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Regulatory T lymphocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326743/dopamine-receptors-modulate-t-lymphocytes-via-inhibition-of-camp-creb-signaling-pathway
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported that dopamine D2-like receptors including D2, D3 and D4 receptors are more important in mediating modulation of T cells than dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 and D5 receptors). Here we aimed to clarify the role of D2-like receptors in regulation of differentiation and function of T lymphocyte subsets, including helper T (Th)1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells. METHODS: Lymphocytes, separated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice, were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) and treated with the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole or the antagonist haloperidol...
December 22, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325210/breast-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#2
L de la Cruz-Merino, M Chiesa, R Caballero, F Rojo, N Palazón, F H Carrasco, V Sánchez-Margalet
Cancer immunology has gained renewed interest in the past few years due to emerging findings on mechanisms involved in tumoral immune evasion. Indisputably, immune edition is currently considered a critical hallmark of cancer. Basic research has revealed new targets which can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. As recent evidence confirms, breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses play a substantial role. T-infiltrating lymphocytes measurement is suggested as a powerful new tool necessary to predict early BC evolution, especially in HER2-positive and triple negative subtypes...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324192/the-presence-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-placenta-and-or-cord-blood-might-result-in-th2-polarization
#3
H-M Koskimaa, A Paaso, M J P Welters, S Grénman, K Syrjänen, S H van der Burg, S Syrjänen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an early exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) during the prenatal period or infancy could result in HPV16-specific T helper (Th) responses resembling those of adults with HPV-induced lesions. We tested HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in children born with HPV-positive umbilical cord blood and/or placenta or having persistent oral HPV infection and in constantly oral HPV-negative controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children from the Finnish HPV Family Study cohort (mean age 14...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323133/the-effect-of-penicillin-administration-in-early-life-on-murine-gut-microbiota-and-blood-lymphocyte-subsets
#4
Jaroslaw Daniluk, Urszula Daniluk, Malgorzata Rusak, Milena Dabrowska, Joanna Reszec, Magdalena Garbowicz, Kinga Humińska, Andrzej Dabrowski
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. METHODS: 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks...
March 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322850/absence-of-functional-fetal-regulatory-t-cells-in-humans-causes-in-utero-organ-specific-autoimmunity
#5
Eric J Allenspach, Laura S Finn, Mara H Rendi, Ahmet Eken, Akhilesh K Singh, Mohamed Oukka, Sean D Taylor, Matthew C Altman, Corinne L Fligner, Hans D Ochs, David J Rawlings, Troy R Torgerson
Regulatory T cells play a critical role in preventing fetal organ-specific autoimmunity in humans. Autopsies of neonatal IPEX patients shortly after birth demonstrate chronic exocrine-dominant pancreatitis with tertiary lymphoid structures containing expanded oligoclonal T/B lymphocytes.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321218/the-induction-and-maintenance-of-transplant-tolerance-engages-both-regulatory-and-anergic-cd4-t-cells
#6
Alix Besançon, Marije Baas, Tania Goncalves, Fabrice Valette, Herman Waldmann, Lucienne Chatenoud, Sylvaine You
Therapeutic tolerance to self-antigens or foreign antigens is thought to depend on constant vigilance by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous work using a pancreatic islet allograft model and a short pulse of CD3 antibody therapy has shown that CD8(+) T cells become anergic and use TGFβ and coinhibitory signaling as their contribution to the tolerance process. Here, we examine the role of CD4(+) T cells in tolerization by CD3 antibodies. We show that both Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD4(+) T cell anergy play a role in the induction of tolerance and its maintenance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320933/activin-a-co-opts-irf4-and-ahr-signaling-to-induce-human-regulatory-t-cells-that-restrain-asthmatic-responses
#7
Sofia Tousa, Maria Semitekolou, Ioannis Morianos, Aggelos Banos, Aikaterini I Trochoutsou, Tess M Brodie, Nikolaos Poulos, Konstantinos Samitas, Maria Kapasa, Dimitris Konstantopoulos, Giannis Paraskevopoulos, Mina Gaga, Catherine M Hawrylowicz, Federica Sallusto, Georgina Xanthou
Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells play a pivotal role in restraining human T-cell responses toward environmental allergens and protecting against allergic diseases. Still, the precise molecular cues that underlie their transcriptional and functional specification remain elusive. Here, we show that the cytokine activin-A instructs the generation of CD4(+) T cells that express the Tr1-cell-associated molecules IL-10, inducible T-Cell costimulator (ICOS), lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3), and CD49b, and exert strongly suppressive functions toward allergic responses induced by naive and in vivo-primed human T helper 2 cells...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318800/autoimmune-disease-development-based-on-possible-mislocalization-of-intracellular-and-extracellular-proteins
#8
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: T helper cells can differentiate into several subsets of T lymphocytes, including Th1, Th2, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. As a result of this ability to differentiate, the corresponding T cell receptor (TCR) spectra display considerable cellular plasticity and interchangeability. In contrast, T lymphocyte differentiation and separation into CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) T cell lines creates stable populations over a person's lifetime, which abrogates the plasticity and interchange between these cell types and their corresponding TCR spectra but results in considerable stability regarding the corresponding TCR sequences and spectra...
February 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318628/b-and-t-cell-subpopulations-in-patients-with-severe-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-may-predict-an-early-response-to-rituximab
#9
Michelle Rosenzwajg, Eva Languille, Hanna Debiec, Joana Hygino, Karine Dahan, Tabassome Simon, David Klatzmann, Pierre Ronco
Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is characterized by antibodies to the podocyte, but little is known about B- and T-cell populations and their response to rituximab is controversial. To help resolve this we compared 33 lymphocyte subpopulations and 27 cytokines/chemokines in 25 patients with severe PMN and 27 age-matched healthy individuals. At baseline, patients had a significantly increased percentage of naive B-cells with significantly decreased switched and non-switched memory B-cells. There was a significantly decreased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells with an increase in the CD56(bright)CD16(-/lo) NK subset...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314854/common-nonmutational-notch1-activation-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#10
Giulia Fabbri, Antony B Holmes, Mara Viganotti, Claudio Scuoppo, Laura Belver, Daniel Herranz, Xiao-Jie Yan, Yasmine Kieso, Davide Rossi, Gianluca Gaidano, Nicholas Chiorazzi, Adolfo A Ferrando, Riccardo Dalla-Favera
Activating mutations of NOTCH1 (a well-known oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) are present in ∼4-13% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, where they are associated with disease progression and chemorefractoriness. However, the specific role of NOTCH1 in leukemogenesis remains to be established. Here, we report that the active intracellular portion of NOTCH1 (ICN1) is detectable in ∼50% of peripheral blood CLL cases lacking gene mutations. We identify a "NOTCH1 gene-expression signature" in CLL cells, and show that this signature is significantly enriched in primary CLL cases expressing ICN1, independent of NOTCH1 mutation...
March 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304404/interactions-between-th1-cells-and-tregs-affect-regulation-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-biliary-atresia-through-the-ifn-%C3%AE-stat1-pathway
#11
Jie Wen, Ying Zhou, Jun Wang, Jie Chen, Wenbo Yan, Jin Wu, Junkai Yan, Kejun Zhou, Yongtao Xiao, Yang Wang, Qiang Xia, Wei Cai
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells have important roles in bile duct injury of biliary atresia (BA). However, their impacts on liver fibrosis are undefined. Between 2013 and 2016, 146 patients with various stages of BA were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood, liver biopsy and lymph node samples were collected. Flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and immunostaining were used to characterize lymphocytes from BA patients. Deficiency of Tregs was observed along with increased Th1, Th2 and Th17 frequencies in the peripheral blood and livers of BA patients...
March 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301666/adaptation-of-the-keratinosens%C3%A2-skin-sensitisation-test-to-animal-product-free-cell-culture
#12
Nathalie Belot, Bushra Sim, Christopher Longmore Longmore, Lottie Roscoe, Carol Treasure
Skin sensitisation is the process by which a substance leads to an allergic reaction following skin contact. The process has been described as an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), including several key events, from skin penetration and covalent protein binding, to keratinocyte activation, dendritic cell activation and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The in vitro assay KeratinoSens™ measures the activation of keratinocytes. It is fully accepted at a regulatory level (OECD TG 442d) and appropriate for compliance with a range of legislation including the EU Cosmetics Regulation, REACH, and the CLP Regulation...
March 16, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300768/tim-3-as-a-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy-and-mechanisms-of-action
#13
REVIEW
Wenwen Du, Min Yang, Abbey Turner, Chunling Xu, Robert L Ferris, Jianan Huang, Lawrence P Kane, Binfeng Lu
Cancer immunotherapy has produced impressive clinical results in recent years. Despite the success of the checkpoint blockade strategies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), a large portion of cancer patients have not yet benefited from this novel therapy. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) has been shown to mediate immune tolerance in mouse models of infectious diseases, alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and tumor Immunity. Thus, targeting TIM-3 emerges as a promising approach for further improvement of current immunotherapy...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295248/t-regulatory-cells-are-critical-for-the-maintenance-anamnestic-expansion-and-protection-elicited-by-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cells
#14
Mitra Bhattacharyya, Pablo Penaloza MacMaster
T regulatory cells (Tregs) are critical for preventing autoimmunity and suppressing immune responses during cancer and chronic infection. However, the role of Tregs in the generation of vaccine-induced immune memory remains ill-defined. Using the mouse model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, we demonstrate that transient absence of Tregs during effector to memory CD8 T cell transition results in a permanent impairment in the maintenance, function, and recall capacity of CD8 T cells. Memory CD8 T cells in mice that were transiently depleted of Tregs exhibited defective upregulation of memory markers with a significant decrease in polyfunctionality...
March 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290848/-autoimmunity-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-morphologically-documented-myocarditis
#15
D A Khashchevskaya, L B Mitrofanova, E A Belyakova, O V Beschuk, D A Zverev, D S Lebedev, O M Moiseeva
AIM: to assess clinical and prognostic value of circulating cardiospecific autoantibodies (AAB) and CD4+ T-regulatory cells in patients with myocarditis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included into this study 47 patients with lymphocytic myocarditis verified by analysis of histological and immunohistochemical data. Comparison group consisted of 30 practically healthy persons. Content of marker cardiotropic AAT were measured with the help of standardized immune enzyme test-systems...
June 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290732/cycloastragenol-mediates-activation-and-proliferation-suppression-in-concanavalin-a-induced-mouse-lymphocyte-pan-activation-model
#16
Chenghong Sun, Mingmin Jiang, Li Zhang, Jian Yang, Guimin Zhang, Bingyuan Du, Yushan Ren, Xin Li, Jingchun Yao
CONTEXT: Cycloastragenol (CAG) is a molecule isolated from various species in the genus Astragalus. Although the regulatory activity of Astragalus on immune system has been investigated, the effect of CAG on activated lymphocytes is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to biologically address the possible anti-inflammation potential of CAG on concanavalin A (Con A)-mediated mouse lymphocyte pan-activation model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse lymphocytes were obtained from spleens and subjected to Con A for 24 h...
March 14, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290526/icosl-expression-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-induction-of-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Hyun-Joo Lee, Si-Na Kim, Myung-Shin Jeon, TacGhee Yi, Sun U Song
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lymphocyte proliferation and function. One of the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs involves CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which negatively regulate inflammatory responses. MSC-mediated Treg induction is supposed to be regulated by mechanisms requiring both soluble and cell contact-dependent factors. Although the involvement of soluble factors has been revealed, the contact-dependent mechanisms in MSC-mediated Treg induction remain unclear. We attempted to identify molecule(s) other than secreted factors that are responsible for MSC-mediated Treg induction and to uncover the underlying mechanisms...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289705/als-patients-regulatory-t-lymphocytes-are-dysfunctional-and-correlate-with-disease-progression-rate-and-severity
#18
David R Beers, Weihua Zhao, Jinghong Wang, Xiujun Zhang, Shixiang Wen, Dan Neal, Jason R Thonhoff, Abdullah S Alsuliman, Elizabeth J Shpall, Katy Rezvani, Stanley H Appel
Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of ALS in both transgenic rodent models and patients, and is characterized by proinflammatory T lymphocytes and activated macrophages/microglia. In ALS mouse models, decreased regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) exacerbate the neuroinflammatory process, leading to accelerated motoneuron death and shortened survival; passive transfer of Tregs suppresses the neuroinflammation and prolongs survival. Treg numbers and FOXP3 expression are also decreased in rapidly progressing ALS patients...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287848/immunomodulating-and-immunoresistance-properties-of-cancer-initiating-cells-implications-for-the-clinical-success-of-immunotherapy
#19
Cristina Maccalli, Giorgio Parmiani, Soldano Ferrone
Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) represent a relatively rare subpopulation of cells endowed with self-renewal, stemness properties, tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice, and resistance to standard therapies as well as to immunotherapy. Here, we review the biological and immunological characteristics of CICs with special focus on the immunomodulating mechanisms they utilize to escape from immunosurveillance. The recently developed immunotherapeutic strategies have yielded remarkable clinical results in many types of tumors, indicating that indeed a patient's immune system can mount an immune response, which is effective in controlling tumor growth...
March 13, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287634/immune-microenvironment-of-gliomas
#20
Anna Gieryng, Dominika Pszczolkowska, Kacper A Walentynowicz, Wenson D Rajan, Bozena Kaminska
High-grade gliomas are rapidly progressing tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) with a very poor prognosis despite extensive resection combined with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed heterogeneity of a tumor and its niche, composed of reactive astrocytes, endothelial cells, and numerous immune cells. Infiltrating immune cells consist of CNS resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and T lymphocytes...
March 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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