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Running kinematics

Jeroen Aeles, Ilse Jonkers, Sofie Debaere, Christophe Delecluse, Benedicte Vanwanseele
The aim of this study was to compare young and adult sprinters on several biomechanical parameters that were previously highlighted as performance-related and to determine the behaviour of several muscle-tendon units (MTU) in the first stance phase following a block start in sprint running. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematic data were collected from 16 adult and 21 young well-trained sprinters. No difference between the groups was found in some of the previously highlighted performance-related parameters (ankle joint stiffness, the range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexor moment)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
C N Hughes-Oliver, D Srinivasan, D Schmitt, R M Queen
BACKGROUND: The effects of ankle osteoarthritis on gait are noticeable in the clinic, but are difficult to quantify and score without detailed kinematic and kinetic analysis. Evaluationof temporal gait parameters and gait variability is a potential alternative. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to determine associations between limb and gender with temporal gait parameters and gait variability in ankle OA patients to evaluate the utility of these parameters for gait assessment in a clinical setting...
July 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
Paolo Bruseghini, Enrico Tam, Andrea Monte, Carlo Capelli, Paola Zamparo
The purpose of this study was to assess metabolic and kinematic parameters (contact and flight time, step length and frequency) while walking at the preferred speed (1.44 ± 0.22 m · s-1 ) and while performing an incremental running test (up to exhaustion) on a motorised treadmill (MT) and on a curved non-motorised treadmill (CNMT). Twenty-five volunteers (24.1 ± 3.4 years; 64.7 ± 11.2 kg) participated in the study. Maximal running speed on MT was significantly larger (P < 0.001) than on CNMT (4...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Andrea Ancillao, Salvatore Tedesco, John Barton, Brendan O'Flynn
In the last few years, estimating ground reaction forces by means of wearable sensors has come to be a challenging research topic paving the way to kinetic analysis and sport performance testing outside of labs. One possible approach involves estimating the ground reaction forces from kinematic data obtained by inertial measurement units (IMUs) worn by the subject. As estimating kinetic quantities from kinematic data is not an easy task, several models and protocols have been developed over the years. Non-wearable sensors, such as optoelectronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate systems to record motion...
August 5, 2018: Sensors
I M Albertsen, K Hollander, B Brockmann, D Hamacher, S Sehner, R Stücker, A Zech, K Babin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Shalaya Kipp, Alena M Grabowski, Rodger Kram
The cost of generating force hypothesis proposes that the metabolic rate during running is determined by the rate of muscle force development (1/tc , tc =contact time) and the volume of active leg muscle. A previous study assumed a constant recruited muscle volume and reported that the rate of force development alone explained ∼70% of the increase in metabolic rate for human runners across a moderate velocity range (2-4 m s-1 ). We hypothesized that over a wider range of velocities, the effective mechanical advantage (EMA) of the lower limb joints would overall decrease, necessitating a greater volume of active muscle recruitment...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jonathan S Goodwin, J Troy Blackburn, Todd A Schwartz, D S Blaise Williams
Study Design Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. Background Lower extremity stiffness describes the relative loading and kinematics of the entire lower extremity during ground contact. Previously injured subjects demonstrate altered lower extremity stiffness values. Clinical analysis of lower extremity stiffness is not currently feasible due to increased time and cost. Objective To determine the clinical identifiable contributors to lower extremity stiffness. Methods Ninety-two healthy runners completed a clinical screening involving passive assessment of hip, knee, and ankle range of motion along with body anthropometrics...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Mark F Reinking, Leigh Dugan, Nolan Ripple, Karen Schleper, Henry Scholz, Jesse Spadino, Cameron Stahl, Thomas G McPoil
Background: While two-dimensional (2D) video running analysis is commonly performed in the clinical setting, the reliability of quantitative measurements as well as effect of clinical experience has not been studied. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of six different raters using 2D video analysis of sagittal and frontal plane kinematic variables while running on a treadmill. Study Design: Cross-sectional Study...
June 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Pamela B Lachniet, Jeffery A Taylor-Haas, Mark V Paterno, Christopher A DiCesare, Kevin R Ford
Background: Lower extremity overuse injuries, including bone stress injuries (BSI), are common in runners and may result in prolonged recovery and time off from running. Identifying risk factors for running-related overuse injuries may have a clinically relevant role in prevention of these injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare an adolescent and young adult population of male runners known to have a history of BSI with an injury-free cohort and retrospectively assess for kinematic differences that may differentiate the two cohorts...
June 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Cameron Lord, Anthony J Blazevich, Eric J Drinkwater, Fadi Ma'ayah
OBJECTIVES: To quantify changes in running kinetics and kinematics during a repeated-sprint test in football players, and explore the sensitivity and specificity with which these variables can identify previous hamstring injury. DESIGN: 20 Western Australia State League footballers with previous unilateral hamstring injury and 20 players without completed a 10×6-s repeated-sprint test on a non-motorised treadmill dynamometer. METHODS: Changes in horizontal force, vertical force, contact time and flight time were compared between previously injured and uninjured legs of participants...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jun Mizushima, Keitaro Seki, Justin W L Keogh, Kei Maeda, Atsushi Shibata, Hiroyuki Koyama, Keigo Ohyama-Byun
Background: Anecdotally, a wide variety of benefits of barefoot running have been advocated by numerous individuals. The influence of the alterations in the properties of the shoe on the running movement has been demonstrated in adults at submaximal jogging speeds. However, the biomechanical differences between shod and barefoot running in children at sprinting speeds and the potential developmental implications of these differences are still less examined. The purpose was to determine the potential differences in habitually shod children's sprint kinematics between shod and barefoot conditions...
2018: PeerJ
Bart Dingenen, Christian Barton, Tessa Janssen, Anke Benoit, Peter Malliaras
OBJECTIVES: To examine test-retest reliability of two-dimensional measured frontal and sagittal plane kinematics during running, and to determine how many steps to include to reach and maintain a stable mean. DESIGN: Reliability study. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one recreational runners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lateral trunk position, contralateral pelvic drop, femoral adduction, hip adduction, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion during midstance, and foot and tibia inclination at initial contact were measured with two-dimensional video analysis during running for 10 consecutive steps for both legs...
June 30, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Michele Leblanc, Heidi Ferkranus
Barefoot running is considered to decrease injury risk, but is not always practical, particularly while running on a fitness center treadmill. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of shod, barefoot, and simulated barefoot running. Twelve subjects (age = 21.1 ± 1.2 years) who regularly run on a treadmill for fitness participated in the study. After a warm up, each runner ran on a Biodex RTM 400 treadmill set at 7.4 mph (approximately 3.3 m/s) in their own shoes, barefoot, and while running "like they were barefoot" in their own shoes...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Christine M Rostosky, Ira Milosevic
Motor behavior tests are commonly used to determine the functional relevance of a rodent model and to test newly developed treatments in these animals. Specifically, gait analysis allows recapturing disease relevant phenotypes that are observed in human patients, especially in neurodegenerative diseases that affect motor abilities such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and others. In early studies along this line, the measurement of gait parameters was laborious and depended on factors that were hard to control (e...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daniel Jandacka, Jan Plesek, Jiri Skypala, Jaroslav Uchytil, Julia Freedman Silvernail, Joseph Hamill
Background: Despite the increasing incidence of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures, there is a lack of information on the possible risks associated with regular running and walking for exercise after an injury. There are some known kinematic gait changes after an AT rupture, especially at the knee. However, it is not clear whether runners with AT ruptures may be at risk for secondary knee injuries during shod or barefoot running/walking. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and kinetics of barefoot walking and barefoot and shod running between athletes with a history of AT ruptures and a healthy control group...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Barry S Andrews, Elizabeth S Bressan
Background: To optimise sprint performance, one needs to understand how motor control affects motor performance. Researchers have proposed that the Dynamic Systems Theory be adopted for explaining motor performance, skill acquisition and the development of pedagogical methods. Within this theory, the individual is seen as a complex system that functions as the interaction of many sub-systems. Entrained movements would be characterised by optimal sequencing, timing and grading of muscle activation...
2018: African Journal of Disability
Mathieu Falbriard, Frédéric Meyer, Benoit Mariani, Grégoire P Millet, Kamiar Aminian
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different kinematic features measured by foot-worn inertial sensors for detecting running gait temporal events (e.g., initial contact, terminal contact) in order to estimate inner-stride phases duration (e.g., contact time, flight time, swing time, step time). Forty-one healthy adults ran multiple trials on an instrumented treadmill while wearing one inertial measurement unit on the dorsum of each foot. Different algorithms for the detection of initial contact and terminal contact were proposed, evaluated and compared with a reference-threshold on the vertical ground reaction force...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kieron Jie-Han Ngoh, Darwin Gouwanda, Alpha A Gopalai, Yu Zheng Chong
Wearable technology has been viewed as one of the plausible alternatives to capture human motion in an unconstrained environment, especially during running. However, existing methods require kinematic and kinetic measurements of human body segments and can be complicated. This paper investigates the use of neural network model (NN) and accelerometer to estimate vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). An experimental study was conducted to collect sufficient samples for training, validation and testing. The estimated results were compared with VGRF measured using an instrumented treadmill...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Matteo Zago, Fabio Esposito, Giulia Rausa, Eloisa Limonta, Felice Corrado, Susanna Rampichini, Chiarella Sforza
Changes of direction (CoDs) have a high metabolic and mechanical impact in field and court team sports, but the estimation of the associated workload is still inaccurate. This study aims at validating an algorithm based on kinematic data to estimate the energy cost of running with frequent 180°-CoDs. Twenty-six physically active male subjects (22.4 ± 3.2 years) participated in two sessions: (1) maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max ) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) test; (2) 5-m continuous shuttle run (two 5-min trials at 50% and 75% MAS, 6-min recovery)...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Anthony G Schache, Yi-Chung Lin, Kay M Crossley, Marcus G Pandy
PURPOSE: Knowledge of hip biomechanics during locomotion is necessary for designing optimal rehabilitation programs for hip-related conditions. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine how lower-limb muscle contributions to hip joint contact forces (HCFs) differed between walking and running; and (2) compare both absolute and per-unit-distance (PUD) loads at the hip during walking and running. METHODS: Kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from eight healthy participants during overground walking and running at various steady-state speeds (walking: 1...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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