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Running kinematics

Jacques Robadey, Didier Staudenmann, Raphael Schween, Dominic Gehring, Albert Gollhofer, Wolfgang Taube
Subjects with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) show gait asymmetries evidenced by lower knee flexion and shorter contact times for the affected leg. Interestingly, running on a treadmill compared to running overground is also associated with lower knee flexion and shorter contact times. Thus, it is of particular interest how gait patterns are influenced by the type of ground in subjects with KOA. The aim of the current study was therefore to measure the overground asymmetry of kinematic parameters in KOA subjects while running and to investigate whether this asymmetry is altered on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
In humans, hip abductor and lumbar lateral flexor muscles are well-developed as side-to-side lumbopelvic stabilizers. We hypothesized that the hip abductors and lumbar lateral flexors act as energy generators during a running single-leg jump, although they are generally recognized as stabilizers. We collected kinematics and ground reaction force data in running single-leg jumps by 13 male high jumpers and calculated three-dimensional kinetic variables. Hip abduction and lumbosacral lateral flexion towards free leg side torques were exerted during almost the entire take-off phase, exerting positive power during the terminal 2/3 of the phase...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Rafael Krätschmer, Harald Böhm, Leonhard Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Classification of sagittal gait patterns in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) provides direct implication for treatment. Five types are described: type 0 has minor gait deviation; type 1 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion in swing; type 2 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion throughout the gait cycle; types 3 and 4 have abnormal function of the knee and hip joint respectively. During gait analysis of children with unilateral spastic CP we observed frequently that a knee flexion deficit disappeared during running...
October 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
Linda Schücker, Lucy Parrington
A number of studies have shown that attentional focus instructions can effect running economy. This study assessed spiroergometry, as well as running kinematics as a possible mechanism to explain these effects. Twelve runners had to focus their attention on either their running movement, their breathing or on a video while running on a treadmill at a set, submaximum speed. Spiroergometry and running kinematics were measured. Results revealed worse running economy in both internal focus conditions (breathing and movement) compared to the external focus condition (video), replicating previous findings...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W Fink, Wyatt H Page, Sarah P Shultz
PURPOSE: This study examined differences in lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children during stationary exercises (running in place, frontal kick, and butt kick) at submaximal intensity. METHODS: Healthy children (aged 10-13 y) were stratified into OW (n = 10; body fat percentage: 34.97 [8.60]) and NW (n = 15; body fat percentage: 18.33 [4.87]). Electromyography was recorded for rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior...
October 10, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Luigi Tesio, Chiara Malloggi, Calogero Malfitano, Carlo A Coccetta, Luigi Catino, Viviana Rota
Walking on a split-belt treadmill (each of the two belts running at a different speed) has been proposed as an experimental paradigm to investigate the flexibility of the neural control of gait and as a form of therapeutic exercise. However, the scarcity of dynamic investigations challenges the validity of the available findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic asymmetries of lower limbs of healthy adults during adaptation to gait on a split-belt treadmill. Ten healthy adults walked on a split-belt treadmill mounted on force sensors, with belts running either at the same speed ('tied' condition) or at different speeds ('split' condition, 0...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Kai-Yu Ho, Theresa French, Brooks Klein, Young Lee
OBJECTIVES: To compare patellofemoral joint (PFJ) stress between level, incline, and decline running. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty recreational runners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kinematics and kinetics of the trunk and lower extremity were obtained under 3 treadmill conditions: level, 6° incline, and 6° decline. PFJ stress, PFJ reaction force, and PFJ contact area were determined using a biomechanical model...
September 27, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Carola Sales-Carbonell, Wahiba Taouali, Loubna Khalki, Matthieu O Pasquet, Ludovic F Petit, Typhaine Moreau, Pavel E Rueda-Orozco, David Robbe
A popular hypothesis is that the dorsal striatum generates discrete "traffic light" signals that initiate, maintain, and terminate the execution of learned actions. Alternatively, the striatum may continuously monitor the dynamics of movements associated with action execution by processing inputs from somatosensory and motor cortices. Here, we recorded the activity of striatal neurons in mice performing a run-and-stop task and characterized the diversity of firing rate modulations relative to run performance (tuning curves) across neurons...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yosra Cherni, Annie Pouliot Laforte, Audrey Parent, Pierre Marois, Mickael Begon, Laurent Ballaz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The strategies for walking fast have never been reported in children with cerebral palsy who walk in crouch gait. This study aimed to assess to what extent children who walk in crouch gait are able to increase their gait speed and to report the corresponding three-dimensional kinematic adaptations. METHODS: Eleven children and adolescents (aged between 7 and 17 years) with bilateral cerebral palsy, who walk in crouch gait, were asked to walk at their self-selected comfortable speed and then as fast as possible without running...
September 28, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Christofer J Clemente, Nicholas C Wu
Certain lizards are known to run bipedally. Modelling studies suggest bipedalism in lizards may be a consequence of a caudal shift in the body centre of mass, combined with quick bursts of acceleration, causing a torque moment at the hip lifting the front of the body. However, some lizards appear to run bipedally sooner and for longer than expected from these models, suggesting positive selection for bipedal locomotion. While differences in morphology may contribute to bipedal locomotion, changes in kinematic variables may also contribute to extended bipedal sequences, such as changes to the body orientation, tail lifting and changes to the ground reaction force profile...
September 26, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Tim Hoenig, Daniel Hamacher, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Astrid Zech, Karsten Hollander
In the analysis of human walking, the assessment of local dynamic stability (LDS) has been widely used to determine gait stability. To extend the concepts of LDS to the analysis of running biomechanics, this study aimed to compare LDS during exhaustive running between competitive and recreational runners. Fifteen recreational and fifteen competitive runners performed an exhaustive 5000 m run. Inertial measurement units at foot, pelvis, and thorax were used to determine local dynamic running stability as quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent...
September 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Linda M A van Gelder, Andrew Barnes, Jonathan S Wheat, Ben W Heller
BACKGROUND: Biofeedback seems to be a promising tool to improve gait outcomes for both healthy individuals and patient groups. However, due to differences in study designs and outcome measurements, it remains uncertain how different forms of feedback affect gait outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review primary biomechanical literature which has used biofeedback to alter gait-related outcomes in human participants. METHODS: Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus and Pubmed were searched from inception to December 2017 using various keywords and the following MeSHterms: biofeedback, feedback, gait, walking and running...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
P J Felton, S L Lister, P J Worthington, M A King
This study investigated ball release speed and performance kinematics between elite male and female cricket fast bowlers. Fifty-five kinematic parameters were collected for 20 male and 20 female elite fast bowlers. Group means were analysed statistically using an independent samples approach to identify differences. Significant differences were found between: ball release speed; run-up speed; the kinematics at back foot contact (BFC), front foot contact (FFC), and ball release (BR); and the timings between these key instants...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Thomas W Kernozek, Allie Knaus, Tess Rademaker, Thomas G Almonroeder
BACKGROUND: Female runners that habitually use a forefoot/midfoot strike pattern (non-rearfoot runners) may be at greater risk for Achilles tendinopathy compared to runners that habitually use a rearfoot strike pattern. Differences in Achilles tendon loading between non-rearfoot and rearfoot strike runners may be a contributing factor. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our purpose was to determine if there were differences in Achilles tendon loading and cross-sectional area between female habitual rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike runners...
October 2018: Gait & Posture
Ryoichi Ema, Masanori Sakaguchi, Yasuo Kawakami
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the morphological characteristics of the thigh and psoas major muscles in sprinters as well as interrelations among their muscularity, hip joint mechanics, and running speed during maximal running. METHODS: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the thigh and trunk were obtained from 15 male sprinters (best 100-m sprint times, 10.63-11.57 s) and 12 untrained men. From the magnetic resonance images, the volumes of each of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings, total adductors, sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, gracilis, and psoas major were determined...
October 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin
OBJECTIVES: Arm swing is a distinctive characteristic of sprint-running with the arms working in a contralateral manner with the legs to propel the body in a horizontal direction. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in kinematics and kinetics when wearable resistance (WR) of 1kg (equivalent to ∼1% body mass) was attached to each forearm during over ground short distance (20m) maximal sprint-running. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty-two male amateur rugby athletes (19...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yutaka Yabe, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Takuya Sekiguchi, Haruki Momma, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Kaoru Kuroki, Kenji Kanazawa, Masashi Koide, Nobuyuki Itaya, Shinichirou Yoshida, Yasuhito Sogi, Toshihisa Yano, Eiji Itoi, Ryoichi Nagatomi
PURPOSE: Considerable research has focused on shoulder and elbow injuries among baseball players; however, although lumbar spine and knee injuries are commonly experienced, they are less frequently studied. During common motions in baseball, such as throwing, hitting, and running, energy is transferred from the lower extremities through the lower back to the upper body. Lower extremity pain, as well as lower back pain (LBP), can disrupt the kinematic chain, and it is important to understand the association between lower extremity complaints and LBP...
September 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Christopher Bramah, Stephen J Preece, Niamh Gill, Lee Herrington
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated clear associations between specific running injuries and patterns of lower limb kinematics. However, there has been minimal research investigating whether the same kinematic patterns could underlie multiple different soft tissue running injuries. If they do, such kinematic patterns could be considered global contributors to running injuries. HYPOTHESIS: Injured runners will demonstrate differences in running kinematics when compared with injury-free controls...
October 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Giacomo Severini, Donal Holland, Aisling Drumgoole, Eamonn Delahunt, Massimiliano Ditroilo
Hamstring injuries are common in field sport athletes. Eccentric strength training of the hamstring muscles is an integral component of rehabilitation programs. The Askling L-Protocol comprises three exercises [extender; diver; glider] that load the hamstrings during eccentric activity. When compared to a conventional exercise-based rehabilitation program, the Askling L-Protocol has been shown to reduce the time to return to sport following hamstring injury and prevalence of injury recurrence. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind its efficacy have yet to be studied...
September 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Maximilian Sanno, Steffen Willwacher, Gaspar Epro, Gert-Peter Brüggemann
PURPOSE: To investigate the joint-specific contributions to the total lower extremity joint work during a prolonged fatiguing run. METHODS: Recreational long-distance runners (RR; n = 13) and competitive long-distance runners (CR; n = 12) performed a 10-km treadmill run with near-maximal effort. A three-dimensional motion capture system synchronized with a force-instrumented treadmill was used to calculate joint kinetics and kinematics of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane during the stance phase at 13 distance points over the 10-km run...
August 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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