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reducing sugar

Daisuke Sugiura, Eriko Betsuyaku, Ichiro Terashima
Background and Aims: Sink-source imbalance could cause an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; soluble sugar and starch) in source leaves. We aimed to clarify interspecific differences in how sink-source imbalance and TNC causes the downregulation of photosynthesis among three legume plants. The TNC in source leaves was altered by short-term manipulative treatments, and its effects on photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated. Methods: Soybean, French bean and azuki bean were grown under high nitrogen availability...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Maria do Carmo Matias Freire
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of simultaneous oral health risk behaviors and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: The study comprised data of 109,104 adolescents participating in the Brazilian National School-based Student Health Survey. The simultaneous presence of less frequent toothbrushing (E), current smoking (C), no visits to the dentist (D), low fruit intake (F), and high sugar intake (A) was assessed by comparison of observed/expected prevalence (OP/EP)...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Otaviana Cardoso Chaves, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Dário Alves da Silva Costa, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE) of 2009. The dependent variable (outcome) was the tertiles of BMI score (zBMI), and the main independent variable (exposure) was the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The models included age, school type, home goods and services score, and maternal schooling as adjustment variables...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
N T Q Alves, R M Ximenes, R J B Jorge, J A M Silveira, J V A Santos, F A P Rodrigues, P H S Costa, F A F Xavier, J S A M Evangelista, A Havt, V C G Soares, M H Toyama, A N A Oliveira, R M Araújo, R S Alves, H S A Monteiro
Bredemeyera floribunda roots are popularly used to treat snakebites in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil, and previous studies indicate the anti-ophidian actions of triterpenoid saponins found in its roots. To assess B. floribunda root extract (BFRE) activity against the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom (BjuV), antiphospholipasic, antiproteolytic, antihemorrhagic, antinecrotic, and anti-edematogenic activities were investigated in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and sugars, with rutin and saccharose being the major constituents of BFRE...
December 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Yee Jiun Kok, Lijuan Ye, Jeroen Muller, Dave Siak-Wei Ow, Xuezhi Bi
Malted barley is the main source for fermentable sugars used by yeasts in the traditional brewing of beers but its use has been increasingly substituted by unmalted barley and other raw grain adjuncts in recent years. The incorporation of raw grains is mainly economically driven, with the added advantage of improved sustainability, by reducing reliance on the malting process and its associated cost. The use of raw grains however, especially in high proportion, requires modifications to the brewing process to accommodate the lack of malt enzymes and the differences in structural and chemical composition between malted and raw grains...
December 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jie-Jun Xi, Hong-Yu Chen, Wan-Peng Bai, Rong-Chen Yang, Pei-Zhi Yang, Ru-Jin Chen, Tian-Ming Hu, Suo-Min Wang
Understanding the unusual physiological mechanisms that enable drought tolerance in xerophytes will be of considerable benefit because of the potential to identify novel and key genetic elements for future crop improvements. These plants are interesting because they are well-adapted for life in arid zones; Zygophyllum xanthoxylum , for example, is a typical xerophytic shrub that inhabits central Asian deserts, accumulating substantial levels of sodium (Na+ ) in its succulent leaves while growing in soils that contain very low levels of this ion...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
T M Sundfør, S Tonstad, M Svendsen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Weight loss diets affect food choices and control of eating. We evaluated the effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) vs. continuous energy restriction (CER) on nutritional composition and eating behavior. SUBJECT/METHODS: Individuals with BMI 30-45 kg/m2 , abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional metabolic syndrome component were randomized to IER vs. CER with similar energy restriction. Of 112 participants, 98 completed weighed dietary records and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire at baseline and three months...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M Laura Mascotti, Hemant Kumar, Quoc-Thai Nguyen, Maximiliano Juri Ayub, Marco W Fraaije
During the last decade the number of characterized F420 -dependent enzymes has significantly increased. Many of these deazaflavoproteins share a TIM-barrel fold and are structurally related to FMN-dependent luciferases and monooxygenases. In this work, we traced the origin and evolutionary history of the F420 -dependent enzymes within the luciferase-like superfamily. By a thorough phylogenetic analysis we inferred that the F420 -dependent enzymes emerged from a FMN-dependent common ancestor. Furthermore, the data show that during evolution, the family of deazaflavoproteins split into two well-defined groups of enzymes: the F420 -dependent dehydrogenases and the F420 -dependent reductases...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yang Yang, Changhui Zhao, Mengxue Diao, Shuning Zhong, Maocheng Sun, Bo Sun, Haiqing Ye, Tiehua Zhang
Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known edible and medicinal fungus widely grown in Asian countries. Polysaccharides from the Hericium erinaceus (HEP) are major biological macromolecules. It has been reported that HEP has multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory effects, anti-inflammatory effect, anti-chronic gastritis activity, and so on. In the current study, we investigated the biological property of HEP during gastrointestinal digestion. The results indicated that both simulated gastric and small intestinal digesta of HEP has better stimulation of probiotics growth than HEP alone, especially for Lactobacillus plantarum BG112...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Di Zhao, Lin Li, Thao T Le, Lotte Bach Larsen, Dan Xu, Wenjuan Jiao, Bulei Sheng, Bing Li, Xia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk proteins are widely used in food production and glycated by reducing sugar in many occasions. Although many works have reported the digestibility of glycated milk protein, most of them have focused on measuring degree of hydrolysis (DH), showing SDS-PAGE image of digests. Detail information on the changes in peptide composition of digests was seldom revealed. Therefore, in addition to measuring the DH and showing the SGS-PAGE images of digests, we also analyzed the peptidomics in digests using LC-ESI-MS/MS and Mascot database in this work to further reveal the influence of glycation on protein nutrition...
December 3, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Robert Heinsohn, George Olah, Matthew Webb, Rod Peakall, Dejan Stojanovic
Sex-biased mortality can lead to altered adult sex ratios (ASRs), which may in turn lead to harassment and lower fitness of the rarer sex and changes in the mating system. Female critically endangered swift parrots (Lathamus discolor) suffer high predation while nesting due to an introduced mammalian predator, the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps). High predation on females is causing severe population decline alongside strongly biased adult sex ratios (≥73% male). Our 6-year study showed that 50.5% of critically endangered swift parrot nests had shared paternity although the birds remained socially monogamous...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Verônica Priscila da Silva, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão, Evaldo Martins Pires, Marco Antonio Oliveira
Atta bisphaerica (Forel) is a leaf-cutting ant that specializes on grass and causes productivity losses in sugar cane fields and pastures. Three phorid species, Apocephalus attophilus (Borgmeier), Myrmosicarius grandicornis (Borgmeier) and Eibesfeldtphora bragancai (Brown), have been found parasitizing A. bisphaerica workers. These parasitoids can reduce plant material transported into the nests and ant traffic on the trails. Therefore, phorid flies have been considered potential biological control agents for leaf-cutting ants...
2018: PloS One
Andrew B Reinmann, Jessica R Susser, Eleonora M C Demaria, Pamela H Templer
Changes in growing season climate are often the foci of research exploring forest response to climate change. By contrast, little is known about tree growth response to projected declines in winter snowpack and increases in soil freezing in seasonally snow-covered forest ecosystems, despite extensive documentation of the importance of winter climate in mediating ecological processes. We conducted a 5-year snow-removal experiment whereby snow was removed for the first 4-5 weeks of winter in a northern hardwood forest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA...
November 30, 2018: Global Change Biology
Parvin Zarei, Mohammad Reza Rezvanfar, Hadi Ansarihadipour, Mostafa Delavar, Mahdi Abdollahi, Ali Khosrowbeygi
Background: Increased levels of reactive oxygen species is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) is a nonenzymatic antioxidant that restores other antioxidants. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial study has been designed to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on serum values of amylase, adenosine deaminase, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in women with T2DM...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Mei-Ling Han, Xiaofen Liu, Tony Velkov, Yu-Wei Lin, Yan Zhu, Mengyao Li, Heidi H Yu, Zhihui Zhou, Darren J Creek, Jing Zhang, Jian Li
Background: Polymyxins are a last-line class of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ; however, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy. Therefore, synergistic combination therapy is a crucial strategy to reduce polymyxin resistance. Methods: This study conducted untargeted metabolomics to investigate metabolic responses of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii clinical isolate, AB090342, to colistin and aztreonam alone, and their combination at 1, 4, and 24 h. Metabolomics data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics; metabolites showing ≥ 2-fold changes were subjected to bioinformatics analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Garima Tiwari, P Duraivadivel, Satyawati Sharma, Hariprasad P
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a precursor molecule of ethylene whose concentration is elevated in the plant subjected to biotic and abiotic stress. Several soil microorganisms are reported to produce ACC deaminase (ACCd) which degrades ACC thereby reducing stress ethylene in host plants. This study is aimed to apply ACCd producing beneficial rhizobacteria to improve biochemical parameters and cell wall properties of Panicum maximum exposed to salt and drought stress, focusing on bioethanol production...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Asif Mehmood, Anwar Hussain, Muhammad Irshad, Muhammad Hamayun, Amjad Iqbal, Hazir Rahman, Abdul Tawab, Ayaz Ahmad, Sultan Ayaz
Cinnamic acid (CA) is an allelochemical that inhibits the growth of root promoting soil microorganisms. To prevent the growth of soil microbes, CA modulates several metabolic pathways in host plants and soil microbes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on maize root growth, exudation of secondary metabolites and its interaction with beneficial endophyte Pz11. The endophyte Pz11 was isolated from the roots of drought stressed Asphodelus tenuifolius (wild onion). The Pz11 strain was identified as Fusarium culmorum by homology of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 18 S rDNA sequence...
November 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tainá Neves Ferreira, Daniela Pita-Pereira, Samara Graciane Costa, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Caroline Silva Moraes, Hector Manuel Díaz-Albiter, Fernando Ariel Genta
BACKGROUND: The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. Adults of this insect feed on blood (females only) or sugar from plant sources, but their digestion of carbohydrates is poorly studied. Beta-glycosides as esculin and amygdalin are plant compounds and release toxic compounds as esculetin and mandelonitrile when hydrolyzed. Beta-glucosidase and trehalase are essential enzymes in sand fly metabolism and participate in sugar digestion...
November 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maktum Muharja, Dimas Khoirul Umam, Dini Pertiwi, Jayyid Zuhdan, Tantular Nurtono, Arief Widjaja
The role of three kinds of surfactant (by means of PEG, Tween 80, and SDS) on subcritical water (SCW) hydrolysis of coconut husk towards the reducing sugar production was studied comprehensively. The addition of Tween gave a significant escalation of sugar yield below the cloud point (around 130 °C). The simultaneous hydrophobic and hydrophilic interaction between lignin and SDS drove the highest delignification and solubilization of monomeric sugar during SCW process. On the contrary, adding PEG showed an adverse effect on the subcritical condition...
November 22, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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