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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114676/enhanced-photorespiration-in-transgenic-rice-over-expressing-maize-c-4-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-gene-contributes-to-alleviating-low-nitrogen-stress
#1
Yuting Tang, Xia Li, Wei Lu, Xiaodong Wei, Qijun Zhang, Chuangen Lv, Ningxi Song
The objective of this study was to reveal the physiological and molecular mechanisms of low-nitrogen (N) tolerance in transgenic plant lines containing C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4 -PEPC) gene. The transgenic rice lines only over-expressing the maize C4 -PEPC) (PC) and their untransformed wild type, Kitaake (WT), were used in this study. At different N levels, the dry weight, total N content, carbon and N levels, photorespiration-related enzymatic activities, gene expression levels and photorespiration-related product accumulations were measured, as were the transgenic lines' agronomic traits...
August 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110937/genome-wide-survey-of-invertase-encoding-genes-and-functional-characterization-of-an-extracellular-fungal-pathogen-responsive-invertase-in-glycine-max
#2
Tao Su, Mei Han, Jie Min, Peixian Chen, Yuxin Mao, Qiao Huang, Qian Tong, Qiuchen Liu, Yanming Fang
Invertases are essential enzymes that irreversibly catalyze the cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose. Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) are glycosylated proteins and exert fundamental roles in plant growth as well as in response to environmental cues. As yet, comprehensive insight into invertase encoding genes are lacking in Glycine max . In the present study, the systematic survey of gene structures, coding regions, regulatory elements, conserved motifs, and phylogenies resulted in the identification of thirty⁻two putative invertase genes in soybean genome...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110471/the-effect-of-alkali-soluble-lignin-on-purified-core-cellulase-and-hemicellulase-activities-during-hydrolysis-of-extractive-ammonia-pretreated-lignocellulosic-biomass
#3
Linchao Zhou, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Bruce E Dale, Jia-Xun Feng, Venkatesh Balan
Removing alkali-soluble lignin using extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment of corn stover (CS) is known to improve biomass conversion efficiency during enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated the effect of alkali-soluble lignin on six purified core glycosyl hydrolases and their enzyme synergies, adopting 31 enzyme combinations derived by a five-component simplex centroid model, during EA-CS hydrolysis. Hydrolysis experiment was carried out using EA-CS(-) (approx. 40% lignin removed during EA pretreatment) and EA-CS(+) (where no lignin was extracted)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105551/transgenic-creeping-bentgrass-plants-expressing-a-picea-wilsonii-dehydrin-gene-picw-demonstrate-improved-freezing-tolerance
#4
Hao Zhang, Yang Shi, Xinru Liu, Ruixue Wang, Jian Li, Jichen Xu
Agrostis stolonifera L. 'Penn A-4' is a common creeping bentgrass species that is widely used in urban landscaping and golf courses. To prolong the green stage of this grass, a dehydrin gene PicW isolated from Wilson's spruce (Picea wilsonii) was transformed into plants of 'Penn A-4' cultivar via a straightforward stolon node infection system. A putative transgenic plant was obtained and its tolerance to low-temperature stress was evaluated. When the transgenic line was subjected to a freezing (- 5 °C) treatment, it showed better viability and more robust physiology than wild type, as evidenced by higher soluble sugar and proline contents, and lower relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103396/metal-contamination-distribution-detection-in-high-voltage-transmission-line-insulators-by-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs
#5
Naixiao Wang, Xilin Wang, Ping Chen, Zhidong Jia, Liming Wang, Ronghui Huang, Qishen Lv
The fast detection of classical contaminants and their distribution on high-voltage transmission line insulators is essential for ensuring the safe operation of the power grid. The analysis of existing insulator contamination has traditionally relied on taking samples during a power cut, taking the samples back to the lab and then testing them with elemental analysis equipment, especially for sugars, bird droppings, and heavy metal particulates, which cannot be analysed by the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) or non-soluble deposit density (NSDD) methods...
August 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100618/adaptive-physiological-and-biochemical-response-of-sugarcane-genotypes-to-high-temperature-stress
#6
S Kohila, R Gomathi
Impact of elevated temperature on physiological and biochemical changes were evaluated in 5 commercial sugarcane genotypes and 2 wild species clones at two different growth phases. The study revealed that heat stress decreased chlorophyll content, chlorophyll stability index (CSI), SPAD value, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv /Fm ratio), leaf gas exchange parameters, relative water content (RWC), and activities of nitrate reductase (NR), sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (SPS, SS, AI, NI) in all the genotypes and species clones...
2018: Indian Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100468/co-2-enrichment-can-enhance-the-nutritional-and-health-benefits-of-parsley-petroselinum-crispum-l-and-dill-anethum-graveolens-l
#7
Ahmed M Saleh, Samy Selim, Soad Al Jaouni, Hamada AbdElgawad
The functional food value of herbal plants is greatly related to their contents of valuable phytochemicals. Regarding its impact on primary and secondary plant metabolism, CO2 enrichment could be a candidate strategy to modulate the levels of nutritionally and medicinally interesting phytochemicals in herbal plants. Herein, the concentrations of 81 metabolites and minerals were evaluated in shoot tissues of parsley and dill grown under two levels of CO2 , ambient (378 ± 25 µmole CO2 mole-1 air, aCO2 ) and elevated (627 ± 24 µmole CO2 mole-1 air, eCO2 )...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099722/crispr-cas9-induced-monoallelic-mutations-in-the-cytosolic-agpase-large-subunit-gene-apl2-induce-the-ectopic-expression-of-apl2-and-the-corresponding-small-subunit-gene-aps2b-in-rice-leaves
#8
Lucía Pérez, Erika Soto, Gemma Villorbina, Ludovic Bassie, Vicente Medina, Pilar Muñoz, Teresa Capell, Changfu Zhu, Paul Christou, Gemma Farré
The first committed step in the endosperm starch biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by the cytosolic glucose-1-phosphate adenylyl transferase (AGPase) comprising large and small subunits encoded by the OsAPL2 and OsAPS2b genes, respectively. OsAPL2 is expressed solely in the endosperm so we hypothesized that mutating this gene would block starch biosynthesis in the endosperm without affecting the leaves. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create two heterozygous mutants, one with a severely truncated and nonfunctional AGPase and the other with a C-terminal structural modification causing a partial loss of activity...
August 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099598/bacterial-glycoengineering-as-a-biosynthetic-route-to-customized-glycomolecules
#9
Laura E Yates, Dominic C Mills, Matthew P DeLisa
Bacteria have garnered increased interest in recent years as a platform for the biosynthesis of a variety of glycomolecules such as soluble oligosaccharides, surface-exposed carbohydrates, and glycoproteins. The ability to engineer commonly used laboratory species such as Escherichia coli to efficiently synthesize non-native sugar structures by recombinant expression of enzymes from various carbohydrate biosynthesis pathways has allowed for the facile generation of important products such as conjugate vaccines, glycosylated outer membrane vesicles, and a variety of other research reagents for studying and understanding the role of glycans in living systems...
August 12, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098586/nutritional-properties-of-tempranillo-grapevine-leaves-are-affected-by-clonal-diversity-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-and-air-temperature-regime
#10
Nazareth Torres, M Carmen Antolín, Idoia Garmendia, Nieves Goicoechea
Tempranillo grapevine is widely cultivated in Spain and other countries over the world (Portugal, USA, France, Australia, and Argentina, among others) for its wine, but leaves are scarcely used for human or animal nutrition. Since high temperatures affect quality of fruits and leaves in grapevine and the association of Tempranillo with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the antioxidant properties of berries and leaves, we assessed the effect of elevated air temperature and mycorrhization, separately or combined, on the nutritional properties of Tempranillo leaves at the time of fruit harvest...
August 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094489/grapevine-leafroll-disease-alters-leaf-physiology-but-has-little-effect-on-plant-cold-hardiness
#11
Matthew M Halldorson, Markus Keller
Foliar sugar accumulation in grapevines with leafroll disease was correlated with lower photosynthesis, likely due to feedback inhibition. However, cold acclimation of dormant tissues remained unaffected by the virus status. Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV) contribute to losses in fruit yield and quality worldwide. Visually, leafroll disease symptoms appear similar to those associated with an imbalance in source/sink relations and a concomitant feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, which is often caused by an impasse in sugar translocation...
August 9, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094488/sugar-transport-played-a-more-important-role-than-sugar-biosynthesis-in-fruit-sugar-accumulation-during-chinese-jujube-domestication
#12
Chunmei Zhang, Yuan Bian, Sihao Hou, Xingang Li
Sugar transport, including the symplasmic pathway in plasmodesmata and apoplasmic pathway mediated by sugar transporters, accelerated sugar accumulation in cultivated jujube, while sugar metabolism-related genes played weak roles in jujube domestication. The fruit of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is high in sugar concentration. By contrast, wild type-sour jujube (Z. jujuba Mill. var. spinosa Hu) contains markedly less sugar. It is unknown whether sugar transport or sugar metabolism drove sugar accumulation during jujube domestication...
August 9, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092171/virus-infection-reduces-shoot-proliferation-of-in-vitro-stock-cultures-and-ability-of-cryopreserved-shoot-tips-to-regenerate-into-normal-shoots-in-gala-apple-malus-%C3%A3-domestica
#13
Min-Rui Wang, Xin-Yi Hao, Lei Zhao, Zhen-Hua Cui, Gayle M Volk, Qiao-Chun Wang
Plant cryopreservation has provide secure back-ups of germplasm collections of vegetatively propagated crops. Often, recovery levels vary among laboratories when the same cryogenic procedures are used for the same genotypes. The present study investigated the effects of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) on shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of 'Gala' apple. Results showed that virus infection reduced shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and cell ability to regenerate normal shoots in cryopreserved shoot tips...
August 6, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092079/vanadium-stimulates-pepper-plant-growth-and-flowering-increases-concentrations-of-amino-acids-sugars-and-chlorophylls-and-modifies-nutrient-concentrations
#14
Atonaltzin García-Jiménez, Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez, Dagoberto Guillén-Sánchez, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino
Vanadium (V) can be absorbed by plants and regulate their growth and development, although contrasting effects have been reported among species and handling conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the beneficial effect of V on pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). The plants were grown in a hydroponic system with the application of four V concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 μM NH₄VO₃). Four weeks after the beginning of the treatments, growth, flowering, biomass, chlorophyll concentration, total amino acids, total soluble sugars, and nutrients were determined in leaves, stems, and roots...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085079/famyb44-2-a-transcriptional-repressor-negatively-regulates-sucrose-accumulation-in-strawberry-receptacles-through-interplay-with-famyb10
#15
Lingzhi Wei, Wenwen Mao, Meiru Jia, Sinian Xing, Usman Ali, Yaoyao Zhao, Yating Chen, Minglin Cao, Zhengrong Dai, Kai Zhang, Zhechao Dou, Wensuo Jia, Bingbing Li
Sugar and acid metabolism are critical for fruit ripening and quality formation, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identified a transcriptional repressor, FaMYB44.2, that regulates sugar and acid accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa 'Benihoppe') receptacles. We transiently expressed FaMYB44.2 in strawberry fruit and conducted metabolic and molecular analyses to explore the role of FaMYB44.2 in sugar and acid accumulation in strawberry. We found that FaMYB44.2 negatively regulates soluble sugar accumulation and malic acid content and represses the expression of numerous structural genes, including FaSPS3, a key gene in sucrose accumulation...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081877/investigation-of-biological-activities-of-the-flowers-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-the-jarul-flower-of-bangladesh
#16
Tasnuva Sharmin, Md Shahidur Rahman, Habiba Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Family: Lythraceae) is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhea, diabetes and other diseases. The study was performed to conduct antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing, antimicrobial, peripheral and central analgesic and hypoglycemic activity assays and phenobarbitone sodium-induced sleeping time test using crude methanol extract of flowers of L. speciosa and its different partitionates. METHOD: The antioxidant potential was evaluated by determining the ability of the samples to scavenge 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical...
August 6, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081252/photosynthetic-characteristics-and-metabolic-analyses-of-two-soybean-genotypes-revealed-adaptive-strategies-to-low-nitrogen-stress
#17
Mingxia Li, Jingshu Xu, Xiaoxia Wang, Hui Fu, Mingli Zhao, He Wang, Lianxuan Shi
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plants and the common limiting factor for crop productivity worldwide. An effective approach to combat N deficiency and overuse is to understand the mechanism of low-nitrogen tolerance in plants and develop low-nitrogen-tolerant crop cultivars. Wild soybean has a high tolerance to poor environmental conditions, but, until now, no study has illustrated the mechanism of low-nitrogen tolerance at a metabolomic level. In this study, the photosynthetic characteristics and metabolomics of wild and cultivated soybean seedlings were analyzed, and the mechanism of wild soybean's low-nitrogen tolerance was explained using a sand culture experiment...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080612/oshak1-controls-the-vegetative-growth-and-panicle-fertility-of-rice-by-its-effect-on-potassium-mediated-sugar-metabolism
#18
Guang Chen, Yu Zhang, Banpu Ruan, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng, Zhenyu Gao, Li Zhu, Jiang Hu, Deyong Ren, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu, Qian Qian
Plant growth and reproduction are both energy-requiring processes; the necessary energy is supplied by the products of photosynthesis. Both the vegetative growth and reproductive success of rice are compromised by the absence of a functional copy of the gene OsHAK1. Here, a comparison between wild type rice and OsHAK1 knockout mutants not only confirmed the known detrimental effect of the absence of OsHAK1 on root growth, pollen viability and fertility, but also showed that sucrose phosphate synthase activity was lowered, and the sucrose content of the leaves was markedly increased, due to a partial block on the up-loading of sucrose into the phloem...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079335/correlation-of-apiose-levels-and-growth-rates-in-duckweeds
#19
Débora Pagliuso, Adriana Grandis, Eglee S Igarashi, Eric Lam, Marcos S Buckeridge
The carbon assimilated by photosynthesis in plants can be partitioned into starch, soluble sugars, and cell wall polymers. Higher levels of starch accumulation in leaves are usually correlated with a lower growth capacity. Duckweeds are fast-growing aquatic monocot plants that can accumulate high levels of starch. They are an unusual group because their cell wall has very low levels of lignin while accumulating apiogalacturonan, a pectic polysaccharide that could be involved with boron assimilation. In this work, five duckweed species from different genera ( Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Lemna gibba, Wolffiella caudata , and Wolffia borealis ) were cultivated under two light intensities (20 and 500 μmoles of photons m-2 s-1 ) to evaluate the effects of growth rate on carbohydrate metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079078/the-physiological-mechanisms-behind-the-earlywood-to-latewood-transition-a-process-based-modeling-approach
#20
Fabrizio Cartenì, Annie Deslauriers, Sergio Rossi, Hubert Morin, Veronica De Micco, Stefano Mazzoleni, Francesco Giannino
In extratropical ecosystems, the growth of trees is cyclic, producing tree rings composed of large-lumen and thin-walled cells (earlywood) alternating with narrow-lumen and thick-walled cells (latewood). So far, the physiology behind wood formation processes and the associated kinetics has rarely been considered to explain this pattern. We developed a process-based mechanistic model that simulates the development of conifer tracheids, explicitly considering the processes of cell enlargement and the deposition and lignification of cell walls...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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