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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546373/effect-of-cadmium-accumulation-on-the-performance-of-plants-and-of-herbivores-that-cope-differently-with-organic-defenses
#1
Diogo Prino Godinho, Helena Cristina Serrano, Anabela Bernardes Da Silva, Cristina Branquinho, Sara Magalhães
Some plants are able to accumulate in their shoots metals at levels that are toxic to most other organisms. This ability may serve as a defence against herbivores. Therefore, both metal-based and organic defences may affect herbivores. However, how metal accumulation affects the interaction between herbivores and organic plant defences remains overlooked. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), a model plant that accumulates cadmium, and two spider-mite species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi that, respectively, induce and suppress organic plant defences, measurable via the activity of trypsin inhibitors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541284/soluble-acid-invertases-act-as-key-factors-influencing-the-sucrose-hexose-ratio-and-sugar-receding-in-longan-pulp
#2
Tao Luo, Liang Shuai, Lingyan Liao, Jing Li, Zhenhua Duan, Xiaomeng Guo, Xiaoqing Xue, Dongmei Han, Zhenxian Wu
Soluble acid invertases (SAIs) cleaved sucrose into hexose in vacuole and played important roles in influencing fruit quality. However, their potential roles in regulating sugar composition and "sugar receding" process of longan fruits were lack of systematic investigations. Our results showed that sucrose/hexose ratios and sugar receding rates of longan pulp varied among cultivars. Analysis of enzymes for sucrose synthesis and cleavage indicated that DlSAI showed the highest negative correlation with sucrose/hexose ratio at both of activity and expression level...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539810/essential-oils-and-functional-herbs-for-healthy-aging
#3
REVIEW
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539007/-pelargonium-graveolens-aqueous-decoction-a-new-water-soluble-polysaccharide-and-antioxidant-rich-extract
#4
Malek Ennaifer, Taroub Bouzaiene, Moncef Chouaibi, Moktar Hamdi
Background: The decoction of Pelargonium graveolens yields an antioxidant-rich extract and a water-soluble polysaccharide. This study aims (1) to investigate the effect of process parameters (extraction time and temperature) on the antioxidant activity of the decoction and the extraction yield of CPGP by response methodology and (2) to study the chemical properties of the optimized decoction and rheological properties of the corresponding extracted polysaccharide. Results: The antioxidant-rich decoction contained about 19...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537216/homeostatic-maintenance-of-non-structural-carbohydrates-during-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-drought-across-a-tropical-forest-precipitation-gradient
#5
L Turin Dickman, Nate G McDowell, Charlotte Grossiord, Adam D Collins, Brett T Wolfe, Matteo Detto, S Joseph Wright, José A Medina-Vega, Devin Goodsman, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P Serbin, Jin Wu, Kim S Ely, Sean T Michaletz, Chonggang Xu, Lara Kueppers, Jeffrey Q Chambers
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential for maintenance of plant metabolism, and may be sensitive to both short- and long-term climatic variation. NSC variation in moist tropical forests has rarely been studied, so regulation of NSCs in these systems is poorly understood. We measured foliar and branch NSC content in 23 tree species at three sites located across a large precipitation gradient in Panama during the 2015-2016 El Niño to examine how short- and long-term climatic variation impact carbohydrate dynamics...
December 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536123/production-of-laccase-by-repeated-batch-semi-solid-fermentation-using-wheat-straw-as-substrate-and-support-for-fungal-growth
#6
Antriksh Gupta, Asim Kumar Jana
Repeated batch semi-solid fermentation (sSF) process using wheat straw substrate and fungal growth of Ganoderma lucidum on solid substrate was studied for production of laccase. pH showed significant effect on laccase production. Highest laccase activity with pH controlled to 5.0 in batch sSF was 15257.2 ± 353.4 U L- 1 on 9th day. In repeated batch process at pH 5.0, insoluble biomass substrate and fungal growth were reused after liquid part of medium was replaced with glucose, ammonium phosphate (best nitrogen source) and combined glucose and ammonium phosphate solution separately...
December 8, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530176/pharmaceutical-applications-of-chitosan
#7
REVIEW
Zahra Shariatinia
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide which is achieved by deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most plentiful compound in nature, after cellulose. It is a linear copolymer of β-(1 → 4)-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose. It has appreciated properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, nontoxicity, high bioavailability, simplicity of modification, favorable permselectivity of water, outstanding chemical resistance, capability to form films, gels, nanoparticles, microparticles and beads as well as affinity to metals, proteins and dyes...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529977/interaction-of-glucose-and-phytohormone-signaling-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Fareen Sami, Husna Siddiqui, Shamsul Hayat
Energy acts as a primary prerequisite for plant growth like all the other organisms. Soluble sugars function in providing enough supply of nutrients which further helps in building macromolecules and energy to carry out specific and coordinated development. Sugars functions as nutrient as well as signaling molecule to promote cell division and differentiation in plants. Intriguingly, glucose has emerged as a crucial signaling molecule where hexokinase1 acts as the conserved glucose sensor. On the molecular scale, an extensive crosstalk between glucose and phytohormone signaling has been observed where glucose signals trigger multiple hexokinase1-dependent as well as hexokinase1-independent pathways to mediate diverse developmental, physiological and molecular mechanisms...
November 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528994/physicochemical-and-biological-properties-of-longan-pulp-polysaccharides-modified-by-lactobacillus-fermentum-fermentation
#9
Fei Huang, Ruiyue Hong, Ruifen Zhang, Yang Yi, Lihong Dong, Lei Liu, Xuchao Jia, Yongxuan Ma, Mingwei Zhang
Longan polysaccharides are valuable compounds with many biological activities. Lactobacillus fermentum was selected to ferment longan pulp and the polysaccharides from unfermented and fermented longan pulp (denoted as LP and LP-F, respectively) were isolated. Their physicochemical, immunomodulatory and prebiotic activities were investigated. The results revealed that LP-F, the molecular weight of which was lower than that of LP, contained less neutral sugar, uronic acid and glucose but more arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and mannose...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517759/let-it-snow-winter-conditions-affect-growth-of-birch-seedlings-during-the-following-growing-season
#10
Timo Domisch, Françoise Martz, Tapani Repo, Pasi Rautio
Air temperatures and precipitation are predicted to increase in the future, especially at high latitudes and particularly so during winter. In contrast to air temperatures, changes in soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, as the fate of the insulating snow cover is crucial in this respect. Soil conditions can also be affected by rain-on-snow events and warm spells during winter, resulting in freeze-thaw cycles, compacted snow, ice encasement and local flooding. These adverse conditions during winter could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climate change on forest growth and productivity...
December 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517608/interspecific-differences-in-how-sink-source-imbalance-causes-photosynthetic-downregulation-among-three-legume-species
#11
Daisuke Sugiura, Eriko Betsuyaku, Ichiro Terashima
Background and Aims: Sink-source imbalance could cause an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; soluble sugar and starch) in source leaves. We aimed to clarify interspecific differences in how sink-source imbalance and TNC causes the downregulation of photosynthesis among three legume plants. The TNC in source leaves was altered by short-term manipulative treatments, and its effects on photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated. Methods: Soybean, French bean and azuki bean were grown under high nitrogen availability...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511183/an-apple-transcription-factor-mddreb76-confers-salt-and-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-by-activating-the-expression-of-stress-responsive-genes
#12
Vishal Sharma, Parul Goel, Sanjay Kumar, Anil Kumar Singh
An apple gene, MdDREB76 encodes a functional transcription factor and imparts salinity and drought stress endurance to transgenic tobacco by activating expression of stress-responsive genes. The dehydration-responsive element (DRE)-binding protein (DREB) transcription factors are well known to be involved in regulating abiotic stress-mediated gene expression in plants. In this study, MdDREB76 gene was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica), which encodes a functional transcription factor protein. Overexpression of MdDREB76 in tobacco conferred salt and drought stress tolerance to transgenic lines by inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase...
December 3, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505312/impact-of-beneficial-microorganisms-on-strawberry-growth-fruit-production-nutritional-quality-and-volatilome
#13
Valeria Todeschini, Nassima AitLahmidi, Eleonora Mazzucco, Francesco Marsano, Fabio Gosetti, Elisa Robotti, Elisa Bona, Nadia Massa, Laurent Bonneau, Emilio Marengo, Daniel Wipf, Graziella Berta, Guido Lingua
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize the roots of most terrestrial plant species, improving plant growth, nutrient uptake and biotic/abiotic stress resistance and tolerance. Similarly, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) enhance plant fitness and production. In this study, three different AMF ( Funneliformis mosseae, Septoglomus viscosum , and Rhizophagus irregularis ) were used in combination with three different strains of Pseudomonas sp. (19Fv1t, 5Vm1K and Pf4) to inoculate plantlets of Fragaria × ananassa var...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503789/polysaccharides-from-thymus-vulgaris-leaf-structural-features-antioxidant-activity-and-interaction-with-bovine-serum-albumin
#14
Pallabi Banerjee, Shuvam Mukherjee, Kaushik Bera, Kanika Ghosh, Imran Ali, Sadhana Khawas, Bimalendu Ray, Sayani Ray
Thymus vulgaris is used for various health benefits and culinary, nevertheless, report on its macromolecules is absent. Here, we report chemical compositions of the polysaccharides isolated from its leaf by sequential extraction with inorganic solvents. In particular, chemical profile of a unique rhamnogalacturonan I type polysaccharide containing ester linked phenolic acids has been described. Sugar compositional, TLC, UV-spectrometric and ESI-MS analyses of oligosaccharides generated from this polysaccharide by enzyme digestion, controlled acid hydrolysis and Smith degradation revealed atypical fine structural details...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502165/the-terpene-limonene-induced-the-green-mold-of-citrus-fruit-through-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-homeostasis-in-penicillium-digitatum-spores
#15
Nengguo Tao, Yue Chen, Yalan Wu, Xiao Wang, Lu Li, Andan Zhu
Herein, the dosage effect of limonene on the P. digitatum spore germination and its regulatory mechanisms were investigated. Results showed that limonene only at low concentrations displayed a stimulatory role, with the optimal concentration being 0.25 μL/mL. GC-MS and GC analysis revealed that limonene contents remained relative stable and no evidence of transformation was observed at stimulatory concentrations. Metabolomics analysis showed that 61 metabolites including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, nucleosides, fatty acids, and their derivatives, were significantly changed (P < 0...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500823/unigene-based-rna-seq-provides-insights-on-drought-stress-responses-in-marsdenia-tenacissima
#16
Heng-Ling Meng, Wei Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhang, Jian-Jun Wang, Zhen-Gui Meng, Guang-Qiang Long, Sheng-Chao Yang
Marsdenia tenacissima is a well-known anti-cancer medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, which often grows on the karst landform and the water conservation capacity of land is very poorly and drought occurrences frequently. We found M. tenacissima has strong drought resistance because of continuousdrought16 d, the leaves of M. tenacissima were fully curly and dying. But the leaves were fully almost recovering after re-watering 24h. The activity of SOD and POD were almost doubled under drought stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478228/-butyrivibrio-hungatei-mb2003-competes-effectively-for-soluble-sugars-released-by-butyrivibrio-proteoclasticus-b316-t-from-growth-on-xylan-or-pectin
#17
Nikola Palevich, William J Kelly, Siva Ganesh, Jasna Rakonjac, Graeme T Attwood
Rumen bacterial species belonging to the genus Butyrivibrio are important degraders of plant polysaccharides, particularly hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and pectin. Currently, four species are recognized which have very similar substrate utilization profiles, but little is known about how these microorganisms are able to co-exist in the rumen. To investigate this question, Butyrivibrio hungatei MB2003 and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316T were grown alone or in co-culture on xylan or pectin, and their growth, release of sugars, fermentation end products and transcriptomes were examined...
November 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477104/identification-of-ubiquinones-in-honey-a-new-view-on-their-potential-contribution-to-honey-s-antioxidant-state
#18
Katrina Brudzynski, Liset Maldonado-Alvarez
Honey is composed of macromolecules arranged into multicomponent colloidal particles dispersed in a supersaturated sugar solution. The core part of colloidal particles in honey is made up of high-molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes. We designed a multi-step extraction process to gain better insight into the phenolic compounds strongly bound to proteins in honey. Honeys were sequentially extracted by solvents of reduced polarities and the extraction process was monitored by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Unexpectedly, the results revealed ubiquinone-like compounds that partitioned to both, soluble supernatants and protein-bound insoluble residues from which they were released after the pronase-digestion of proteins...
November 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473522/cellulase-assisted-extraction-and-anti-ultraviolet-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-the-root-of-flammulina-velutipes-on-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Zhenjing Li, Yanan Zhang, Lin Lin, Haiyan Cui, Tiantian Wang, Mianhua Chen, Changlu Wang
We investigated the cellulase-assisted extraction and anti-ultraviolet activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from the root of Flammulina velutipes on Caenorhabditis elegans. A Box-Behnken design experiment with three factors and three levels, including enzymolysis temperature, microwave time, and microwave power, was designed on the basis of the results of single-factor experiments. For improving the polysaccharide yield of F. velutipes root, the following optimal extraction conditions were used: 52.67°C enzymolysis temperature, 80s microwave time, and 144 W microwave power...
November 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471726/a-dreb1-gene-from-zoysiagrass-enhances-arabidopsis-tolerance-to-temperature-stresses-without-growth-inhibition
#20
Wanqian Feng, Jing Li, Sixin Long, Shanjun Wei
The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding) protein family comprises transcription factors that can increase the survivability of a plant under abiotic stresses by regulating expression of multiple genes and altering downstream metabolism at the cost of growth retardation and developmental delay. In this study, a gene for the DREB1-type transcription factor, designated ZjDREB1.4, was isolated from zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), a popular warm-season turfgrass. This gene contains a conserved AP2/ERF DNA-binding domain flanking the signature sequence of DREB1 and belongs to a DREB1 branch in the grass family that expands in the warm-season species...
January 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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