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Energy requirements

Shuai Huang, Yunhe Wang, Si Shen, Yuting Tang, Ancan Yu, Bonan Kang, S Ravi P Silva, Geyu Lu
Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered promising energy power suppliers due to their light weight, printability, low-energy fabrication and roll-to-roll processability. Recently, the solution-processed NiOx nanoparticles have been a desirable interfacial material for hole transport in the PSCs, instead of organic semiconductors. However, pure NiOx films restrain the high performance of PSCs due to their poor electrical characteristics caused by the localized orbital distribution at the top of valence band...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
L R Allain, B C Pierce, W P Wuelfing, A C Templeton, R Helmy
This paper describes how the increased use of energy-efficient solid-state light sources (e.g., LED-based illumination) in hospitals, pharmacies, and at home can help alleviate concerns of photodegradation for pharmaceuticals. LED light sources, unlike fluorescent ones, do not have spurious spectral contributions < 400 nm. Since photostability is primarily evaluated in the ICHQ1B tests with older fluorescent bulb standards (ISO10977), the amount of photodegradation observed can overpredict what happens in reality, as products are increasingly being stored and used in environments fitted with LED bulbs...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sisi He, Fenglou Ni, Yujin Ji, Lie Wang, Yunzhou Wen, Haipeng Bai, Gejun Liu, Ye Zhang, Youyong Li, Bo Zhang, Huisheng Peng
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to valuable chemical products is a promising strategy to store intermittent renewable energy and mitigate net greenhouse gas emissions. Among CO2 reduction products, formate has a high product value per electron, and can potentially be used in fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and pharmaceuticals synthesis. However, electrocatalysts for formate production have yet to exhibit the combination of high current density and high power conversion efficiency required for practical applications...
October 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Richard Coffey, Ugo Sardo, Léon Kautz, Victoria Gabayan, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz
Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on erythroid progenitor cells to promote their survival and differentiation to mature erythrocytes. Along with this canonical role, EPO is also reported to modulate energy metabolism, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. EPO also stimulates the production of the hormone erythroferrone (ERFE) which acts to suppress hepcidin production, thus increasing dietary iron absorption and mobilizing stored iron for use in erythropoiesis. ERFE (initially termed myonectin) was also reported have an effect on systemic lipid metabolism by promoting the clearance of nonesterifed fatty acids (NEFA) from circulation...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Daniël E van Loggerenberg, Pete N Laver, Jan G Myburgh, Christo J Botha
There are no data available on the use of hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to determine trace element concentrations in veterinary diagnostics. The hand-held XRF spectrometer is easy to use and does not require extensive training for the operator. In Sub-Saharan Africa with few centralised analytical laboratories equipped with expensive apparatus or mass spectrometry capabilities, trace element analysis using the hand-held XRF spectrometer provides an alternative. The objective of this study was to compare ovine hepatic copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) concentrations as obtained with the hand-held XRF spectrometer to those of a reference laboratory using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
October 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ari J Gartenberg, Robert H Pass, Scott Ceresnak, Lynn Nappo, Christopher M Janson
There are few data on the incidence of echocardiographic (echo) abnormalities following catheter ablation in children in the era of 3D mapping. Wide practice variation exists regarding routine post-ablation echo. We hypothesized a low incidence of clinically significant echo abnormalities following SVT ablation in otherwise healthy children. Single center data from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed; routine post-ablation echo was standard practice. Cases were categorized as utilizing fluoroscopy alone (FLUORO) or 3D mapping with a low fluoroscopic protocol (CARTO3)...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
S Narayanasamy, S Krishna, A K Prasad Shanbhogue, T A Flood, N Sadoughi, P Sathiadoss, N Schieda
This article presents an updated review of cystic renal mass imaging. Most cystic renal masses encountered incidentally are benign and can be diagnosed confidently on imaging and require no follow-up. Hyperattenuating masses discovered at unenhanced or single-phase enhanced computed tomography (CT) measuring between 20-70 HU are indeterminate and can be further investigated first by using ultrasound and, then with multi-phase CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); as the majority represent haemorrhagic/proteinaceous cysts (HPCs)...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
María Del Pilar Del Pozo, Adela Castelló, Carmen Vidal, Dolores Salas-Trejo, Carmen Sánchez-Contador, Carmen Pedraz-Pingarrón, Pilar Moreo, Carmen Santamariña, María Ederra, Rafael Llobet, Jesús Vioque, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, Virginia Lope
OBJECTIVES: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The present study evaluates the association between relative caloric intake and MD in Spanish women. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 3517 women were recruited from seven breast cancer screening centers. MD was measured by an experienced radiologist using craniocaudal mammography and Boyd's semi-quantitative scale. Information was collected through an epidemiological survey...
November 2018: Maturitas
Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masafumi Maseda, Masahiro Nakahashi, Hirokatsu Sawada, Koji Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Miyakata
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery in elderly patients is markedly influenced by osteoporosis causing additional vertebral fracture and loosening of pedicle screws (PS). This study aimed to investigate the association between mean bone density represented in Hounsfield units (HU) on spinal computed tomography (CT) and revision surgery for PJK or postoperative additional vertebral fracture following ASD surgery in elderly patients...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Xiaoming Liu, Yu Guo, Wen Li, Min Hua, Enjie Ding
Limited energy in each node is the major design constraint in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), especially in mine tunnel scenario where the WSNs are required to work perpetually. To overcome this limit, wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs) have been proposed and studied extensively over the last few years. To keep the sensor nodes working perpetually, one fundamental question is how to design the charging scheme. Considering the special tunnel scenario, this paper proposes a Complete Feasible Charging Strategy (CFCS) to ensure the whole WRSNs is working perpetually...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Kaiheng Guo, Zihao Wu, Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Weihua Song, Zhechao Hua, Xuewen Zhang, Xiujuan Kong, Xuchun Li, Jingyun Fang
The degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by the UV/H2 O2 and UV/chlorine processes was compared at practical concentrations in simulated drinking water and wastewater. In pure water, the UV/chlorine process performed better than the UV/H2 O2 process for the degradation of 16 PPCPs among the investigated 28 PPCPs under neutral conditions. Interestingly, the UV/chlorine approach was superior to the UV/H2 O2 approach for the removal of all PPCPs in simulated drinking water and wastewater at the same molar oxidant dosage...
August 27, 2018: Water Research
Thilo Wedel, Johannes Ackermann, Heiko Hagedorn, Liselotte Mettler, Nicolai Maass, Ibrahim Alkatout
PURPOSE: Educational training of laparoscopic skills performed on body donors is considered the gold standard prior to surgery in living patients. Appropriate, safe, and feasible fixation of body donors, reflecting true-to-life conditions of tissues, is an essential prerequisite for training workshops. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we describe and evaluate a modified ethanol-glycerol-lysoformin-based fixation technique. Body donors were fixed by perfusion (70% ethanol, 30% glycerol, 0...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Jorge Y P Palencia, Maíra Resende, Marina A G Lemes, Melissa F S A Mendes, Sudário R Silva, Lyssa Otani, Allan P Schinckel, Márvio L T Abreu, Vinícius S Cantarelli
Supplementary l-lysine sources include l-lysine HCl and l-lysine sulfate. L-Lysine sulfate contains at least 50% l-Lys and other components as residues from the fermentation process, other amino acids, and other organic and inorganic substances, being an alternative to l-Lys HCl. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of l-Lys sulfate in comparison with l-Lys HCl and its effects on performance, blood parameters, intestinal functionality, and the apparent total tract digestibility in nursery piglets...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
F S Mozer, O V Agapitov, B Giles, I Vasko
Despite the importance of millisecond duration spatial structures [chorus wave nonlinearity or time domain structures (TDS)] to plasma dynamics, there have been no direct observations of the generation and interaction of these waves and TDS with electrons at the millisecond timescale required for their understanding. Through superposition of 0.195 ms Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellite electron measurements inside 37 superposed, millisecond duration electron holes, the first observations of electron spectra and pitch angle distributions on a submillisecond timescale have been obtained...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Roberta Stofeles Cecon, Eliane Rodrigues de Faria, Franciane Rocha de Faria, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Juliana Farias de Novaes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement of the body adiposity index (BAI) and paediatric body adiposity index (BAIp) in estimating body fat compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to propose cut-off points for these indices to classify excess adiposity in Brazilian children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Measures of weight, height, hip circumference, BMI and body fat percentage (%BF) assessed by DXA were taken, and BAI and BAIp were calculated...
October 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
David Allaway, Carlos H de Alvaro, Adrian Hewson-Hughes, Ruth Staunton, Penelope Morris, Janet Alexander
The protein leverage hypothesis proposes that the need to prioritise protein intake drives excess energy intake (EI) when the dietary ratio of protein to fat and carbohydrate is reduced. We hypothesised that cats may become prone to overconsuming energy content when moderate protein diets were offered, and considered the potential influence of fat and carbohydrate on intake. To determine the effect of dietary protein and macronutrient profile (MNP) on EI, weight and body composition, cats (1-4 years) were offered food in excess of energy requirements (ER)...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
William A Cramer
Structure-function studies of the cytochrome b6 f complex, the central hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complex in the electron transport chain of oxygenic photosynthesis, which formed the basis for a high-resolution (2.5 Å) crystallographic solution of the complex, are described. Structure-function differences between the structure of subunits of the bc complexes, b6 f, and bc1 from mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria, which are often assumed to function identically, are discussed. Major differences which suggest that quinone-dependent electron transport pathways can vary in b6 f and bc1 complexes are as follows: (a) an additional c-type heme, cn , and bound single copies of chlorophyll a and β-carotene in the b6 f complex; and (b) a cyclic electron transport pathway that encompasses the b6 f and PSI reaction center complexes...
October 11, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
M Melissa Rojas-Downing, A Pouyan Nejadhashemi, Behin Elahi, Kimberly A Cassida, Fariborz Daneshvar, J Sebastian Hernandez-Suarez, Mohammad Abouali, Matthew R Herman, Sabah Anwer Dawood Al Masraf, Timothy Harrigan
Livestock productions require significant resources allocation in the form of land, water, energy, air, and capital. Meanwhile, owing to increase in the global demand for livestock products, it is wise to consider sustainable livestock practices. In the past few decades, footprints have emerged as indicators for sustainability assessment. In this study, we are introducing a new footprint measure to assess sustainability of a grazing dairy farm while considering carbon, water, energy, and economic impacts of milk production...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Management
Nicolas Kaeffer, Christopher D Windle, Romain Brisse, Corinne Gablin, Didier Leonard, Bruno Jousselme, Murielle Chavarot-Kerlidou, Vincent Artero
Dye-sensitized photo-electrochemical cells (DS-PECs) form an emerging technology for the large-scale storage of solar energy in the form of (solar) fuels because of the low cost and ease of processing of their constitutive photoelectrode materials. Preparing such molecular photocathodes requires a well-controlled co-immobilization of molecular dyes and catalysts onto transparent semiconducting materials. Here we used a series of surface analysis techniques to describe the molecular assembly of a push-pull organic dye and a cobalt diimine-dioxime catalyst co-grafted on a p-type NiO electrode substrate...
August 28, 2018: Chemical Science
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