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Regulatory T lymphocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141242/chloroquine-autophagic-inhibition-rebalances-th17-treg-mediated-immunity-and-ameliorates-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#1
Ning An, Yanwen Chen, Chao Wang, Chen Yang, Zhi-Hong Wu, Jing Xue, Lin Ye, Shujun Wang, Hua-Feng Liu, Qingjun Pan
BACKGROUND: Imbalanced cellular immunity is critical to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, autophagy has emerged as a key homeostatic mechanism in T lymphocytes. This study was conducted to explore the impact of autophagy on the Th17/ regulatory T (Treg) immune imbalance in SLE. METHODS: Peripheral Th17 and Treg cells from newly diagnosed patients with SLE and healthy controls were detected by flow cytometry. Additionally, the effects of chloroquine (CQ) autophagic inhibition on the Th17/Treg immune response were investigated in vitro...
November 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140756/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#2
G J Webb, G M Hirschfield, E L Krawitt, M E Gershwin
Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon idiopathic syndrome of immunemediated destruction of hepatocytes, typically associated with autoantibodies. The disease etiology is incompletely understood but includes a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and other non- HLA gene variants, female sex, and the environment. Pathologically, there is a CD4+ T cell-rich lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with variable hepatocyte necrosis and subsequent hepatic fibrosis. Attempts to understand pathogenesis are informed by several monogenetic syndromes that may include autoimmune liver injury, by several drug and environmental agents that have been identified as triggers in a minority of cases, by human studies that point toward a central role for CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and by animal models of the disease...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140111/purging-exhausted-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-phenotypes-by-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#3
Joshua Chan, Patrick Y Kim, Emiko Kranz, Yoshiko Nagaoka, YooJin Lee, Jing Wen, Heidi J Elsaesser, Meng Qin, David G Brooks, Gene-Errol Ringpis, Irvin S Y Chen, Masakazu Kamata
Cytotoxic T cells are critical in controlling virus infections. However, continuous antigen stimulation and negative regulatory factors cause CD8 T cells to enter a dysfunctional state (T cell exhaustion), resulting in viral persistence. We hypothesized that the exhausted T cell state could be molecularly rejuvenated using a somatic cell reprogramming technology, which is technically able to convert any types of cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to regenerate functional T cells capable of purging chronic infection...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138841/enhanced-activated-t%C3%A2-cell-subsets-in-prostate-cancer-patients-receiving-iodine-125-low-dose-rate-prostate-brachytherapy
#4
Makoto Kubo, Takefumi Satoh, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Ken-Ichi Tabata, Hideyasu Tsumura, Shoko Komori, Masatsugu Iwamura, Shiro Baba, Kazushige Hayakawa, Toshihiko Kawamura, Fumiya Obata
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the most important treatments for prostate cancer. Although RT can kill cancer cells through direct and indirect effects of radiation, it occasionally induces an abscopal effect whereby localized radiation treatment is associated with elimination of metastatic cancer at a distance from the irradiated area. Thus, RT may induce an effective antitumor immune response, although the mechanism involved has remained unclear. The present was designed to evaluate this effect of RT in 36 patients with prostate cancer who provided informed consent prior to enrollment in this clinical trial...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#5
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133290/cd137-4-1bb-costimulation-modifies-dna-methylation-in-cd8-t-cell-relevant-genes
#6
M Angela Aznar, Sara Labiano, Angel Diaz-Lagares, Carmen Molina, Saray Garasa, Arantza Azpilicueta, Inaki Etxeberria, Alfonso R Sanchez-Paulete, Alan J Korman, Manel Esteller, Juan Sandoval, Ignacio Melero
CD137 (4-1BB) costimulation imprints long-term changes that instruct the ultimate behavior of T cells that have previously experienced CD137 ligation. Epigenetic changes could provide a suitable mechanism for these long-term consequences. Genome-wide DNA-methylation arrays were carried out on human peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes stimulated with agonist monoclonal antibody to CD137, including urelumab, which is in phase I/II clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy. Several genes showed consistent methylation patterns in response to CD137 costimulation, which were confirmed by pyrosequencing in a series of healthy donors...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129094/rational-combination-of-immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-treatment
#7
Chia-Wei Li, Seung-Oe Lim, Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Recent evidence indicates that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including cytotoxic T cells, are present in the tumor microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Despite the presence of cytotoxic T cells, these tumors still develop, progress, and metastasize, suggesting evasion of immune response. One mechanism of immunosuppression is the presence of the T cell inhibitory molecule, programmed death protein 1 (PD-1), on infiltrating T cells and its cognate ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages, in the tumor microenvironment...
October 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128575/strain-specificities-in-age-related-changes-in-mechanisms-promoting-and-controlling-rat-spinal-cord-damage-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Ivan Pilipović, Jasmina Djikić, Ivana Vujnović, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Biljana Bufan, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Duško Kosec, Gordana Leposavić
The study investigated strain specificities in age-related differences in CD8+ T cell- and microglial cell-mediated mechanisms implicated in induction/perpetuation and/or control of neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats exhibiting age-related changes in the susceptibility to EAE in the opposite direction (increase in relatively resistant AO rats vs decrease in DA rats). In the inductive phase of EAE, the greater number of fully differentiated effector CD8+ T lymphocytes was found in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) from aged rats of both strains than in strain-matched young rats, but this was particularly prominent in AO rats, which exhibited milder EAE of prolonged duration compared with their DA counterparts...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128554/immunomodulatory-effects-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-tkis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#9
Elena Marinelli Busilacchi, Andrea Costantini, Nadia Viola, Benedetta Costantini, Jacopo Olivieri, Luca Butini, Giorgia Mancini, Ilaria Scortechini, Martina Chiarucci, Monica Poiani, Antonella Poloni, Pietro Leoni, Attilio Olivieri
Pathogenesis of chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (cGVHD) is incompletely defined, involving donor-derived CD4 and CD8-positive T lymphocytes, as well as B cells. Standard treatment is lacking for steroid dependent/refractory cases; potential usefulness of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been suggested, based on their potent anti-fibrotic effect. However, TKI seems to have pleiotropic activity. We sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo impact of different TKIs on lymphocyte phenotype and function...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126881/triple-negative-breast-cancer-key-role-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-regulating-the-activity-of-anti-pd-1-pd-l1-agents
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Santoni, Emanuela Romagnoli, Tiziana Saladino, Laura Foghini, Stefania Guarino, Marco Capponi, Massimo Giannini, Paolo Decembrini Cognigni, Gerardo Ferrara, Nicola Battelli
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis, due to its aggressive behaviour and lack of effective targeted therapies. Immunocheckpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and anti-PD-ligand(L)1 agents, are in course of investigation in TNBC, used alone or in combination with other systemic or local approaches. However, the high cost of these drugs and the lack of validated predictive biomarkers support the development of strategies aimed to overcome resistance and optimize the efficacy of these approaches...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122657/diagnostic-significance-of-intratumoral-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-medullary-carcinoma
#11
Fumie Igari, Eiichi Sato, Yoshiya Horimoto, Yuka Takahashi, Tatsuya Isomura, Atsushi Arakawa, Shigehisa Kitano, Mitsue Saito
Invasive ductal carcinomas of breast with marked stromal lymphocytic infiltration have come to be classified as lymphocyte predominant breast cancer (LPBC) because it obtains high pathological complete response rates with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Medullary carcinoma (MC), which is independent from LPBC, is a rare histological subtype of invasive breast carcinoma accompanied by abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltration as LPBC. Although MC shows marked cellular and structural atypia, it usually has a favorable outcome...
November 6, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120881/atp-and-t-cell-mediated-rejection
#12
Eduardo Castillo-Leon, Sergio Dellepiane, Paolo Fiorina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purine nucleosides and nucleotides are released in the extracellular space following cell injury and act as paracrine mediators through a number of dedicated membrane receptors. In particular, extracellular ATP (eATP) significantly influences T-lymphocyte activation and phenotype. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of ATP signaling in the T-cell-mediated alloimmune response. RECENT FINDINGS: In various animal models of solid transplantation, the purinergic axis has been targeted to prevent acute rejection and to promote long-term graft tolerance...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119052/synergistic-anticancer-activity-of-a-novel-oral-chemotherapeutic-agent-containing-trifluridine-and-tipiracil-in-combination-with-anti-pd-1-blockade-in-microsatellite-stable-type-murine-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Norihiko Suzuki, Hiroshi Tsukihara, Fumio Nakagawa, Takashi Kobunai, Teiji Takechi
Trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) is a combination of FTD, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and TPI, which acts to enhance the bioavailability of FTD in vivo. It is used to treat patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is refractory to standard therapies. We investigated the anticancer activity of FTD/TPI combined with anti-mouse programed cell death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CMT-93 cells, which are microsatellite stable (MSS)-type murine colorectal cancer cells...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115604/genetically-engineered-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-interleukin%C3%A2-2-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy
#14
Yunpeng Sun, Huanhuan Wu, Gang Chen, Xiaming Huang, Yunfeng Shan, Hongqi Shi, Qiyu Zhang, Yihu Zheng
Regulatory and effector T cells possess immunological cytotoxicity for tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression and are the primary suppressors inhuman cancer therapy. Interleukin‑2 (IL‑2) is an anticancer cytokine, which triggers human innate and adaptive immunity by stimulating T cell propagation and lymphocyte infiltration into tumor sites. IL‑2 has been used successfully for cancer therapy. Recombinant adenovirus expressing IL‑2 (rAd‑IL‑2) injection is a gene therapy agent that may improve prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114938/immune-response-patterns-in-non-communicable-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Kilian Eyerich, Stefanie Eyerich
Non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases (ncISD) such as psoriasis or atopic eczema are a major cause of global disease burden. Due to their impact and complexity, ncISD represent a major challenge of modern medicine. Dermatology textbooks describe more than 100 different ncISD based on clinical phenotype and histological architecture. In the last decades, this historical description was complemented by increasing molecular knowledge - and this knowledge is now being translated into specific therapeutics...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112187/number-of-circulating-non-classical-cd14-cd16-monocytes-negatively-correlates-with-das28-and-swollen-joints-count-in-peripheral-spondyloarthritis-patients
#16
Zofia Guła, Małgorzata Stec, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Marzena Lenart, Mariusz Korkosz, Jerzy Gąsowski, Jarosław Baran, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Rafał Szatanek, Jarosław Czyż, Maciej Siedlar
INTRODUCTION    Different clinical course and pattern of skeletal involvement in peripheral (per) and axial (ax) spondyloarthritis (SpA) suggests distinct pathophysiology of these two phenotypic manifestations of SpA. Monocytes, as a part of innate immune system, seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of SpA, but exact inflammatory pathways remain to be elucidated. Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and Th17 lymphocytes are also known to influence pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions. OBJECTIVES    The aim of our study was to compare absolute numbers of monocyte subpopulations, Treg and Th17 lymphocytes with clinical measures of disease activity in perSpA and axSpA...
November 7, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112015/pd-l1-and-pd-l2-are-differentially-expressed-by-macrophages-or-tumor-cells-in-primary-cutaneous-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-leg-type
#17
Sarah Menguy, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Marie Beylot-Barry, Fréderic Saltel, Béatrice Vergier, Jean-Philippe Merlio, Anne Pham-Ledard
As checkpoint molecules' inhibition may represent a therapeutic option in relapsing cases, we assessed programmed death ligands' (PD-L1/PD-L2) expression in a series of 29 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCDLBCL-LT) cases. Double immunostaining for either PD-L1 or PD-L2 was associated either with PAX5 staining to evaluate tumor cells or with CD68 or CD163 staining for macrophages. The microenvironment of PCDLBCL-LT was characterized by immunostainings for CD3 (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes), FOXP3 (regulatory T cells), programmed cell death-1, and CD33 (myeloid-derived suppressor cells)...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105313/immunological-changes-induced-in-peach-allergy-patients-with-systemic-reactions-by-pru-p-3-sublingual-immunotherapy
#18
Francisca Palomares, Francisca Gomez, Gador Bogas, Campo Paloma, James Richard Perkins, A Diaz-Perales, Maria José Rodriguez, Ana Prieto, Domingo Barber, María José Torres, Cristobalina Mayorga
SCOPE: Sublingual immunotherapy using peach extract enriched in Pru p 3 (Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT) brings a new perspective to treating patients with allergy to lipid transfer proteins. We evaluated the immunological changes induced by Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT during one year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three groups were included: peach allergic patients who received Pru p 3-enriched-SLIT, peach allergic untreated patients and controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained before treatment and different time-points...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104781/the-minor-variant-of-the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs3753381-affects-the-activity-of-a-slamf1-enhancer
#19
L V Putlyaeva, A M Schwartz, A V Klepikova, I E Vorontsov, I V Kulakovskiy, D V Kuprash
The SLAMF1 gene encodes CD150, a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of T and B-lymphocytes, NK-cells, dendritic cells, and subpopulations of macrophages and basophils. We investigated the functional regulatory polymorphisms of the SLAMF1 locus associated with autoimmune processes, using bioinformatics and a mutational analysis of the regulatory elements overlapping with polymorphic positions. In the reporter gene assay in MP-1 and Raji B-cell lines, the enhancer activity of the regulatory region of the locus containing the rs3753381 polymorphism demonstrated a twofold increase upon the introduction of the rs3753381 minor variant (G → A) associated with myasthenia gravis...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104670/expression-of-foxp3-in-renal-tissue-of-patients-with-hbv-associated-glomerulonephritis-and-their-clinical-and-pathological-characteristics
#20
Wenge Zhao, Yanli Ma, Mingmin Wang, Changhe Shi, Jianping Sun, Kaiqiu Chu, Chuansheng Liu
Our study retrospectively investigated the expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3) in renal tissue and clinical features of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN). A total of 58 patients with HBV-GN were assigned to group A; 45 serum and renal tissue HBsAg-negative patients with nephritis were group B; 24 serum HBsAg-positive and renal tissue HBsAg-negative patients with slightly increased serum creatinine without nephritis were group C. Clinical manifestations, laboratory indices and renal biopsies were recorded...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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