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Regulatory T lymphocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334492/anti-il-10-mediated-enhancement-of-antitumor-efficacy-of-a-dendritic-cell-targeting-mip3%C3%AE-gp100-vaccine-in-the-b16f10-mouse-melanoma-model-is-dependent-on-type-i-interferons
#1
James T Gordy, Kun Luo, Brian Francica, Charles Drake, Richard B Markham
The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. Vaccines fusing MIP3α to gp100 have been shown to be effective in therapeutically reducing melanoma tumor burden and prolonging survival in a mouse model. Other studies have provided evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies (αIL-10) enhance immunologic melanoma therapies by modulating the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we have utilized the B16F10 syngeneic mouse melanoma model to demonstrate for the first time that a therapy neutralizing IL-10 enhances the antitumor efficacy of a MIP3α-gp100 DNA vaccine, leading to significantly smaller tumors, slower growing tumors, and overall increases in mouse survival...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333023/nivolumab-pearls-of-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Pratishtha B Chaudhari
Purpose: Nivolumab is one of the most extensively studied immune checkpoint inhibitors across various tumor types. In this narrative review, the current clinical efficacy and safety data of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) nivolumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are elucidated. Methods: Systematic search was done on Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central through September 2016 for controlled prospective interventional studies of nivolumab across two indications - NSCLC and RCC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328445/the-effects-of-interleukin-2-and-rad-p53-as-a-treatment-for-glioblastoma
#4
Hai-Bo Qiao, Jia Li, Lian-Jie Lv, Ben-Jin Nie, Peng Lu, Feng Xue, Zhi-Ming Zhang
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an anti-cancer cytokine that stimulates T cell propagation, triggering innate and adaptive immunity. IL-2 has been used for cancer therapy and has achieved curative effects. Recombinant adenovirus p53 injection (rAd‑p53) is a gene therapeutic agent that may improve the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In the present study, the effect of combined IL‑2 and rAd‑p53 treatment was studied. The ability of IL‑2 to stimulate immunoregulation and the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis for GBM was researched in the GBM tumor model...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326369/successful-treatment-of-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-and-mast-cell-activation-syndromes-using-naltrexone-immunoglobulin-and-antibiotic-treatment
#5
Leonard B Weinstock, Jill B Brook, Trisha L Myers, Brent Goodman
A patient with severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) received immunotherapy with low-dose naltrexone (LDN) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). A dramatic and sustained response was documented. The utility of IVIg in autoimmune neuromuscular diseases has been published, but clinical experience with POTS is relatively unknown and has not been reported in MCAS. As a short-acting mu-opioid antagonist, LDN paradoxically increases endorphins which then bind to regulatory T cells which regulate T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte production and this reduces cytokine and antibody production...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326066/novel-everolimus-loaded-nanocarriers-for-topical-treatment-of-murine-experimental-autoimmune-uveoretinitis-eau
#6
Maren Kasper, Doris Gabriel, Michael Möller, Dirk Bauer, Lena Wildschütz, Herve Courthion, Michael R R Böhm, Martin Busch, Karin Loser, Solon Thanos, Robert Gurny, Arnd Heiligenhaus
In the present study, therapeutic effect of topically applied everolimus (EV)-loaded methoxy-poly(ethylene-glycol)-hexyl substituted poly (lactic acid) (mPEGhexPLA) nanocarriers on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) were investigated. EAU was induced in B10.RIII mice via immunization with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide 161-180 (hIRBPp161-180) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Everolimus-loaded mPEGhexPLA (EV/mPEGhexPLA) nanocarriers were prepared by using a solvent evaporation method...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318023/microbiome-and-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Milena Sokolowska, Remo Frei, Nonhlanhla Lunjani, Cezmi A Akdis, Liam O'Mahony
The mucosal immune system is in constant communication with the vast diversity of microbes present on body surfaces. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, ILCs, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, NKT cells and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain- or metabolite-specific...
2018: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316291/immunomodulation-characteristics-by-thermal-ablation-therapy-in-cancer-patients
#8
Wuwei Yang, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Baorang Zhu, Jing Li, Debao Xu, Yanli Ni, Li Bai, Guangxian Liu
AIM: Thermal ablation therapy has recently emerged as a promising noninvasive treatment modality for localized solid malignancies. Except its direct tumor-cell-killing effect on local tumor tissues, the immunomodulatory effect has also long been noticed which too has substantial effect on clinical outcome, but it is complicated. Though much has been investigated and rich evidences have been achieved, the fundamental state and profile of immunomodulation by thermal ablation in cancer patients, its exact mechanism, especially the systematic mechanism, and its effect on antitumor immunity remain unclear...
January 8, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312633/the-synergistic-antitumor-effect-of-arsenic-trioxide-combined-with-cytotoxic-t-cells-in-pulmonary-metastasis-model-of-colon-cancer
#9
Lei Wang, Wentao Liang, Na Peng, Xiang Hu, Yingxin Xu, Zhong Liu
Adoptive T cell therapy, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), represents a promising non-toxic anticancer strategy. The effects of this therapy can be impaired by tumor-infiltrated regulatory T cells (Tregs). Autologous murine CTLs acquired using cryopreservation exhibited a cytotoxic effect equivalent to that of conventional CTLs. The killing activity of CTLs was enhanced significantly using arsenic trioxide (ATO), accompanied by reduction in Tregs in vitro. Results using a pulmonary metastasis model of colon cancer indicated that compared with the control group, ATO group, and CTLs group, metastatic node number decreased significantly (p<0...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312592/the-relative-change-in-regulatory-t-cells-t-helper-lymphocytes-ratio-as-parameter-for-prediction-of-therapy-efficacy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#10
Tong Xu, Jiezhen Lu, Hanxiang An
Purpose: The evaluation of regulatory T (Treg) (CD4+CD25high CD127neg) lymphocyte count with respect to the T helper (TH) (CD4) number has been shown to represent the main immune parameters capable of signifying the functional status of the anticancer immunity in cancer patients. This study is aimed to explore a correlation between therapy efficacy and changes in Treg/TH ratio and other biochemical and haematological parameters in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Experimental Design: Measurements of regulatory T cells were performed by flow cytometric analysis pre- and post-therapies in a prospective study...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311359/the-effects-of-dendritic-cell-hypersensitivity-on-persistent-viral-infection
#11
Jennifer S Tsau, Xin Huang, Chen-Yen Lai, Stephen M Hedrick
Caspase-8 (CASP8) is known as an executioner of apoptosis, but more recent studies have shown that it participates in the regulation of necroptosis and innate immunity. In this study, we show that CASP8 negatively regulates retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling such that, in its absence, stimulation of the RIG-I pathway in dendritic cells (DCs) produced modestly enhanced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 with correspondingly greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, mice lacking DC-specific CASP8 (dcCasp8-/- mice) develop age-dependent symptoms of autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactive DCs and T cells, spleen and liver immunopathology, and the appearance of Th1-polarized CD4+ T cells...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310925/th17-lineage-cells-in-pulmonary-sarcoidosis-and-l%C3%A3-fgren-s-syndrome-friend-or-foe
#12
REVIEW
Jelle R Miedema, Ylva Kaiser, Caroline E Broos, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Johan Grunewald, Mirjam Kool
Sarcoidosis, a multisystem granulomatous disorder, has historically been classified as Th1-driven disease. However, increasing data demonstrate a key role of Th17-cell plasticity in granuloma formation and maintenance. In Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute and distinct phenotype of sarcoidosis with a favorable outcome, differences in Th17-lineage cell subsets, cytokine expression and T-cell suppressive mechanisms may account for differences in clinical presentation as well as prognosis compared to non-LS sarcoidosis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310022/loss-of-eed-leads-to-lineage-instability-and-increased-cd8-expression-of-mouse-cd4-t-cells-upon-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Taku Naito, Sawako Muroi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Motonari Kondo
Tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic modification catalyzed by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that is required for proper cell fate determination as well as cellular function. Numerous studies have been performed to elucidate the role of PRC2 in T-cell differentiation and function; however, its role in the regulation of T-helper (Th) subset differentiation and identity has not been fully explored. Here, we report that Eed, an essential subunit of PRC2, is crucial to maintain the identity of CD4+ T cells under TGFβ-induced regulatory T cell (Treg)-polarizing conditions...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307857/role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-irinotecan-induced-intestinal-mucositis
#14
Camila Fernandes, Carlos Wagner Souza Wanderley, Camila Meireles Souza Silva, Heitor Amorim Muniz, Maraiza Alves Teixeira, Nathália Ribeiro Pinho Souza, André George Ferreira Cândido, Renata Brito Falcão, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte Souza, Paulo Roberto Carvalho Almeida, Lilia Maria Carneiro Câmara, Roberto César Pereira Lima-Júnior
Intestinal mucositis (IM) is a common side effect of irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The involvement of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL1-β, IL-18 and IL-33, has been demonstrated. However, the role of adaptive immune system cells, whose activation is partially regulated by these cytokines, is yet unknown. Thus, we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in irinotecan-induced IM. C57BL/6 mice were injected with saline or irinotecan (75mgkg-1, i.p.), once a day for 4days, and euthanized at day 1, 3, 5 or 7 following the first dose of irinotecan...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306022/t-regulatory-cells-mediate-immunosuppresion-by-adenosine-in-peripheral-blood-sentinel-lymph-node-and-tils-from-melanoma-patients
#15
P Di Gennaro, G Gerlini, R Caporale, S Sestini, P Brandani, C Urso, N Pimpinelli, L Borgognoni
T regulatory cells (Tregs), involved in tumour tolerance, can generate Adenosine by CD39/CD73 surface enzymes, which identify four Tregs subsets: CD39+CD73- nTregs, CD39+CD73+ iTregs, CD39-CD73+ oTregs and CD39-CD73- xTregs. In melanoma patients, increased Tregs levels are detected in peripheral blood (PB), sentinel lymph node (SLN) and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), but Adenosine role was not investigated yet. We examined total Tregs and Adenosine subsets in PB, SLN and TILs from melanoma patients (n = 32) and PB from healthy donors (HD; n = 10) by flow cytometry...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305419/the-molecular-basis-of-immune-regulation-in-autoimmunity
#16
REVIEW
Shu-Han Yang, Cai-Yue Gao, Liang Li, Christopher Chang, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Autoimmune diseases can be triggered and modulated by various molecular and cellular characteristics. The mechanisms of autoimmunity and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have been investigated for several decades. It is well accepted that autoimmunity is caused by dysregulated/dysfunctional immune susceptible genes and environmental factors. There are multiple physiological mechanisms that regulate and control self-reactivity, but which can also lead to tolerance breakdown when in defect. The majority of autoreactive T or B cells are eliminated during the development of central tolerance by negative selection...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302378/potential-utility-of-fdg-pet-ct-as-a-non-invasive-tool-for-monitoring-local-immune-responses
#17
Seungho Lee, Seohee Choi, Sang Yong Kim, Mi Jin Yun, Hyoung-Il Kim
Purpose: The tumor microenvironment is known to be associated with the metabolic activity of cancer cells and local immune reactions. We hypothesized that glucose metabolism measured by 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) (18F-FDG PET-CT) would be associated with local immune responses evaluated according to the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT prior to gastrectomy...
December 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299806/role-of-%C3%AE-fetoprotein-in-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-lymphocytes
#18
V A Chereshnev, V P Timganova, S A Zamorina, M S Bochkova, P V Khramtsov, M D Kropaneva, M B Raev
The effect of native α-fetoprotein (AFP) on the expression of T-regulatory lymphocyte (Treg) markers by activated CD4+ lymphocytes with different proliferative status was studied. α-Fetoprotein did not affect the ratio of proliferating and non-proliferating activated CD4+ cells. In the study of Treg differentiation, it was found that AFP at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL significantly inhibited the number of nonproliferating CD4+FOXP3+ and CD4+FOXP3+HELIOS+ lymphocytes without affecting the expression of Treg markers by proliferating CD4+ lymphocytes...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299156/inhibition-of-pi4k-iii%C3%AE-radiosensitizes-in-human-tumor-xenograft-and-immune-competent-syngeneic-murine-tumor-model
#19
Younghee Park, Ji Min Park, Dan Hyo Kim, Jeanny Kwon, In Ah Kim
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (PI4K) has emerged as a potential target for anti-cancer treatment. We recently reported that simeprevir, an anti-hepatitis C viral (HCV) agent, radiosensitized diverse human cancer cells by inhibiting PI4K IIIα in vitro. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of simeprevir in an in vivo tumor xenograft model and the mechanism of its interaction. The immune modulatory effect of PI4K IIIα was evaluated in an immune-competent syngeneic murine tumor model...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297467/expansion-of-a-cd26low-effector-th-subset-and-reduction-of-circulating-levels-of-scd26-in-stable-allergic-asthma-in-adults
#20
J J Nieto-Fontarigo, F J González-Barcala, M E San-José, M J Cruz, T Linares, M T Soto-Mera, L Valdés, M A García-González, L J Andrade-Bulos, P Arias, M Nogueira, F J Salgado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma pathogenesis is dependent on the balance between regulatory and effector T cells, which display differential expression of CD25 and CD26. Therefore, alteration of circulating levels of sCD25 and sCD26 during allergic asthma could be conditioned by leukocyte phenotype changes. Objectives: To analyse CD25 and CD26 expression on T lymphocytes and their soluble derivatives (sCD25, sCD26) during stable phases of moderate-severe allergic asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with two adult cohorts of allergic asthmatics...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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