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reducing sugar

A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Hong Chen, Hao Feng, Xueyan Zhang, Chaojun Zhang, Tao Wang, Jiangli Dong
The HUB2 gene encoding histone H2B monoubiquitination E3 ligase is involved in seed dormancy, flowering timing, defence response, and salt stress regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter to drive AtHUB2 overexpression in cotton and found that it can significantly improve the agricultural traits of transgenic cotton plants under drought stress conditions, including increasing the fruit branch number, boll number, and boll-setting rate and decreasing the boll abscission rate...
August 17, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Ludmylla Cunha, Ana M Rosa da Costa, João P Lourenço, Francesca Buttini, Ana Grenha
Pulmonary tuberculosis accounts for 80% of cases and the delivery of antitubercular drugs into the lungs allows targeting the infected organ and, possibly, reducing systemic drug toxicity. This work aimed at using fucoidan as matrix of inhalable microparticles that associate two first-line antitubercular drugs, for an application in pulmonary tuberculosis therapy. Fucoidan is composed of fucose and sulphated sugar residues, moieties described as being recognised by surface receptors of alveolar macrophages, which host mycobacteria...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Samuel Marques, Teresa Trevisan, Carlos Maia, Andrea Breuer, Robert W Owen
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a set of molecules that contribute directly to the initiation and aggravation of diseases associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds), proteins, and amino acid residues. Previous in vitro methods using non-enzymatic procedures described in the literature require an incubation period of 1⁻3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study, the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 h) was significantly reduced by adaptation of methods previously described in the literature and coupling them to the free radical generation system termed hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay...
August 15, 2018: Biomedicines
Aigerim Turgimbayeva, Sailau Abeldenov, Dmitry O Zharkov, Alexander A Ishchenko, Yerlan Ramankulov, Murat Saparbaev, Bekbolat Khassenov
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play critical roles in the repair of abasic sites and strand breaks in DNA. Complete genome sequences of Helicobacter pylori reveal that this bacterial specie has a single AP endonuclease. An H. pylori homolog of Xth (HpXth) is a member of exonuclease III family, which is represented by Escherichia coli Xth. Currently, it remains unknown whether this single AP endonuclease has DNA repair activities similar to those of its counterpart in E. coli and other bacteria. We report that HpXth possesses efficient AP site cleavage, 3'-repair phosphodiesterase, and 3'-phosphatase activities but not the nucleotide incision repair function...
2018: PloS One
Rupali Malik, Ilavarasi Vanidassane, Neelima Jain
Background - Reduced lung function in diabetes has been described for long but its clinical importance is not yet clear. Also, limited literature is available regarding its association with sugar control, and its correlation with inflammatory markers. Thus, we aimed to study the pulmonary function test abnormalities and systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 100 patients of type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups depending on control of diabetes (group A-HbA1C≤7% and group B-HbA1C >7%)...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Cyrille Lebon, Kevin Soupapoule, David A Wilkinson, Gilbert Le Goff, David Damiens, Louis Clément Gouagna
The control of Aedes albopictus through Sterile Male Releases requires that the most competitive males be mass-reared and sterilized usually with gamma- or X-ray radiation prior to release. Developing an understanding of the impact of irradiation treatment on flight performance in sterile males is very important because any fitness cost may reduce the efficacy of SIT intervention in the field. Here, we examined the role of irradiation exposure and sugar-feeding on daily flight activity and performance of Ae...
2018: PloS One
Giorgio Biasiotto, Isabella Zanella, Federica Predolini, Ivonne Archetti, Moris Cadei, Eugenio Monti, Marcello Luzzani, Barbara Pacchetti, Paola Mozzoni, Roberta Andreoli, Giuseppe De Palma, Federico Serana, Annika Smeds, Diego Di Lorenzo
7-Hydroxymatairesinol (7-HMR) is a plant lignan abundant in various concentrations in plant foods. The objective of this study was to test HMRLignan™, a purified form of 7-HMR, and the corresponding Picea abies extract (total extract P. abies; TEP) as dietary supplements on a background of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in mice and in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model. Mice, 3 weeks old, were fed a HFD for 60 d. Subgroups were treated with 3 mg/kg body weight 7-HMR (HMRLignan™) or 10 mg/kg body weight TEP by oral administration...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Koel Saha, Poulami Dwibedi, Ankita Ghosh, Jaya Sikder, Sudip Chakraborty, Stefano Curcio
The primary focus of this work was to recover lignin and investigate the structural changes in sugarcane bagasse after pretreatment with ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]oAc). 90% lignin recovery was achieved while bagasse was treated with [EMIM]oAc at 140 °C, 120 min reaction time and 1:20 bagasse to the ionic liquid ratio (w/w). The impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on bagasse was confirmed by qualitative analysis of untreated and pretreated bagasse. Scanning electron microscopy analysis exhibited the porous and irregular structure of bagasse after pretreatment...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Hong-Xia Zhou, Richard I Milne, Xue-Long Ma, Yue-Qin Song, Jian-Yu Fang, Hang Sun, Hong-Guang Zha
Floral nectar plays important roles in the interaction between animal-pollinated plants and pollinators. Its components include water, sugars, amino acids, vitamins, and proteins. Growing empirical evidence shows that most of the proteins secreted in nectar (nectarines) are enzymes that can tailor nectar chemistry for their animal mutualists or reduce the growth of microorganisms in nectar. However, to date, the function of many nectarines remains unknown, and very few plant species have had their nectar proteome thoroughly investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lizi Lin, Chenxiong Li, Chuyao Jin, Yuanzhou Peng, Kawther M Hashem, Graham A MacGregor, Feng J He, Haijun Wang
OBJECTIVE: The consumption of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSBs) is associated with a range of health problems, but little is known about the sugar and energy content of CSSBs in China. The study aimed to investigate the sugar and energy content of CSSBs in Beijing, China. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 15 different supermarkets from July to October 2017 in Haidian District, Beijing. METHODS: The product packaging and nutrient labels of CSSBs were recorded by a snapshot in time to obtain company name, product name, serving size, and nutrient content, that is, carbohydrate, sugar and energy...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Sharna Si Ying Seah, Salome A Rebello, Bee Choo Tai, Zoey Tay, Eric Andrew Finkelstein, Rob M van Dam
OBJECTIVE: Framing of fiscal incentives has been suggested to be important in influencing purchase decisions. We aimed to examine the effect of framing a modest price difference between high- and lower-sugar beverages as a tax or a subsidy respectively, using messages placed on vending machines to influence beverage purchases. DESIGN/SETTING: This is an 11-week randomized crossover trial conducted between August and November 2015, with a two-week run-in period before intervention, targeted at students, staff and faculty of a university campus in Singapore...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Ruth Martis, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd, Jane Alsweiler, Michelle R Downie, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Successful treatments for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have the potential to improve health outcomes for women with GDM and their babies. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive synthesis of evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews of the benefits and harms associated with interventions for treating GDM on women and their babies. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5 January 2018) for reviews of treatment/management for women with GDM...
August 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sridevi Krishnan, Sean H Adams, Lindsay H Allen, Kevin D Laugero, John W Newman, Charles B Stephensen, Dustin J Burnett, Megan Witbracht, Lucas C Welch, Excel S Que, Nancy L Keim
Background: The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend nutrient needs be met by increasing fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intake with the use of low-fat or fat-free dairy products and by reducing sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. However, the DGA, as a dietary pattern, have not been tested in an intervention trial. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a DGA-based diet compared with a representative typical American diet (TAD) on glucose homeostasis and fasting lipids in individuals at risk of cardiometabolic disease...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nicole H Korman, Shelukumar Shah, Shuichi Suetani, Karen Kendall, Simon Rosenbaum, Frances Dark, Ketevan Nadareishvili, Dan Siskind
Purpose: People with severe mental illness are sedentary, have high cardio-metabolic risks and significantly reduced life expectancy. Despite considerable data regarding positive physical and mental health outcomes following exercise interventions, implementation and evaluation of real-world programs is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of an exercise intervention implemented by exercise physiology (EP) students within a residential rehabilitation unit for residents with severe mental illness, together with assessment of a range of secondary physical and mental health outcomes pre- and post- the intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gaofei Hu, Huaizhi Liu, Yan Zhu, Marta Hernandez, Tatiana Koutchma, Suqin Shao
Furan, which has been identified as a carcinogenic risk for humans, can be induced in different foods by UV-C light. In this study, we hypothesized that furan was produced by a UV light-induced free radical mechanism and antioxidants could suppress its formation. Our results demonstrated that, by adding antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyl toluene, ascorbic acid or gallic acid, to simulated juice or apple cider during UV-C treatment, amounts of furan were significantly reduced. For example, the concentration of furan produced in apple cider by UV-C at 9...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
M Isabel Ordiz, Karl Wold, Yankho Kaimila, Oscar Divala, Madeline Gilstrap, Henry Z Lu, Mark J Manary
Recent studies have suggested that environmental enteric dysfunction can be assessed in rural African children by measuring levels of fecal mRNA transcripts. The field collection of fecal samples is less invasive and cumbersome than administration of the lactulose:mannitol test, which is typically used to assess environmental enteric dysfunction. This study sought to determine if, as in children aged 12-60 months, an array of seven fecal host transcripts (CD53, CDX1, HLA-DRA, TNF, S100A8, MUC12, and REG1A) could predict environmental enteric dysfunction in rural African infants...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Thyageshwar Chandran, Nukathoti Sivaji, Avadhesha Surolia, Mamannamana Vijayan
Snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL) is a non-toxic homologue of type II ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) which contain a catalytic domain and a lectin domain. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements of the interactions of the protein with LacNAc, Lac, Gal, Me-α-Gal were carried out and the crystal structures of the native protein and its complex with Lac were determined. The crystal structure of the Me-α-Gal complex has already been determined. While the crystal structure showed the presence of two-sugar binding sites, one on each of the two domains of the lectin chain, ITC measurements indicated the presence of only one binding site...
August 6, 2018: Glycobiology
Fabian Hulpia, Sam Noppen, Dominique Schols, Graciela Andrei, Robert Snoeck, Sandra Liekens, Peter Vervaeke, Serge Van Calenbergh
A focused nucleoside library was constructed around a 3'-C-ethynyl-d-ribofuranose sugar scaffold, which was coupled to variously modified purine nucleobases. The resulting nucleosides were probed for their ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, as well as for their activity against a panel of relevant human viruses. While C6-aryl substituted purine nucleosides were found to be weakly active, several C7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleosides elicited potent antiproliferative activity. Their activity spectrum was evaluated in the NCI-60 tumor cell line panel indicating activity against several solid tumor derived cell lines...
July 29, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mark A Terry, Anthony J Aldave, Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Wendi Liang, Allison R Ayala, Maureen G Maguire, Christopher Croasdale, Yassine J Daoud, Steven P Dunn, Caroline K Hoover, Marian S Macsai, Thomas F Mauger, Sudeep Pramanik, George Od Rosenwasser, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer, R Doyle Stulting, Alan Sugar, Elmer Y Tu, David D Verdier, Sonia H Yoo, Jonathan H Lass
PURPOSE: To associate donor, recipient, and operative factors with graft success 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). DESIGN: Cohort study within a multi-center, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: 1,090 individuals (1,330 study eyes), median age 70 years, undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (94% of eyes) or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (PACE, 6% of eyes)...
August 8, 2018: Ophthalmology
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