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Prématurity And Brain

Maëlle Wirth, Aurélie Naud, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Isabelle Clerc-Urmès, Jean-Michel Hascoët
Introduction: Visual impairment is a concern in premature infants as perinatal factors may alter maturation during visual development. This observational study aimed at evaluating visual maturation at term equivalent age and factors associated with impaired visual maturation. Methods: Infants born before 32 weeks' gestation were evaluated with routine brain MRI, visual acuity, refraction, fundus, and clinical eye examination. Environmental factors were collected from infant's files. Results: Fifty-four infants (29...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Caroline Hartley, Fiona Moultrie, Amy Hoskin, Gabrielle Green, Vaneesha Monk, Jennifer L Bell, Andrew R King, Miranda Buckle, Marianne van der Vaart, Deniz Gursul, Sezgi Goksan, Edmund Juszczak, Jane E Norman, Richard Rogers, Chetan Patel, Eleri Adams, Rebeccah Slater
BACKGROUND: Infant pain has immediate and long-term effects but is undertreated because of a paucity of evidence-based analgesics. Although morphine is often used to sedate ventilated infants, its analgesic efficacy is unclear. We aimed to establish whether oral morphine could provide effective and safe analgesia in non-ventilated premature infants for acute procedural pain. METHODS: In this single-centre masked trial, 31 infants at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK, were randomly allocated using a web-based facility with a minimisation algorithm to either 100 μg/kg oral morphine sulphate or placebo 1 h before a clinically required heel lance and retinopathy of prematurity screening examination, on the same occasion...
November 30, 2018: Lancet
Jelle C L Himmelreich, Wim A M Lucassen, Martijn Heugen, Patrick M M Bossuyt, Hanno L Tan, Ralf E Harskamp, Faridi S van Etten-Jamaludin, Henk C P M van Weert
Aims: Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are a common cardiac phenomenon, traditionally considered to be of little clinical significance. Recent studies, however, suggest that PACs are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), as well as ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and mortality. This systematic review aims to investigate the association between PACs on standard electrocardiogram (ECG) as well as PAC-count on Holter monitor and future detection of AF, brain ischaemia, and all-cause mortality in patients without a history of AF...
December 1, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent enthusiasm for cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of chronic pain and some forms of epilepsy, raises the question of whether they could be useful for other disorders associated with abnormal neuronal activity in the brain, such as subjective tinnitus. Indeed, there is evidence to indicate that some tinnitus sufferers self-medicate using Cannabis. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence relating to the effects of cannabinoids on tinnitus...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jérôme Mairesse, Manuela Zinni, Julien Pansiot, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Charlie Demene, Marina Colella, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Mickael Tanter, Stefania Maccari, Pierre Gressens, Daniel Vaiman, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Olivier Baud
Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. We used a double-hit rat model of perinatal brain injury induced by gestational low protein diet (LPD) and potentiated by postnatal injections of subliminal doses of interleukin-1β (IL1β) and a zebrafish model of neuroinflammation...
December 2, 2018: Glia
Eva Morsing, Mariya Malova, Anna Kahn, Jimmy Lätt, Isabella M Björkman-Burtscher, Karel Maršál, David Ley
Background: Children born very preterm (PT) after fetal growth restriction (FGR) exhibit cognitive impairment at early school age. The relationship between neurodevelopmental impairment and attained regional brain volumes is unknown. Methods: We studied 23 preterm children with FGR (PT-FGR), 24 matched preterm children AGA (PT-AGA), and 27 matched term AGA children (T-AGA) by measuring brain volumes with magnetic resonance imaging at early school age. Cognitive and motor functions were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children and the ABC-Movement score...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Beatriz Salamanca-Zarzuela, María Elena Infante López, Carlos Alcalde Martín
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of phenylalanine (phe) metabolism caused by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phe into tyrosine. If left untreated, PKU results in increased phe concentrations in the blood and in the brain, which cause severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and behavioral problems. These disorders can be prevented if a diet low in phe is introduced. This report focuses on a preterm newborn (gestational age 29 wk) with adequate weight (1290 g) and no family history of PKU...
August 20, 2018: Nutrition
Xiaomin Chen, Jing Jin, Qiongdan Wang, Huangqi Xue, Na Zhang, Yaoqiang Du, Tao Zhang, Bing Zhang, Jinyu Wu, Zhenwei Liu
Recent whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies have demonstrated the contribution of de novo mutations (DNMs) to epileptic encephalopathies (EEs). Here we performed WES on four trios with West syndrome and identified three loss-of-function DNMs in both CSNK1E (c.885+1G>A) and STXBP1 (splicing, c.1111-2A>G; nonsense, p.(Y519X)). The splicing mutation in CSNK1E creates insertion of 116 new amino acids at position 246 followed by a premature stop codon. Both CSNK1E and STXBP1 showed a closer coexpression relationship with epilepsy candidate genes beyond that expected by chance...
November 28, 2018: Human Mutation
Giulia Allavena, Barbara Del Bello, Paolo Tini, Nila Volpi, Giuseppe Valacchi, Clelia Miracco, Luigi Pirtoli, Emilia Maellaro
Cutaneous melanomas frequently metastasize to the brain, with temozolomide (TMZ) plus radiotherapy (RT) offering little control of these lesions. We tested whether trehalose, a natural glucose disaccharide proved to induce autophagy, could enhance the effect of TMZ and ionizing radiation (IR). In two melanoma cell lines (A375 and SK-Mel-28), which greatly differ in chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity, trehalose significantly inhibited short-term cell proliferation and also enhanced IR-induced cytostasis. Interestingly, in TMZ-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells, trehalose was more effective than TMZ, and combined trehalose + TMZ further reduced cell proliferation...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Prue Morgan, Jennifer L McGinley
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a lifespan motor disorder arising from damage to the developing brain before or shortly after birth. People with CP may experience problems with muscle coordination and difficulties with the organization and processing of sensory information. Functional mobility is impaired and commonly influenced by spasticity and musculoskeletal system problems such as contractures or bony torsion. Around 60% of individuals with CP are able to walk independently or with aids when entering adulthood...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Junghee Lee, Phuong T Nguyen, Hyun-Soo Shim, Seung Jae Hyeon, Hyeonjoo Im, Mi-Hyun Choi, Sooyoung Chung, Neil W Kowall, Sean Bong Lee, Hoon Ryu
Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) is a bone cancer arising predominantly in young children. EWSR1 (Ewing Sarcoma breakpoint region 1/EWS RNA binding protein 1) gene is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types, indicating it has diverse roles in various cellular processes and organ development. Recently, several studies have shown that missense mutations of EWSR1 genes are known to be associated with central nervous system disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Otherwise, EWSR1 plays epigenetic roles in gene expression, RNA processing, and cellular signal transduction...
November 24, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Francesc Pérez-Brangulí, Isabel Y Buchsbaum, Tatyana Pozner, Martin Regensburger, Wenqiang Fan, Annika Schray, Tom Börstler, Himanshu Mishra, Daniela Gräf, Zacharias Kohl, Jürgen Winkler, Benedikt Berninger, Silvia Cappello, Beate Winner
SPG11 linked hereditary spastic paraplegia is a complex monogenic neurodegenerative disease that in addition to spastic paraplegia is characterized by childhood onset cognitive impairment, thin corpus callosum and enlarged ventricles. We have previously shown impaired proliferation of SPG11 neural progenitor cells (NPCs). For delineation of potential defect in SPG11 brain development we employ 2D culture systems and 3D human brain organoids derived from SPG11 patients' iPSC and controls. We reveal that an increased rate of asymmetric divisions of neural progenitor cells leads to proliferation defect, causing premature neurogenesis...
November 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Reali
Breast Milk (BM) is the best source of nutrition for newborns, especially if premature. In fact, its beneficial impact on short- and long-term neonatal outcome has was deeply described. Unfortunately, BM could not be always so safe, especially due to the possible presence of maternal viruses that can shed and transferred to the breastfed neonate. Among these, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can potentially lead to a serious and acute illness, mostly in case of low gestational age. Some studies also report the association of CMV-acquired infection to an increased risk of structural and functional brain modifications and neurological impairment...
November 25, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Davinia E Withington, Razaz Mujallid, Zainab Al Sabaa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As little as 30 minutes of exposure to anesthetic and sedative agents may adversely affect the developing brain. Safe, humane management of critically ill infants requires the use of sedative agents, often for prolonged periods. We sought to identify two comparable groups of critical care patients who did or did not receive sedatives, with the aim of designing a long-term neuro-development follow-up study. This feasibility study aimed to determine if two comparable groups could be found...
November 25, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Jing Lu, Erika C Claud
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in preterm infants predisposes the neonate to various major morbidities including neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit, and adverse neurological outcomes later in life. There are parallel early developmental windows for the gut microbiota and the nervous system during prenatal to postnatal of life. Therefore, preterm infants represent a unique population in which optimization of initial colonization and microbiota development can affect brain development and enhance neurological outcomes...
November 20, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Sara Reardon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Nature
Kathleen Hübner, Pauline Cabochette, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Cora Wiesner, Yuki Wakayama, Kathrin S Grassme, Marvin Hubert, Stefan Guenther, Heinz-Georg Belting, Markus Affolter, Ralf H Adams, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Wiebke Herzog
Canonical Wnt signaling is crucial for vascularization of the central nervous system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation. BBB formation and modulation are not only important for development, but also relevant for vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. However, there is little understanding of how Wnt signaling contributes to brain angiogenesis and BBB formation. Here we show, using high resolution in vivo imaging and temporal and spatial manipulation of Wnt signaling, different requirements for Wnt signaling during brain angiogenesis and BBB formation...
November 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Cinzia M Bellettato, Maurizio Scarpa
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a heterogeneous group of in-born metabolic conditions caused by genetic defects that result in the absence or severe deficiency of one of the lysosomal hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Such enzyme deficiency causes accumulation of GAGs that begins in infancy and progressively worsens, often affecting several organs including the central nervous system (CNS) inducing mental retardation, progressive neurodegeneration, and premature death...
November 16, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Zachary A Vesoulis, Nathalie M El Ters, Maja Herco, Halana V Whitehead, Amit M Mathur
Although the most common forms of brain injury in preterm infants have been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, existing MRI scoring systems lack specificity, do not incorporate clinical factors, and are technically challenging to perform. The objective of this study was to develop a web-based, clinically-focused prediction system which differentiates severe neurodevelopmental outcomes from normal-moderate outcomes at two years. Infants were retrospectively identified as those who were born ≤30 weeks gestation and who had MRI imaging at term-equivalent age and neurodevelopmental testing at 18⁻24 months...
November 14, 2018: Children
John M Or Toole, Eugene M Dempsey, Geraldine B Boylan
Many infants born prematurely develop brain injury within the first few days after birth. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a safe technology that can continuously monitor the varying levels of oxygenation in the brain. Analysis of this signal has the potential to detect the onset of brain injury. We develop a method that extracts transient waveforms from the oxygenation signal. This method uses the cosine transform and singular-spectrum analysis to decompose the signal. We test different procedures to select a threshold for estimating the transient component...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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