steroid signaling influences hepatic endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism and contributes to the pathogenesis of functional and structural disorders of the liver. In turn, liver function impacts on the reproductive axis via modulating sex steroid metabolism and transport to tissues via sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The liver senses the body's metabolic status and adapts its energy homeostasis in a sex-dependent fashion, a dimorphism signaled by the sex steroid milieu and possibly related to the metabolic costs of reproduction...
November 30, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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