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reducing sugar

Guido Kroemer, Carlos López-Otín, Frank Madeo, Rafael de Cabo
Modern nutrition is often characterized by the excessive intake of different types of carbohydrates ranging from digestible polysaccharides to refined sugars that collectively mediate noxious effects on human health, a phenomenon that we refer to as "carbotoxicity." Epidemiological and experimental evidence combined with clinical intervention trials underscore the negative impact of excessive carbohydrate uptake, as well as the beneficial effects of reducing carbs in the diet. We discuss the molecular, cellular, and neuroendocrine mechanisms that link exaggerated carbohydrate intake to disease and accelerated aging as we outline dietary and pharmacologic strategies to combat carbotoxicity...
October 18, 2018: Cell
Paola Bergallo, Valentina Castagnari, Alicia Fernández, Raúl Mejía
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Latin American (LA) countries have begun to adopt a variety of regulations targeting sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) for public health reasons. Our objective was to characterize the regulatory strategies designed to reduce SSB consumption over the last decade, and assess the available evidence on their enforcement and impact. METHODS: We searched legal and public health databases for public and private SSBs regulations in 14 LA countries and then conducted a systematic review of the available literature...
2018: PloS One
Toshio Itani, Tomoaki Ishihara
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is characterized by insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and often prediabetes or diabetes. Canagliflozin, a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is a new oral anti-diabetic drug that reduces hyperglycaemia by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Glycosuria produced by canagliflozin is associated with weight loss, mainly due to reduced fat volume and improve insulin resistance...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Eoin Byrne, Krisztina Kovacs, Ed W J van Niel, Karin Willquist, Sven-Erik Svensson, Emma Kreuger
Background: Current EU directives demand increased use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector but restrict governmental support for production of biofuels produced from crops. The use of intercropped lucerne and wheat may comply with the directives. In the current study, the combination of ensiled lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) and wheat straw as substrate for hydrogen and methane production was investigated. Steam-pretreated and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw [WSH, 76% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and ensiled lucerne (LH, 24% of total COD) were used for sequential hydrogen production through dark fermentation and methane production through anaerobic digestion and directly for anaerobic digestion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chen Zhang, Tinggang Li, Jianzhong He
Background: One of the main challenges of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is to reduce acetone production with high butanol yield. Converting acetone into isopropanol is an alternative pathway to reduce fermentation by-products in the fermentation broth. Here, we aimed to cultivate a wild-type Clostridium strain with high isopropanol and butanol production and reveal its genome information. Results: Clostridium beijerinckii strain BGS1 was found to be capable of producing 10...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiao-Lu Yin, Bing-Qing Xu, Yu-Qing Zhang
Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases that accompanied by severe complications. Gynura divaricata (GD), a medicinal and edible plant that is usually used for the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical components of GD with hypoglycemic effect and the possible mechanism lowering blood sugar in T2D diabetic mice. Methods: The methanol extract of GD was analysed by HPLC-DAD. And then mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin feed the diet containing lyophilized GD powder for 4 weeks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jie-Hua Chen, Xu Lin, Cuihong Bu, Xuguang Zhang
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a group of compounds that are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and free amino groups of proteins, lipids or nucleic acids, can be obtained exogenously from diet or formed endogenously within the body. AGEs accumulate intracellularly and extracellularly in all tissues and body fluids and can cross-link with other proteins and thus affect their normal functions. Furthermore, AGEs can interact with specific cell surface receptors and hence alter cell intracellular signaling, gene expression, the production of reactive oxygen species and the activation of several inflammatory pathways...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Shao-Fen Jian, Qiong Liao, Hai-Xing Song, Qiang Liu, Joe Eugene Lepo, Chunyun Guan, Jianhua Zhang, Abdelbagi M Ismail, Zhen-Hua Zhang
High concentration of ammonium (NH4+) as sole source of nitrogen in growth media is often toxic to plants. The nitrate transporter NRT1.1 is involved in mediating plant NH4+ toxicity; however, this mechanism remains undefined. In this study, the wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and NRT1.1 mutants (chl1-1 and chl1-5) were grown hydroponically in NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 media to assess the function of NRT1.1 in NH4+ stress responses. All the plants grew normally in mixed N sources, but Col-0 displayed more chlorosis, and lower biomass and photosynthesis than the NRT1...
October 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ajeet Singh, Daipayan Chowdhury, Avinash Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Amitabha Chakrabarti
Hsp30 is a plasma membrane localized heat shock protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose expression is induced by numerous environmental stressors. Elucidation of its mechanism of action has remained elusive primarily because hsp30Δ cells do not show a strong phenotype. To identify cellular functions associated with Hsp30 we thus compared the transcriptome of BY4741hsp30Δ with that of its wild type counterpart. Our studies indicate down-regulation of the Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) dependent gene-expression programme in hsp30Δ cells...
October 18, 2018: Yeast
Peter von Philipsborn, Jan Marcel Stratil, Thomas Leonhard Heise, Rüdiger Landgraf, Hans Hauner, Eva Annette Rehfuess
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the scope and content of the nutrition pledge announced by Lidl. DESIGN: We applied the approach recommended by the private-sector module of the INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity Research, Monitoring and Action Support) food environment monitoring framework and qualitative content analysis to Lidl's nutrition pledge. SETTING: Global. SUBJECTS: The nutrition pledge of Lidl, Europe's largest food retailer...
October 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Bahiru Tsegaye, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Partha Roy
In this study, two bacterial strains capable of degrading lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were isolated from wood feeding termite. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A bacterium Ochrobactrum oryzae BMP03 capable of degrading lignin was isolated on alkali lignin medium and Bacillus sp. BMP01 strain capable of degrading cellulose and hemicellulose were isolated on carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan media. The efficiency of bacterial degradation was studied by evaluating the composition of rice straw both before and after degradation...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
John R Lawrence, Marcus Winkler, Thomas R Neu
Although methanol has frequently been used as an inexpensive supplementary carbon source to support treatment processes, knowledge of the resultant microbial biofilms, their 3D architecture, microenvironments, exopolymer chemistry and populations remains limited. We supplied methanol as a supplementary carbon source to biofilms developing in rotating annular reactors. Analysis of circulation waters (1.0 l d-1 ) indicated that dissolved organic carbon was reduced by 25%, NO3 -nitrogen by 95%, and total phosphorus by 70%...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sajad Mohd Wani, F A Masoodi, Mukhtar Ahmad, Sajad Ahmad Mir
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of processing methods and storage periods on the three apricot varieties viz. CITH-1, CITH-2 and New Castle. Apricots were processed by freezing and canning of pulp and drying of whole apricots. After processing these were analysed for various physicochemical and antioxidant properties for a storage period of 12 months at 4 month interval. The results for physicochemical properties like moisture content, TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars showed significant variation with respect to varieties and processing methods during storage...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Fangxu Xu, Yefei Liu, Xiufeng Shan, Shenghou Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) combined with nano-packaging on quality of pleurotus eryngii stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 days. Texture, respiration rate, soluble protein, soluble sugar, weight loss, soluble solid, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of treated pleurotus eryngii were determined. The results suggested that 1-MCP treatment combined with nano-packaging reduce respiration rate, weight loss and MDA content, delayed the decrease of soluble protein content, and maintained soluble sugar and soluble solid content of treated pleurotus eryngii during the storage at 4 ± 1 °C compared with the untreated samples...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Debora Collotta, Laura Lucarini, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Mariaconcetta Durante, Silvia Sgambellone, Jacopo Chini, Francesca Baratta, Manuela Aragno, Raffaella Mastrocola, Emanuela Masini, Massimo Collino
Background: D-tagatose is an isomer of fructose and is ~90% as sweet as sucrose with less caloric value. Nowadays, D-tagatose is used as a nutritive or low-calorie sweetener. Despite clinical findings suggesting that D-tagatose could be beneficial in subjects with type 2 diabetes, there are no experimental data comparing D-tagatose with fructose, in terms of metabolic derangements and related molecular mechanisms evoked by chronic exposure to these two monosaccharides. Materials and methods: C57Bl/6j mice were fed with a control diet plus water (CD), a control diet plus 30% fructose syrup (L-Fr), a 30% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr), a control diet plus 30% D-tagatose syrup (L-Tg), or a 30% D-tagatose solid diet plus water (S-Tg), during 24 weeks...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Kazumi Ninomiya, Shigenobu Ina, Aya Hamada, Yusuke Yamaguchi, Makoto Akao, Fumie Shinmachi, Hitoshi Kumagai, Hitomi Kumagai
Inhibiting starch hydrolysis into sugar could reduce postprandial blood glucose elevation and contribute to diabetes prevention. Here, both buckwheat and wheat albumin that inhibited mammalian α-amylase in vitro suppressed blood glucose level elevation after starch loading in vivo, but it had no effect after glucose loading. In contrast to the non-competitive inhibition of wheat α-amylase inhibitor, buckwheat albumin acted in a competitive manner. Although buckwheat α-amylase inhibitor was readily hydrolysed by digestive enzymes, the hydrolysate retained inhibitory activity...
October 15, 2018: Nutrients
Yunes Panahi, Reza Yekta, Gholamreza Dehghan, Samaneh Rashtbari, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ali A Moosavi-Movahedi
Aspirin (ASP) and pioglitazone (PGL) are the most common drugs that are widely used by diabetic patients to control the blood sugar and hinder cardiovascular diseases. The interaction between PGL and ASP is one of the important medical issues to clarify the safety of co-administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effect of co-administered ASP with PGL was investigated on the structure and catalytic function of catalase as a potential target in the liver. Based on our data, co-administration of ASP-PGL significantly enhanced the catalase activity in comparison with PGL alone...
October 13, 2018: Biochimie
Nelson Wang, Jan Haug Anonsen, Raimonda Viburiene, Joseph S Lam, Åshild Vik, Michael Koomey
The genus Neisseria includes three major species of importance to human health and disease ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae , N. meningitidis , and N. lactamica ) that express broad spectrum O -linked protein glycosylation systems. The potential for related pgl systems in other species in the genus, however, remains to be determined. Using a strain of N. elongata subsp. glycolytica , a unique tetrasaccharide glycoform consisting of di- N -acetylbacillosamine and glucose as the first two sugars followed by a rare sugar whose mass spectrometric fragmentation profile was most consistent with di- N -acetyl hexuronic acid and a N -acetylhexosamine at the non-reducing end has been identified...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Hui Wang, Yujun Jiang, Yashuo Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Xinyan Yang, Md Aslam Ali, Edward M Fox, Kari S Gobius, Chaoxin Man
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been widely applied because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little research has been done to evaluate their effects on Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen usually infecting infants and having a high fatality rate. The aims of this work were to investigate the antibacterial property of novel, synthesized, positively charged silver nanoparticles against C. sakazakii and to discuss the potential antibacterial mechanisms involved...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
O Konno, T Yokoyama, Y Kihara, Y Nakamura, T Ueno, H Takeuchi, H Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: Extended-release tacrolimus (TacER), administered once daily, offers improved adherence with reduced side effects while still maintaining an immunosuppressive potency equivalent to that of conventional tacrolimus preparations. METHODS: The study included 83 patients who received consecutive living-donor kidney transplants at our facility from June 2013 to December 2016. Comparisons were made between 48 cases of induction with TacER and 35 cases of induction with cyclosporine (CyA)...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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