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Sullivan Fontesse, Stéphanie Demoulin, Florence Stinglhamber, Pierre Maurage
Dehumanization, defined as the denial of one's membership to humanity, is a process repeatedly reported in extreme contexts (e.g., genocides) but also in everyday life interactions. Some antecedents of dehumanizing experiences (e.g., social exclusion, negative stereotypes) have been reported among patients presenting psychiatric disorders, but dehumanization's experience remains completely unexplored in addictive disorders. We propose a theoretical model and research agenda to overcome this limitation and to improve our understanding of dehumanization's experience in psychiatry, with a special focus on alcohol-related disorders...
September 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
David P Fisher, Eric Johnson, Sebastien Haneuse, David Arterburn, Karen J Coleman, Patrick J O'Connor, Rebecca O'Brien, Andy Bogart, Mary Kay Theis, Jane Anau, Emily B Schroeder, Stephen Sidney
Importance: Macrovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, and medical management, including lifestyle changes, may not be successful at lowering risk. Objective: To investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery and incident macrovascular (coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular diseases) events in patients with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥35) aged 19 to 79 years with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011 in 4 integrated health systems in the United States (n = 5301) were matched to 14 934 control patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, observed diabetes duration, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015...
October 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Alina Yang, Xinyu Zhang, Ji Liu, Jessica Chow, Ron Adelman, Susan Forster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Luis Suarez-Arrones, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, Francisco Javier Núñez, Valter Di Salvo, Cristian Petri, Alessandro Buccolini, Rafael Angel Maldonado, Nacho Torreno, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
The aim of this study was to describe the changes in body composition, strength and sprint performance in response to an entire competitive season of football training supplemented with 2 inertial eccentric-overload training sessions a week in young male professional soccer players. Whole body and regional composition (assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), power output in half-squat and 40-m sprinting performance were evaluated in fourteen players. The eccentric-overload training consisted of training sessions a week of 1-2 sets of 10 exercises of upper-body and core (Day 1) and lower-body (Day 2), during the entire competitive season (27 weeks)...
2018: PloS One
Qian Long, Carol Kingdon, Fan Yang, Michael Dominic Renecle, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Meghan A Bohren, Ana Pilar Betran
BACKGROUND: China has witnessed a rapid increase of cesarean section (CS) rates in recent years. Several non-clinical factors have been cited as contributing to this trend including maternal request and perceived convenience. We aimed to assess preferences for mode of delivery and reasons for preferences for CS in China to inform the development of future interventions to mitigate unnecessary CSs, which are those performed in the absence of medical indications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review and included longitudinal, cross-sectional, and qualitative studies in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan that investigated preferences for mode of delivery among women and family members and health professionals, and the reasons underlying such preferences...
October 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ellinor Tengelin, Pia H Bülow, Ina Berndtsson, Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage
The documents and literature that regulate nursing education are based on certain values and knowledge, and the underlying power in the curriculum raises the question of how health care professionals are molded during the course of their education. Norm criticism is a concept with its roots in critical pedagogy and gender and queer studies, emphasizing the origins as well as the consequences of marginalization, power, and knowledge of what is generally accepted as "normal" and "true." Norm criticism is used in this article to analyze the documents and literature underlying a nursing program in Sweden, which are shown to include a sometimes politically correct rhetoric, but one lacking a firm basis in social justice values...
October 13, 2018: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Anna Cheshire, Damien Ridge, Lucy Clark, Peter White
PURPOSE: This study explored patient experiences of Guided graded Exercise Self-help (GES) delivered as part of a randomised controlled trial for people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. The trial found that GES was better than specialist medical care at reducing fatigue and improving physical functioning. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients reporting improvement (n = 9) and deterioration (n = 10), and analysis involved thematic "constant comparison...
October 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
J P Begly, Patrick S Buckley, Hajime Utsunomiya, Karen K Briggs, Marc J Philippon
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that hip arthroscopy is an effective treatment for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in professional athletes across a variety of sports. However, the return-to-play rates and postoperative performance of elite basketball players after hip arthroscopy are currently unknown. PURPOSE: To determine return-to-play rates and postoperative performance among professional basketball athletes after hip arthroscopy...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Steven Vanderstichelen, Joachim Cohen, Yanna Van Wesemael, Luc Deliens, Kenneth Chambaere
Ageing populations increasingly face chronic and terminal illnesses, emphasising the importance of palliative care and quality of life for terminally ill people. Facing resource constraints in professional healthcare, some governments expect informal caregivers like volunteers to assume a greater share of care provision. We know volunteers are present in palliative care and perform many roles, ranging from administration to providing companionship. However, we do not know how involved they are in the organisation of care and how healthcare organisations appraise their involvement...
October 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Manel Jellouli, Emira Ben Hamida, Yousra Hammi, Meriem Ferjani, Tahar Gargah
BACKGROUND: Teaching by the Clarification, Illustration, Application and Participation of Students (CIAP) approach is a method of participatory pedagogy that helps active learning to help the learner understand and integrate the new Knowledge to be able to apply them. The objectives of this work were to describe the conduct of a CIAP session and to evaluate this method of learning among students. METHODS: The session took place in a room in the Forensic Medicine Department of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis on April 18, 2017 for 60 minutes...
March 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Jason E Rao
There are 535 members of Congress, and only two of them are trained research scientists. Yet the greatest threats the United States and the world face today require science to solve them. Climate change, infectious disease, food and water security, loss of biodiversity, environmental degradation, energy shortages, terrorism, social inequality, the list goes on. What you may not realize is that science and scientific evidence is not necessarily informing the policies and programs that combat these threats. In this Perspective, I take you through my own professional path, from graduate student to senior policy advisor in former President Barack Obama's Office of Science and Technology Policy...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Lea Kauffmann, Stephanie Heinemann, Wolfgang Himmel, Olaf Hußmann, Thilo Schlott, Vivien Weiß
Non-pharmacological treatment of hospital patients with sleeping problems - the nurse perspective Abstract. BACKGROUND: Elderly patients suffer from sleep disturbances during hospitalization. These patients often receive hypnotics and sedatives; despite of the known risks and although non-pharmacological treatments are available. AIM: The study investigates the experiences of nurses when using non-pharmacological treatments for elderly patients with sleeping problems...
October 16, 2018: Pflege
Brendan O'Connell, Fiona Wilson, Noreen Boyle, Tom O'Dwyer, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Áine M Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of match play and a season of training on serum S100B concentration in male professional rugby players. To assess the influence of contact play, values were compared with age- and fitness-matched athletes not involved in a contact sport. METHODS: Over a 2-year period, blood samples were collected from 38 players in pre-season, end of season, and post-matches (within 2 h). A control group of rowers (n = 15) was assessed pre- and post-training...
October 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jenny Gray
The substantial and urgent threats to the prosperity of individual nonhuman animals and the survival of species necessitate a changed approach to conservation. The current practice of seeing conservation and animal welfare as contradictory goals is not helpful. It is proposed that the approach should bring together parties to address the common root causes and to find innovative ways to accommodate multiple interests by translating beautifully written and ethically complex theories into pragmatic tools. Compassionate conservation provides a contemporary framework for animal welfare professionals and ecologists to develop new approaches...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ron Kagan, Stephanie Allard, Scott Carter
Animal welfare concerns have plagued the professional zoo and aquarium field for decades. Societal differences remain concerning the well-being of animals, but it appears a shift is emerging. Scientific studies of animal welfare have dramatically increased, establishing that many previous concerns were not misguided public empathy or anthropomorphism. As a result, both zoo and aquarium animal welfare policy and science are now at the center of attention within the world's professional zoos and aquariums. It is now possible to view a future that embraces the well-being of individual captive exotic animals, as well as that of their species, and one in which professional zoos and aquariums are dedicated equally to advancing both...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Temple Grandin
Scientists are often reluctant to attribute emotions to nonhuman animals that are similar to human emotions. When the author published her early studies, reviewers prohibited the word fear. Fearful behavior had to be described as agitated. The core emotional systems described by Panksepp may provide a useful framework for people who work hands-on with animals. The core systems are fear, rage, panic (separation distress), seek, lust, nurture, and play. Some scientists who deny that animals have real emotions often fail to review important areas of the literature...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Hsueh-Fen Chen, J Mick Tilford, Fei Wan, Robert Schuldt
OBJECTIVES: To understand the association between agency-level CMS Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCC) risk scores and patient experience measures for home health. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We extracted variables from the 2014 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data for Home Health Agencies and Home Health Compare file. We applied fixed-effects models for the analyses. Our dependent variables included both global and composite patient experience measures...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Marlon P Mundt, Larissa I Zakletskaia
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to determine how changes in electronic health record (EHR) communication patterns in primary care teams relate to quality of care and costs for patients with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: EHR-extracted longitudinal observational study. METHODS: A total of 83 health professionals in 19 care teams at 4 primary care clinics associated with a large Midwestern university participated in the study. Counts of messages routed between any 2 team members in the EHR in the past 18 months were extracted...
October 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Xiao Tao Niu, Jun Fan, Sheng Wang, Qiu Ming Wang
The rapid and accurate measurement of LAI is of great importance for the research of ecological processes. Photos from typical land use types in the northern Loess Plateau, including Caragana, Salix, alfalfa, wild grass, soybean and maize, were measured by digital hemispherical photography (DHP). Meanwhile, photos were daily taken by video camera with fisheye lens and the pictures were analyzed by image processing software to obtain the dynamics of LAI in soybean, maize and Caragana fields. The results showed that a linear correlation existed between the LAI measured by DHP and LAI-2200...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Dawn Doran, Susan Williamson, Karen Margaret Wright, Kinta Beaver
Following a diagnosis of prostate cancer, men require information and support from healthcare providers which is tailored to their individual needs. Studies reporting on the needs of gay men with prostate cancer, and their experiences of healthcare provision, are lacking. This study highlights the issues affecting this group of men and the implications for healthcare delivery in the United Kingdom. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 gay men who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. A phenomenological approach was used to collect and analyse data...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
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