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Neurology and case report

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677415/acute-ischemic-stroke-in-a-young-woman-with-no-known-risk-factors
#1
Noureldin Abdelhamid, Salman Farooq, Amrou Sarraj
INTRODUCTION: We aim to highlight a potentially morbid consequence of foam-sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicose veins. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with no significant medical history who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of focal neurologic deficits. She had undergone varicose vein treatment with foam sclerotherapy 2 days prior. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute cerebellar infarct. Computed tomography angiography was unremarkable...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676696/tentorial-sling-for-microvascular-decompression-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia-a-description-of-operative-technique-and-clinical-outcomes
#2
Jeffrey A Steinberg, Jayson Sack, Bayard Wilson, David Weingarten, Bob Carter, Alexander Khalessi, Sharona Ben-Haim, John Alksne
OBJECTIVE Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain disorder most often caused by arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve, although there are other etiologies. Microvascular decompression (MVD) remains the most definitive treatment for this disorder, with cure rates reported between 60% and 80%. Traditional MVD techniques involve a retrosigmoid craniotomy with placement of an inert foreign material, such as Teflon, between the nerve and compressive vessel. Recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia after MVD has been associated with vessel migration, adhesion formation, and arterial pulsation against the Teflon abutting the nerve...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676694/keyhole-strategy-aiming-at-minimizing-hospital-stay-for-surgical-clipping-of-unruptured-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysms
#3
Kentaro Mori, Kojiro Wada, Naoki Otani, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Satoru Takeuchi, Takuji Yamamoto, Yasuaki Nakao, Hajime Arai
OBJECTIVE Aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are still most often treated by clipping through standard craniotomy, but a longer hospital stay is one of the main drawbacks of this treatment. The authors developed a pterional keyhole clipping strategy for unruptured MCA aneurysms with the intention of minimizing hospital stay. In this paper, they report on their experience with this approach and analyze the long-term neurological and radiological outcomes. METHODS A total of 160 relatively small unruptured MCA aneurysms (mean 6...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676678/spontaneous-epidural-hematoma-secondary-to-bone-infarction-in-sickle-cell-anemia-case-report
#4
Rohini Komarla, Bruno P Soares, Joshua J Chern, Sarah S Milla
Spontaneous epidural hematoma (EDH) is a rare occurrence in patients with sickle cell disease, with a small number of cases reported. Appropriate diagnosis is critical, because rapid neurosurgical intervention may be required. This unique case illustrates clinical and MRI features of an 18-year-old woman presenting with a headache and subsequent progression to severe focal neurological symptoms. Imaging demonstrated a large EDH of mixed signal characteristics and underlying calvarial infarction, requiring emergency decompression and evacuation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676379/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-presenting-with-acute-liver-failure-and-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-early-infancy
#5
Mukesh Kumar, Nirupama Kothari, B D Gupta, Neeraj Gupta
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal and likely underdiagnosed disease characterized by unregulated histiocyte proliferation, hypercytokinemia and hemophagocytosis, causing life-threatening tissue damage and organ failure. We report a case of a 56-day-old infant presenting with fever, acute liver failure, and neurological manifestations as presenting features that succumbed to rapidly progressive HLH. Our objective is to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis by high suspicion in varied initial presentation of HLH so that life-saving therapy may be instituted in time...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675607/medical-and-financial-burden-of-acute-intermittent-porphyria
#6
Rochus A Neeleman, Margreet A E M Wagenmakers, Rita H Koole-Lesuis, G Sophie Mijnhout, J H Paul Wilson, Edith C H Friesema, Janneke G Langendonk
INTRODUCTION: A small proportion of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) suffer from recurrent porphyric attacks, with a severely diminished quality of life. In this retrospective case-control study, the burden of disease is quantified and compared among three AIP patient subgroups: cases with recurrent attacks, cases with one or occasional attacks and asymptomatic carriers. METHODS: Data from patient records and questionnaires were collected in patients between 1960 and 2016 at the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675076/abrus-precatorius-poisoning-and-central-pontine-myelinolysis
#7
Sumantra Sarkar, Kaushambi Basu, Jayati Das, Supratim Datta
Accidental poisoning with Abrus precatorius (AP) can rarely produce neurological complication due to its toxic principle "Abrin". The authors report such a case in a 2-year old child, who subsequently developed central pontine myelinolysis, an association, to the best of the author's knowledge, has never been reported in literature.
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674767/portal-venous-gas-following-ingestion-of-hydrogen-peroxide-successfully-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#8
Chika Tsuboi, Hiromichi Naito, Shingo Hagioka, Hiroaki Hanafusa, Takahiro Hirayama, Yoshinori Kosaki, Atsuyoshi Iida, Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Naoki Morimoto, Atsunori Nakao
The primary toxicity of hydrogen peroxide results from its interaction with catalase, which liberates water and oxygen. We report the case of a 14-year-old Japanese girl with portal venous gas that was caused by oxygen liberated from intentionally ingested hydrogen peroxide. Although she had a past history of atrial septal defect, recovery without cardiac or neurological sequelae was achieved using hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Emergency physicians must be aware of the danger of liberated oxygen due to hydrogen peroxide ingestion...
April 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674237/eslicarbazepine-acetate-exposure-in-pregnant-women-with-epilepsy
#9
Raquel Costa, Luís M Magalhães, Joana Graça, Mariana Vieira, Helena Gama, Joana Moreira, José F Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder requiring continued treatment during pregnancy. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is needed for seizure control, but the risk of adverse events has to be minimized for both mother and foetus. Available data on pregnancy and foetal/postnatal outcomes following eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) exposure via parent is herein presented for the first time. METHODS: ESL's global safety database was reviewed to identify pregnancy cases with exposure to ESL reported up to October 21st, 2017...
April 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671179/clinical-infection-in-house-rats-rattus-rattus-caused-by-streptobacillus-notomytis
#10
Viktoria Michel, Claudia Ulber, Dietrich Pöhle, Beate Köpke, Katharina Engel, Ute Kaim, Ahmad Fawzy, Sophie Funk, Juliane Fornefett, Christoph Georg Baums, Tobias Eisenberg
Rat bite fever is an under-reported, under-diagnosed emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Besides Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis is the major causative microorganism although it usually colonises rats without any clinical signs. A group of house rats (Rattus rattus) kept in a zoo exhibition for educational purposes suffered from neurological signs including disorientation, torticollis, stall walking, ataxia and death. Gross pathological and histo-pathological examinations of the investigated rats revealed high-grade otitis interna et media, from which Streptobacillus notomytis was isolated in pure culture or as the predominant microorganism...
April 18, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670407/first-episode-psychosis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#11
Athena Enderami, Rose Fouladi, Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS with episode of psychosis is a rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, no case has been reported from Iran till date. Case presentation: We report a case of MS with first-episode psychosis in a 27-year-old single man with no history of psychiatric disorder or drug abuse. The patient developed neurological symptoms after 3 months and was finally diagnosed as a case of MS...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669030/the-efficacy-of-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-to-detect-postoperative-neurological-deficits-in-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-surgery
#13
Joung Heon Kim, Svetlana Lenina, Grace Mosley, Joshua Meaike, Benjamin Tran, Jun S Kim, Samuel K Cho
BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in spinal procedures, there is no standard guideline for what types of IONM tests should be monitored during lumbar procedures with instrumentation. Moreover, the efficacy of IONM during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgery in detecting postoperative neurological deficits has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze waveform changes from individual IONM tests (somatosensory evoked potentials [SSEP], motor evoked potentials [MEP], and electromyography [EMG]) during TLIF and compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in order to determine the best combination to detect postoperative neurological deficits...
April 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668332/neurological-complications-of-zika-virus-infection
#14
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666731/ischemic-stroke-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-an-initial-presentation-of-neurosyphilis
#15
Kalimullah Jan, Rebecca Hoe Hui Min, Tan Seow Yen, Shekhawat Ravindra Singh
Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666711/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-presenting-as-expressive-aphasia-and-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#16
Hafiz B Mahboob, Kazi H Kaokaf, Jeremy M Gonda
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the most common form of human prion diseases, is a fatal condition with a mortality rate reaching 85% within one year of clinical presentation. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive neurological deterioration in combination with typical electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and positive cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) analysis for 14-3-3 proteins. Unfortunately, CJD can have atypical clinical and radiological presentation in approximately 10% of cases, thus making the diagnosis often challenging...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666219/symptoms-at-lung-cancer-diagnosis-are-associated-with-major-differences-in-prognosis
#17
Victoria L Athey, Stephen J Walters, Trevor K Rogers
We report a cohort study of survival of patients with lung cancer presenting to a single multidisciplinary team between 1997 and 2011, according to symptoms at presentation. The overall median survival of the 3800 lung cases was 183 days (95% CI 171 to 195). There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the 12 symptom groups identified both without and with adjustment for the prognostic variables of age, gender and histology (P<0.001). Compared with the cough-alone symptom group, the risks of dying or HRs were significantly higher for the groups presenting with breathlessness (HR 1...
April 17, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665426/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-and-demyelinating-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Julie Mouchet, Francesco Salvo, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Fabrizio De Ponti, Bernard Bégaud
BACKGROUND: Approved in 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were initially targeted for girls aged 9-14 years. Although the safety of these vaccines has been monitored through post-licensure surveillance programmes, cases of neurological events have been reported worldwide. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to assess the risk of developing demyelination after HPV immunization by meta-analysing risk estimates from pharmacoepidemiologic studies. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from inception to 10 May 2017, without language restriction...
April 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664508/oral-self-mutilation-in-lesch-nyhan-syndrome-case-report
#19
Andrés Campolo González, Alex Vargas Díaz, Daniel Fontboté Riesco, Marta Hernández Chávez
INTRODUCTION: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an inherited recessive X-related disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthin-guanine phosphorribosyl transferase (HPRT). Compul sive self-mutilation and dystonia occurs before the first year of age and is expressed by persistent bites on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, fingers, and shoulders. The dental intervention performed on most of these patients is multiple tooth extraction to prevent serious secondary lesions. OBJECTIVE: To present a clinical case of LNS and describe pediatric dentistry management in patients with self-mutilating behavior...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663900/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-tunisia-prenatal-and-neonatal-diagnosis-and-postnatal-follow-up-of-35-cases
#20
Boudaouara Yosr, Aoun Karim, Maatoug Rania, Souissi Olfa, Bouratbine Aïda, Ben Abdallah Rym
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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