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Fathimath Naseer, Asim Shabbir, Barbara Livingstone, Ruth Price, Nicholas L Syn, Orla Flannery
In bariatric practice, a preoperative weight loss of at least 5% is recommended. However, the hypocaloric diets prescribed vary and no consensus exists. This study examined the efficacy of preoperative diets in achieving 5% weight loss. From a systematic literature search, eight randomised controlled trials (n = 862) were identified. Half of the trials used a "very-low-calorie diet" whilst the rest employed a "low-calorie diet". Only five diets achieved ≥ 5% weight loss over varying durations and energy intakes...
August 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Erik S Schneider, Christoph J Kleineidam, Gerd Leitinger, Heinrich Römer
In many acoustic insects, mate finding and mate choice are primarily based on acoustic signals. In several species with high-intensity calling songs, such as the studied katydid Mecopoda sp., males exhibit an increase in their thoracic temperature during singing, which is linearly correlated with the amount of energy invested in song production. If this increased body temperature is used by females as an additional cue to assess the male's quality during mate choice, as has been recently hypothesized ("hot-male" hypothesis), thermosensory structures would be required to evaluate this cue...
August 15, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Te-Hui Wu, Chih-Tse Chang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Shaikh Parwaiz, Chih-Chung Lai, Yu-Ze Chen, Shih-Yuan Lu, Yu-Lun Chueh
Few-layer graphene sheet-passivated porous silicon (PSi) as an outstanding electrochemical double-layer supercapacitor electrode was demonstrated. The PSi matrix was formed by electrochemical etching of a doped silicon wafer and was further surface-passivated with few-layer graphene sheets by a Ni-assisted chemical vapor deposition process where a wide range of porous PSi structures, including mesoporous, macroporous, and hybrid porous structures were created during the graphene growth as temperature increases...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Kathryn E Darras, Sheldon J Clark, Heejun Kang, Mohammed F Mohammed, Sarah Barrett, Silvia D Chang, Alison C Harris, Savvas Nicolaou, Patrick D McLaughlin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) in the detection of peritoneal metastatic disease in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis and to compare this technique to the conventional 120 kV mixed dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained with no informed consent required for this retrospective analysis. 43 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed peritoneal disease were scanned using a standard protocol on a 128-section dual-source, dual-energy CT system (100/140 keV)...
August 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Theresa Maria Rottmann, Carolin Fritz, Norbert Sauer, Ruth Stadler
Pollen tube growth requires a high amount of metabolic energy and precise targeting towards the ovules. Sugars, especially glucose, can serve as nutrient and as signaling molecules. Unexpectedly, in vitro assays revealed an inhibitory effect of glucose on pollen tube elongation, contradicting the hypothesis that monosaccharide uptake is a source of nutrition for growing pollen tubes. Measurements with FRET-based nanosensors revealed that glucose is taken up into pollen tubes and that the intracellular concentration is in the low micromolar range...
August 17, 2018: Plant Cell
Murad Alam, Rebecca Tung
Injectable fillers and neuromodulators are used for a range of indications pertaining to the correction of facial aging and disfigurement. Fillers can correct soft tissue loss, depressed scars, and atrophy or asymmetry induced by systemic or local disease. Neuromodulators correct muscle-mediated skin creases, reshape the face, and address right-left functional asymmetry. Among the prepackaged injectable fillers approved by the US Food and Drug administration are hyaluronic acid derivatives, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L-lactic acid; neuromodulators include three types of botulinum toxin type A and one type of type B...
September 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Peiqi Zhou, Shengming Wang, Xingjun Wang, Yandong He, Zhiping Zhou, Linjie Zhou, Kan Wu
Erbium-doped materials have played an important role in the fabrication of light sources used in silicon photonics. Recent studies demonstrated that erbium silicate nanowire had a high net gain attributable to its high erbium concentration and excellent material quality. We establish a more accurate and comprehensive theoretical model of erbium silicate nanowire, analyze the modeled nanowire's properties, and optimize a high-gain erbium silicate waveguide amplifier and low-threshold, high-efficiency laser by considering upconversion, energy transfer, and amplified spontaneous emission...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Lei Wang, Tianjiao Meng, Chunxia Chen, Yanwei Fan, Qianqian Zhang, Huan Wang, Yufan Zhang
The construction of highly active and stable non-noble metal electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a crucial requirement for green energy utilization. Herein, we report a novel hybrid nanostructure of Zn/Co bimetallic oxide (Znx Co3-x O4 ) hollow polyhedron through a pyrolysis-oxidation strategy derived from bimetallic Zn, Co-zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZnCo-ZIFs) rhombic polyhedral. Benefiting from the synergistic effects between highly active metal oxide and the unique polyhedron structure, the Znx Co3-x O4 hollow polyhedron hybrid displayed outstanding electrocatalytic performances in alkaline media...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Feng Gao, Chuan-Lu Yang, Mei-Shan Wang, Xiao-Guang Ma, Wen-Wang Liu
The feasibility of the hybrid nanocomposites of the graphene quantum dot (GQD) and the phenoxazine-based dyes as the efficient sensitizer of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated. Based on the first principles density functional theory (DFT), the geometrical structures of the separate GQDs, the phenoxazine-based dyes, and their hybridized nanocomposites are fully optimized. The energy stabilities of the obtained structures are confirmed by harmonic frequency analysis. The optical absorptions of the optimized structures are calculated with the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT)...
August 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jonathan G Van Vranken, Sara M Nowinski, Katie J Clowers, Mi-Young Jeong, Yeyun Ouyang, Jordan A Berg, Jeremy P Gygi, Steven P Gygi, Dennis R Winge, Jared Rutter
The electron transport chain (ETC) is an important participant in cellular energy conversion, but its biogenesis presents the cell with numerous challenges. To address these complexities, the cell utilizes ETC assembly factors, which include the LYR protein family. Each member of this family interacts with the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), the scaffold protein upon which the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) pathway builds fatty acyl chains from acetyl-CoA. We demonstrate that the acylated form of ACP is an acetyl-CoA-dependent allosteric activator of the LYR protein family used to stimulate ETC biogenesis...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Cell
Luis Ruiz Pestana, Ondrej Marsalek, Thomas E Markland, Teresa Head-Gordon
Developing accurate ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) models that capture both electronic reorganization and nuclear quantum effects associated with hydrogen bonding is key to quantitative understanding of bulk water and its anomalies, as well as its role as a universal solvent. For condensed phase simulations, AIMD has typically relied on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Density Functional Theory (DFT) as the underlying model chemistry for the potential energy surface, with nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) sometimes modeled by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations at elevated temperatures...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yating Hu, Yue Wu, John Wang
Of the transition metals, Mn has the greatest number of different oxides, most of which have a special tunnel structure that enables bulk redox reactions. The high theoretical capacitance and capacity results from a greater number of accessible oxidation states than other transition metals, wide potential window, and the high natural abundance make MnOx species promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Although MnOx electrode materials have been intensely studied over the past decade, their electrochemical performance is still insufficient for practical applications...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yang Yang, Qingliang Zeng, Jiehan Zhou, Lirong Wan, Kuidong Gao
To improve the safety and the stability of the support under mines and reduce the cost, we design a new slipper-type hydraulic support with energy-efficiency and high reliability. To study its dynamics, we build a reverse kinematics model. We analyze the motion and the force for each component of the new support with a simulation in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that it has appropriate structures with the required four-bar linkages. To compare the performance between the new slipper-type support and the traditional support, we design their mechanics models, deduce their mechanics relations and obtain the force curves for each component of both supports under the same loads...
2018: PloS One
Pedro Henrique de Araujo Carvalho, Ana Luiza da Costa Cruz Borges, Ricardo Reis E Silva, Helena Ferreira Lage, Paolo Antônio Dutra Vivenza, José Reinaldo Mendes Ruas, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, Rodrigo Liberio Araújo Palhano, Lúcio Carlos Gonçalves, Iran Borges, Eloísa de Oliveira Simões Saliba, Diogo Gonzaga Jayme, Antônio Último de Carvalho
The aim of this study was to determine the energy metabolism and partition of lactating Gyr and F1 Holstein x Gyr (F1 HxG) cows in different planes of nutrition. Six F1 HxG and six Gyr cows with 130 days in milking (DIM) fed corn silage and concentrate were evaluated. The experiment consisted of four periods with different levels of feeding: 1st ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) and the others with 5, 10 and 20% restricted DMI, related to the first one. An apparent digestibility assay was performed before measurements in the respiration chamber...
2018: PloS One
Ben Heidenreich, Matthew Reece, Tom Rudelius
The Ooguri-Vafa swampland conjectures claim that in any consistent theory of quantum gravity, when venturing to large distances in scalar field space, a tower of particles will become light at a rate that is exponential in the field-space distance. We provide a novel viewpoint on this claim: If we assume that a tower of states becomes light near a particular point in field space, and we further demand that loop corrections drive both gravity and the scalar to strong coupling at a common energy scale, then the requirement that the particles become light exponentially fast in the field-space distance in Planck units follows automatically...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ran Chen, Amin Morteza Najarian, Niraja Kurapati, Ryan James Balla, Alexander Oleinick, Irina Svir, Christian Amatore, Richard L McCreery, Shigeru Amemiya
Applications of conducting carbon materials for highly efficient electrochemical energy devices require a greater fundamental understanding of heterogeneous electron-transfer (ET) mechanisms. This task, however, is highly challenging experimentally, because an adsorbing carbon surface may easily conceal its intrinsic reactivity through adventitious contamination. Herein, we employ nanoscale scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry to gain new insights into the interplay between heterogeneous ET and adsorption of a Co(III)/Co(II)-complex redox couple at the contamination-free surface of electron-beam-deposited carbon (eC)...
August 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sanjay Keshri, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin
A holographic optical element (HOE) was developed to collimate a monochromatic light-emitting diode (LED). The fabrication was achieved by the interference of collimated and diverging beams from a 532 nm laser to produce the required photonic structure in a self-developing photopolymer material. The experimental values of diffraction efficiency and spatial period across the HOE were compared with their expected theoretical values. Good agreement was found for the spatial period; however, the diffraction efficiency varied significantly across the lens...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Kaiqiang Zhang, Na Jia, Songyan Li, Lirong Liu
In this study, mineral oil‒water fluid miscibility without and with the additions of the surfactant-decorated nanoparticles is experimentally and theoretically studied. First, three series of interfacial tension (IFT) tests are conducted from the spinning drop tensiometer (SDT) with the additions of the hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-decorated SiO2 nanoparticles at different concentrations. Second, a new comprehensive thermodynamic model is developed to describe the fluid miscibility without and with the addition of the surfactant-decorated nanoparticles, which is also applied to theoretically reveal that how the surfactant-decorated nanoparticles contribute to the thermodynamic miscibility state...
August 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
Silvan Kretschmer, Mikhail Maslov, Sadegh Ghaderzadeh, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl, Gregor Hlawacek, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
Focused ion beams perfectly suit for patterning two-dimensional (2D) materials, but the optimization of irradiation parameters requires full microscopic understanding of defect production mechanisms. Contrary to free-standing 2D systems, the details of damage creation in supported 2D materials are not fully understood, while the majority of experiments have been carried out for 2D targets deposited on substrates. Here we suggest a universal and computationally efficient scheme to model the irradiation of supported 2D materials, which combines analytical potential molecular dynamics with Monte Carlo simulations and makes it possible to assess independently the contributions to the damage from backscattered ions and atoms sputtered from the substrate...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Geoffrey M Chambers, Eric S Wiedner, R Morris Bullock
H2 is used on a huge scale industrially, and has received increased attention for chemical energy storage. Oxidation of H2 in a fuel cell converts the chemical energy of the H-H bond into electricity. Electrocatalytic oxidation of H2 by molecular catalysts typically requires one metal to perform multiple chemical steps: bind H2, heterolytically cleave H2, and then undergo two oxidation and two deprotonation steps. We discovered the electrocatalytic oxidation of H2 by a cooperative system using Cp*Cr(CO)3H and [Fe(diphosphine)(CO)3]+...
August 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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