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Sebastian Pfeilmeier, Jeoffrey George, Arry Morel, Sonali Roy, Matthew Smoker, Lena Stransfeld, J Allan Downie, Nemo Peeters, Jacob G Malone, Cyril Zipfel
Interfamily transfer of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a promising biotechnological approach to engineer broad-spectrum, and potentially durable, disease resistance in crops. It is however unclear whether new recognition specificities to given pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) affect the interaction of the recipient plant with beneficial microbes. To test this in a direct reductionist approach, we transferred the Brassicaceae-specific PRR ELONGATION FACTOR-THERMO UNSTABLE RECEPTOR (EFR), conferring recognition of the bacterial EF-Tu protein, from Arabidopsis thaliana to the legume Medicago truncatula...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
C Yang, J He, B Yu, J Yu, X B Mao, D W Chen, Y L Yin
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio (DAR) on serum and hepatic lipid content, luminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in fat and glucose metabolism in liver and mucosa in growing-finishing pigs. Forty-eight Duroc × Landrace × Large White pigs (49.8 ± 2.8 kg) were randomly allocated to low amylose/amylopectin ratio (LR) and high amylose/amylopectin ratio (HR) groups, each group consisting of six replicates (pen) with four pigs per pen...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Bingfeng Luo, Jing Li, Tao Yang, Wenbin Li, Juanhong Zhang, Chang Wang, Anpeng Zhao, Rong Wang
With studies indicative of altered renal excretion under high altitude (HA)-induced hypobaric hypoxia (HH), consideration of better therapeutic approaches has continuously been aimed in research for HA related illness management. Pharmacokinetics of drugs like furosemide might be altered under hypoxic condition, which makes essential to establish different dose-regimen to maintain therapeutic efficacy or avoid toxic side effects at HA. Simultaneously, the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated by OAT1 was occurred at HA, to severely affect furosemide pharmacokinetics...
August 17, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Jacopo Vannucci, Alberto Matricardi, Elisa Scarnecchia, Rosanna Capozzi, Valeria Liparulo, Stefano Santoprete, Lucio Cagini, Francesco Puma
The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the outcome of myotomy plus diverticulopexy over short and long-terms. A prospectively collected consecutive series (2007-2017) of 37 patients undergoing myotomy plus diverticulopexy was analyzed for clinical condition, operative information, peri-operative events, and follow-up by means of interview and physical examination. Diverticulopexy was scheduled regardless of the diverticulum's features and patient condition, other than operability. There was no choice or selection between possible treatment options...
August 17, 2018: Dysphagia
Megan E Fox, Ramesh Chandra, Miriam S Menken, Emily J Larkin, Hyungwoo Nam, Michel Engeln, T Chase Francis, Mary Kay Lobo
Depression alters the structure and function of brain reward circuitry. Preclinical evidence suggests that medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) undergo structural plasticity; however, the molecular mechanism and behavioral significance is poorly understood. Here we report that atrophy of D1, but not D2 receptor containing MSNs is strongly associated with social avoidance in mice subject to social defeat stress. D1-MSN atrophy is caused by cell-type specific upregulation of the GTPase RhoA and its effector Rho-kinase...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Samantha Jones, Vikki Neville, Laura Higgs, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Scientific methods for assessing animal affect, especially affective valence (positivity or negativity), allow us to evaluate animal welfare and the effectiveness of 3Rs Refinements designed to improve wellbeing. Judgement bias tasks measure valence; however, task-training may be lengthy and/or require significant time from researchers. Here we develop an automated and self-initiated judgement bias task for rats which capitalises on their natural investigative behaviour. Rats insert their noses into a food trough to start trials...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark A Barone, Zuhura Mbuguni, Japhet Ominde Achola, Annette Almeida, Carmela Cordero, Joseph Kanama, Adriana Marquina, Projestine Muganyizi, Jamilla Mwanga, Daniel Ouma, Caitlin Shannon, Leopold Tibyehabwa
BACKGROUND: Tubal occlusion by minilaparotomy is a safe, highly effective, and permanent way to limit childbearing. We aimed to establish whether the safety of the procedure provided by trained clinical officers (COs) was not inferior to the safety when provided by trained assistant medical officers (AMOs), as measured by major adverse event (AE) rates. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled, open-label noninferiority trial, we enrolled participants at 7 health facilities in Arusha region, Tanzania, as well as during outreach activities conducted in Arusha and neighboring regions...
August 16, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Woojin Kim, Ryan S Underwood, Iva Greenwald, Daniel D Shaye
OrthoList, a compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans genes with human orthologs compiled in 2011 by a meta-analysis of four orthology-prediction methods, has been a popular tool for identifying conserved genes for research into biological and disease mechanisms. However, the efficacy of orthology prediction depends on the accuracy of gene model predictions, an ongoing process, and orthology-prediction algorithms have also been updated over time. Here we present OrthoList 2 (OL2), a new comparative genomic analysis between C...
August 17, 2018: Genetics
Robert A Canales, Amanda M Wilson, Jennifer I Pearce-Walker, Marc P Verhougstraete, Kelly A Reynolds
Data below detection limits, left-censored data, are common in environmental microbiology, and decisions in handling censored data may have implications for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). In this paper, we utilize simulated data sets informed by real-world enterovirus water data to evaluate methods for handling left-censored data. Data sets were simulated with four censoring degrees (low (10%), medium (35%), high (65%), and severe (90%)) and one real life censoring example (97%) and were informed by enterovirus data assuming a lognormal distribution with a 2...
August 17, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tamás Székely, Gábor Balázsi
The correct expression of genes is vital for cells to function. Schikora-Tamarit et al. show that, in addition to obeying their promoters, most genes can modulate their own expression by either buffering or amplification. This could help to avoid costly overexpression of proteins.
August 14, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Michael Gottlieb, Dallas Holladay, Gary D Peksa
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Intubation is routinely performed in the emergency department, and rapid, accurate confirmation is essential to avoid potentially serious adverse outcomes. The number of studies assessing ultrasonography for the verification of endotracheal tube placement has expanded rapidly in recent years. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the sensitivity and specificity of transtracheal ultrasonography for the verification of endotracheal tube location...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Gregory Knell, Qing Li, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Kerem Shuval
More than two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese, with many attempting to lose weight to avoid adverse health outcomes and improve well-being. Achieving long-term weight loss (LTWL) success, defined as reaching at least a 5% to 10% weight loss goal, is challenging, yet important for overall metabolic health. It is currently unclear whether achieving higher thresholds of LTWL is associated with improved health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between LTWL thresholds (5%-9...
August 10, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Kewei Xia, Wei Huo
An adaptive saturated fault-tolerant controller is proposed for a spacecraft rendezvous maneuver with a cooperative target spacecraft. The six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) relative dynamics subject to unknown inertial parameters, external disturbances, actuator faults and saturations are formulated in the pursuer's body-fixed frame. To design controller satisfying asymmetric magnitude constraints, a modified smooth hyperbolic tangent function is applied to approximate the non-differentiable saturation function...
August 14, 2018: ISA Transactions
Emily Hubley, Gaurav Shukla, Yelena Vakhnenko, Robert B Den, Amy S Harrison
This work investigates whether the use of an avoidance sector in a two-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plan reduces dosimetric variations due to an irreproducible pannus. A morbidly obese patient with favorable-risk prostate cancer elected treatment with SBRT. The patient was treated with the avoidance arcs across the pannus to eliminate reproducibility issues created by daily pannus variability in set up. For post-treatment assessment, the case was planned using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system (TPS) with two VMAT arcs with and without 100° avoidance sectors across the pannus...
August 14, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
David H Kim, Courtney C Moreno, Perry J Pickhardt
This article serves as a practical reference to optimize the performance of computed tomography colonography in the detection of colorectal neoplasia. A specific protocol in use at 2 US university programs as well as defined interpretation strategies will be described. With this framework in place, various clinical pearls as well as pitfalls to avoid will be a major focus of this article.
September 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Beniamino Cislaghi, Lori Heise
BACKGROUND: Recently, Global Health practitioners, scholars, and donors have expressed increased interest in "changing social norms" as a strategy to promote health and well-being in low and mid-income countries (LMIC). Despite this burgeoning interest, the ability of practitioners to use social norm theory to inform health interventions varies widely. MAIN BODY: Here, we identify eight pitfalls that practitioners must avoid as they plan to integrate a social norms perspective in their interventions, as well as eight learnings...
August 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Luis Gomez-Raya, Luis Silio, Wendy M Rauw, Luis Alberto Gracia-Cortés, Carmen Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on linkage disequilibrium have investigated second order linkage disequilibrium in animal and plant populations. The objective of this paper was to investigate the genome-wide levels of third order linkage disequilibrium in a composite line founded by admixture of four Iberian pig strains. A model for the generation of third order linkage disequilibrium by population admixture is proposed. A computer Expectation-Maximization algorithm is developed and applied to the estimation of third order linkage disequilibrium at inter- and intra-chromosomal level using 26,347 SNPs typed in 306 sows...
August 17, 2018: BMC Genetics
Chase Holton, Yuanming Guo, Hong Luo, Paul Dahlen, Kyle Gorder, Erik M Dettenmaier, Paul C Johnson
It is accepted that indoor sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can confound vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment. When discovered during pre-sampling inspection, indoor sources are removed, and air sampling is delayed, with the assumption that a few hours to a few days are sufficient for indoor source impacts to dissipate. This assumption was tested through the controlled release of SF6 and its monitoring in indoor air and soil gas at a study house over two years. Results show that indoor sources generate subsurface soil gas clouds due to fluctuating direction in the exchange between soil gas and indoor air, and that it may take days to weeks under natural conditions for a soil gas cloud beneath a building to dissipate following indoor source removal...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Pontus Nordenfelt, Jonathan M Cooper, Axel Hochstetter
With a perfectly uniform illumination, the amount and concentration of fluorophores in any (biological) sample can be read directly from fluorescence micrographs. However, non-uniform illumination in optical micrographs is a common, yet avoidable artefact, often caused by the setup of the microscope, or by inherent properties caused by the nature of the sample. In this paper, we demonstrate simple matrix-based methods using the common computing environments MATLAB and Python to correct nonuniform illumination, using either a background image or extracting illumination information directly from the sample image, together with subsequent image processing...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Liang Wu, Xiangru Wang, Xiaoxian He, Ziqiang Huang, XinNing Huang, Caidong Xiong
A new method for non-mechanical laser beam splitting and steering is demonstrated. Two cascaded liquid crystal optical phased arrays (LC-OPAs) controllably modulate the amplitude and phase of an incident laser beam to realize the near-field wavefronts of multiple simultaneous beams with arbitrary directions. Diffraction between the two arrays is avoided by precise 4-f imaging from one LC-OPA to the other (array resolution 1×1920). In the method of cascaded amplitude and phase (CAP) devices, numerical simulation results show the characteristics of amplitude and phase modulation profiles, as well as the far-field intensity patterns...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
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