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Prématurity And Brain

Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls...
February 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
S Uday, S Sakka, J H Davies, T Randell, V Arya, C Brain, M Tighe, J Allgrove, P Arundel, R Pryce, W Högler, N J Shaw
OBJECTIVES: Hypophosphataemic rickets (HR) is usually secondary to renal phosphate wasting but may occur secondary to reduced intake or absorption of phosphate. We describe a series of cases of HR associated with the use of Neocate® , an amino-acid based formula (AAF). METHODS: A retrospective review of cases with HR associated with AAF use presenting to centres across the United Kingdom. RESULTS: 10 cases were identified, over a 9 month period, all associated with Neocate® use...
September 28, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
David J Supeck, Senait Assefa, William Meek, J Thomas Curtis, Gerwald A Köhler
Intestinal epithelium develops during gestation and continues to mature post-natally into a selective barrier that will protect the individual while still allowing passage of nutrients. Until fully mature, the risk of translocation of microorganisms, toxins or antigens into the sub-epithelial tissue is high and could result in pathologies with life-altering consequences, or even premature death. Because of their monogamous mating system, prairie voles are an emerging model for studying the role of the intestinal microbiota in modulating social behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain-behavior axis...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Runshuai Zhang, Xiaomei Ke, Kongyue Wu, Hao Shen, Emile Nibona, Abdullah Al Hafiz, Xiaoting Liang, Weiyuan Ye, Qingchun Zhou, Xueping Zhong, Haobin Zhao
Bcl6B, also known as BAZF, plays important roles in the immune response, repression of cancers, and maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. In this study, the homologous gene bcl6b and its 5 alternative splicing variants, namely bcl6bX1 to bcl6bX5, were isolated from medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. Medaka bcl6b possesses conserved domains such as BTB domain, RD2 domain and four zinc fingers. Medaka bcl6bX1 to bcl6bX3 possess all three previously mentioned domains with minor differences in sequences...
October 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Andrew Martin, Alpana Ghadge, Paolo Manzoni, Kei Lui, Rebecca Brown, William Tarnow-Mordi
INTRODUCTION: Very-low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants comprise about 1%-1.4% of all births in high-income countries. Every year, about 3000 VLBW babies in Australia and New Zealand receive intensive care. Many die or else survive with severe brain injury, retinopathy, late-onset sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), each of which carries substantial risk of disability. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This trial tests whether adding bovine lactoferrin (bLF) to feeds in VLBW infants improves (1) survival to hospital discharge free from brain injury, late-onset sepsis, NEC and treated retinopathy of prematurity (primary composite end point); (2) each component of the primary composite end point and (3) time to reach full enteral feeds, number of blood transfusions, chronic lung disease and length of hospital stay...
October 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Amanda Benavides, Andrew Metzger, Alexander Tereschenko, Amy Conrad, Edward F Bell, John Spencer, Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Michael Georgieff, Vince Magnotta, Peg Nopoulos
BACKGROUND: The literature on brain imaging in premature infants is mostly made up of studies that evaluate neonates, yet the most dynamic time of brain development happens from birth to 1 year of age. This study was designed to obtain quantitative brain measures from magnetic resonance imaging scans of infants born prematurely at 12 months of age. METHODS: The subject group was designed to capture a wide range of gestational age (GA) from premature to full-term infants...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jared T Field, Matthew D Martens, Wajihah Mughal, Yan Hai, Donald Chapman, Grant M Hatch, Tammy L Ivanco, William Diehl-Jones, Joseph W Gordon
The cellular response to hypoxia involves the activation of a conserved pathway for gene expression regulated by the transcription factor complex called hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). This pathway has been implicated in both the adaptive response to hypoxia and in several hypoxic-ischemic-related pathologies. Perinatal hypoxic injury, often associated with prematurity, leads to multi-organ dysfunction resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Using a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia and several representative cell lines, we observed HIF1α activation and down-stream induction of the cell death gene Bnip3 in brain, large intestine, and heart which was mitigated by administration of the prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Roxanne Bélanger, Chantal Mayer-Crittenden, Michèle Minor-Corriveau, Manon Robillard
Purpose: The developing brain of a premature infant is vulnerable to injury. As a result, the long-term consequences of a premature birth include motor deficits, cognitive and behavioural problems. It is crucial to identify motor dysfunction during the preschool period because it interferes with a child's ability to explore the world. The goals of this study were to (1) provide preliminary data on the gross motor outcomes of children born prematurely and (2) determine the proportion and characteristics of the children who had maintained delays over the course of follow-up...
2018: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
Safdar Hussain, Mengyao Sun, Yuanxu Guo, Nosheen Mushtaq, Yitong Zhao, Ying Yuan, Nazim Hussain, Ezra Osoro, Abubakar Suleiman, Muhammad Sadiq, Fujun Zhang, Yan Han, Jian Sun, Shemin Lu
SRY‑box 9 (SOX9) is the master regulator of the chondrocyte phenotype, which is essential for differentiating chondrogenic mesenchymal condensations into chondrocytes, and is involved in regulating every stage of chondrocyte differentiation. SOX9 deletion in chondrocytes at the late stages of cartilage development results in decreased chondrocyte proliferation; inhibited expression of cartilage matrix genes, including Indian hedgehog and the downstream parathyroid hormone‑related protein; and premature conversion of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which mineralize their matrix prematurely...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Caroline Diguisto, Laurence Foix L'Helias, Andrei S Morgan, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Gilles Kayem, Monique Kaminski, Franck Perrotin, Babak Khoshnood, Francois Goffinet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between active antenatal management and neonatal outcomes in extremely preterm newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This population-based cohort study was conducted in 25 regions of France. Infants born in 2011 between 220/7 and 266/7 weeks of gestation and admitted to a NICU were included. Infants with lethal congenital malformations or death in the delivery room were excluded. A multilevel multivariable analysis was performed, accounting for clustering by mother (multiple pregnancies) and hospital plus individual characteristics, to estimate the association between the main exposure of no active antenatal management (not receiving antenatal corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, or cesarean delivery for fetal indications) and a composite outcome of death or severe neonatal morbidity (including severe forms of brain or lung injury, retinopathy of prematurity, and necrotizing enterocolitis)...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Amanda Skoll, Amélie Boutin, Emmanuel Bujold, Jason Burrows, Joan Crane, Michael Geary, Venu Jain, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Jessica Liauw, William Mundle, Kellie Murphy, Suzanne Wong, K S Joseph
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and risks of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for women at risk of preterm birth or undergoing pre-labour Caesarean section at term and to make recommendations for improving neonatal and long-term outcomes. OPTIONS: To administer or withhold antenatal corticosteroid therapy for women at high risk of preterm birth or women undergoing pre-labour Caesarean section at term. OUTCOMES: Perinatal morbidity, including respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infection, hypoglycemia, somatic and brain growth, and neurodevelopment; perinatal mortality; and maternal morbidity, including infection and adrenal suppression...
September 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Ajay Rajaram, Gemma Bale, Matthew Kewin, Laura B Morrison, Ilias Tachtsidis, Keith St Lawrence, Mamadou Diop
Preterm infants born with very low birth weights are at a high risk of brain injury, in part because the premature brain is believed to be prone to periods of low cerebral blood flow (CBF). Tissue damage is likely to occur if reduction in CBF is sufficient to impair cerebral energy metabolism for extended periods. Therefore, a neuromonitoring method that can detect reductions in CBF, large enough to affect metabolism, could alert the neonatal intensive care team before injury occurs. In this report, we present the development of an optical system that combines diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for monitoring CBF and broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (B-NIRS) for monitoring the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) - a key biomarker of oxidative metabolism...
June 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Anne-Lotte L F van der Kooi, Eva Clemens, Linda Broer, Oliver Zolk, Julianne Byrne, Helen Campbell, Marleen van den Berg, Claire Berger, Gabriele Calaminus, Uta Dirksen, Jeanette Falck Winther, Sophie D Fosså, Desiree Grabow, Riccardo Haupt, Melanie Kaiser, Tomas Kepak, Leontien Kremer, Jarmila Kruseova, Dalit Modan-Moses, Andreas Ranft, Claudia Spix, Peter Kaatsch, Joop S E Laven, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, André G Uitterlinden, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink
BACKGROUND: Improved risk stratification, more effective therapy and better supportive care have resulted in survival rates after childhood cancer of around 80% in developed countries. Treatment however can be harsh, and three in every four childhood cancer survivors (CCS) develop at least one late effect, such as gonadal impairment. Gonadal impairment can cause involuntary childlessness, with serious consequences for the well-being of CCS. In addition, early menopause increases the risk of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis...
September 26, 2018: BMC Cancer
Bayu Sutarjono
Background: The emergence of human brain organoids represents a unique opportunity to better understand the genesis of congenital brain abnormalities, more strikingly microcephaly, caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy. Methodology/Results: A systematic review was conducted to investigate how ZIKV leads to microcephaly in a novel experimental model that mimics early brain development. Studies were gathered by searching MEDLINE/Pubmed, LILACS, and LiSSa of the effects of ZIKV infection on human brain organoids...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ashraf S Gorgey
Robotic exoskeletons have emerged as rehabilitation tool that may ameliorate several of the existing health-related consequences after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, evidence to support its clinical application is still lacking considering their prohibitive cost. The current mini-review is written to highlight the main limitations and potential benefits of using exoskeletons in the rehabilitation of persons with SCI. We have recognized two main areas relevant to the design of exoskeletons and to their applications on major health consequences after SCI...
September 18, 2018: World Journal of Orthopedics
Marina Colella, Manuela Zinni, Julien Pansiot, Michela Cassanello, Jérôme Mairesse, Luca Ramenghi, Olivier Baud
Neuroinflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury. Caffeine, a nonspecific antagonist of adenosine receptors (ARs), is widely used to treat apnea of prematurity and has been linked to a decrease in the incidence of cerebral palsy in premature infants. The mechanisms explaining its neuroprotective effect have not yet been elucidated. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of adenosine and ARs in two neonatal rat models of neuroinflammation and to determine the effect of A2aR blockade on microglial activation assessed through inflammatory cytokine gene expression...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ryan Swan, Sang Jin Kim, J Peter Campbell, R V Paul Chan, Kemal Sonmez, Kent D Taylor, Xiaohui Li, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Charles Simmons, Michael F Chiang
TOPIC: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease in premature infants, and is a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. In addition to known clinical risk factors such as low birth weight and gestational age, there is a growing body of evidence supporting a genetic basis for ROP. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: While comorbidities and environmental factors have been identified as contributing to ROP outcomes in premature infants, most notably gestational age and oxygen, some infants progress to severe disease despite absence of these clinical risk factors...
September 2018: Ophthalmology retina
Claire E Kelly, Wenn Lynn Ooi, Joseph Yuan-Mou Yang, Jian Chen, Chris Adamson, Katherine J Lee, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson
Objective: Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity has been reported to improve brain white matter microstructure at term-equivalent age, but its long-term effects are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether caffeine affects (1) brain structure at 11 years of age, and (2) brain development from term-equivalent age to 11 years of age, compared with placebo. Methods: Preterm infants born ≤1250 g were randomly allocated to caffeine or placebo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 70 participants (33 caffeine, 37 placebo) at term-equivalent age and 117 participants (63 caffeine, 54 placebo) at 11 years of age...
September 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Diego Penela, Mikel Martínez, Juan Fernández-Armenta, Luis Aguinaga, Luis Tercedor, Augusto Ordóñez, Juan Acosta, Julio Martí-Almor, Felipe Bisbal, Luca Rossi, Roger Borràs, Markus Linhart, David Soto-Iglesias, Beatriz Jáuregui, José T Ortiz-Pérez, Rosario J Perea, Xavier Bosch, Lluis Mont, Antonio Berruezo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the influence of myocardial scar after premature ventricular complexes (PVC) ablation in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. METHODS: 70 consecutive patients (58±11 years, 58 (83%) men, 23% (18-32) mean PVC burden) with LV dysfunction and frequent PVCs submitted for ablation were included. A late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) was performed prior to the ablation and a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the scar was done...
September 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Marwa Ben Jdila, Chahnez Triki, Bochra Ben Rhouma, Rihab Ben Jomaa, Abir Ben Issa, Leila Ammar-Keskes, Fatma Kamoun, Faiza Fakhfakh
INTRODUCTION: West Syndrome is a severe epileptic encephalopathy characterized by epileptic spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and regression of psychomotor acquisitions beginning in the first year of life. ARX and CDKL5 genes were identified as linked to the most frequent genetic causes of West Syndrome. METHODS: The present study reports the clinical, molecular and bioinformatic investigation of the patient with severe West syndrome. RESULTS: Molecular analysis of the two candidate genes, i...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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