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Running kinematics

Daniel Linke, Martin Lames
Electronic performance and tracking systems (EPTS) traditionally rely on one of two body positions as the ultimate representative for the entire body in space: the upper torso between the scapulae (GPS- and radar-based systems) or the body's estimated center (optical and some radar-based systems). The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of the respective reference point upon the resulting kinematic tracking variables. We present a marker-based method comparing center of pelvis (COP) derived tracking variables with center of scapulae (COS) derived tracking variables in a 30 × 30 m (900 m2 ) VICON measurement area...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Reinhard Blickhan, Emanuel Andrada, Eishi Hirasaki, Naomichi Ogihara
Macaques trained to perform bipedally use grounded running, skipping and aerial running, but avoid walking. The preference for grounded running across a wide range of speeds is substantially different from the locomotion habits observed in humans, which may be the result of differences in leg compliance. In the present study, based on kinematic and dynamic observations of three individuals crossing an experimental track, we investigated global leg properties such as leg stiffness and viscous damping during grounded and aerial running...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
C Nathan Vannatta, Thomas W Kernozek
Sex differences in common sports injuries to the lower extremity have been reported. Biomechanical factors of the hip have been investigated between sexes with regard to running-related injury. This study investigates gluteal muscle forces between sexes to aid in our understanding of sex-related biomechanical factors in running. Twenty-one healthy male and female runners were participants. Each ran at a controlled speed of 3.52-3.89 m/s down a 20-m runway. Kinetic and kinematic data were utilised to estimate muscle forces...
December 11, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Christopher Napier, Christopher L MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E Taunton, Michael A Hunt
BACKGROUND: Running-related injury (RRI) rates are high and may be associated with increased peak braking forces (PBF) and vertical loading rates. Gait retraining has been suggested by some experts to be an effective method to reduce loading parameters. OBJECTIVES: To investigate 1) whether PBF could be decreased following an 8-session gait retraining program among a group of female recreational runners and 2) the self-selected kinematic strategies to achieve this reduction...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Sepehr Jalali, Sian E Martin, Colm P Murphy, Joshua A Solomon, Kielan Yarrow
Humans can rapidly discriminate complex scenarios as they unfold in real time, for example during law enforcement or, more prosaically, driving and sport. Such decision-making improves with experience, as new sources of information are exploited. For example, sports experts are able to predict the outcome of their opponent's next action (e.g., a tennis stroke) based on kinematic cues "read" from preparatory body movements. Here, we explore the use of psychophysical classification-image techniques to reveal how participants interpret complex scenarios...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jeska Buhmann, Bart Moens, Edith Van Dyck, Dobromir Dotov, Marc Leman
The use of music and specifically tempo-matched music has been shown to affect running performance. But can we maximize the synchronization of movements to music and does maximum synchronization influence kinematics and motivation? In this study, we explore the effect of different types of music-to-movement alignment strategies on phase coherence, cadence and motivation. These strategies were compared to a control condition where the music tempo was deliberately not aligned to the running cadence. Results show that without relative phase alignment, a negative mean asynchrony (NMA) of footfall timings with respect to the beats is obtained...
2018: PloS One
Bernard X W Liew, Andrew Morrison, Hiroaki Hobara, Susan Morris, Kevin Netto
Background: The effects of resistance training on a muscle's neural, architectural, and mechanical properties are well established. However, whether resistance training can positively change the coordination of multiple motor elements in the control of a well-defined lower limb motor performance objective remains unclear. Such knowledge is critical given that resistance training is an essential and ubiquitous component in gait rehabilitation. This study aimed to investigate if strength gains of the ankle and knee extensors after resistance training increases kinematic motor abundance in hopping...
2018: PeerJ
Naomichi Ogihara, Eishi Hirasaki, Emanuel Andrada, Reinhard Blickhan
It was previously believed that, among primates, only humans run bipedally. However, there is now growing evidence that at least some non-human primates can not only run bipedally but can also generate a running gait with an aerial phase. Japanese macaques trained for bipedal performances have been known to exhibit remarkable bipedal locomotion capabilities, but no aerial-phase running has previously been reported. In the present study, we investigated whether Japanese macaques could run with an aerial phase by collecting bipedal gait sequences from three macaques on a level surface at self-selected speeds (n = 188)...
December 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
C H Fox, A C Gibb, A P Summers, W E Bemis
Video-based observations of voluntary movements reveal that six species of pleuronectid flatfishes use sequential portions of long-based dorsal and anal fins as "feet" (hereafter, fin-feet) to move on the substrate. All six species used a gait that we term "walking," which produced constant forward movement, and several of these species also used a second gait that we call "bounding" for intermittent movements over the substrate. We selected Pacific Sand Sole, Psettichthys melanostictus, and English Sole, Parophrys vetulus, for kinematic analyses of these two gaits...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Sang-Kyoon Park, Hyun-Min Jeon, Wing-Kai Lam, Darren Stefanyshyn, Jiseon Ryu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how lower extremity kinematics and kinetics change when running downhill. METHODS: Fifteen male recreational runners ran on an instrumented treadmill with three different slope conditions [level (0°), moderate (-6°), and steep (-9°)] at a controlled speed of 3.2 m/s. Ten consecutive steps were selected for analysis for each of the slope conditions and the order of slope conditions was randomized. Synchonized motion analysis and force plate were used to determine joint kinematics and kinetics...
November 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jasper Reenalda, Erik Maartens, Jaap H Buurke, Allison H Gruber
BACKGROUND: Tibial stress fractures are common running related injury and their etiology may include biomechanical factors like impact forces, shock attenuation, lower limb kinematics and how these factors are influenced by intense or prolonged running. Inertial-magnetic measurement units (IMUs) have recently emerged as an alternative to motion capture but their use to date was mostly limited to segmental and joint motion. RESEARCH QUESTION: The present study sought to examine the effects of a prolonged run on shock attenuation, peak tibial and sacral acceleration (PTA, PSA), and lower limb kinematics using IMUs...
November 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Senne Bonnaerens, Pieter Fiers, Samuel Galle, Peter Aerts, Edward C Frederick, Yasunori Kaneko, Wim Derave, Dirk De Clercq
PURPOSE: Recent observations demonstrate that a sizeable proportion of the recreational running population runs at rather slow speeds and does not always show a clear flight phase. This study determined the key biomechanical and physiological characteristics of this running pattern, i.e. grounded running (GR), and compared these characteristics with slow aerial running (SAR) and reference data on walking at the same slow running speed. METHODS: Thirty male subjects performed instructed GR and SAR at 2...
November 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joshua Mattock, Julie R Steele, Karen J Mickle
Background: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a lower leg injury with a reported incidence rate of up to 35% in active individuals. Although numerous prospective studies have tried to identify risk factors for developing MTSS, managing the syndrome remains difficult. One risk factor yet to be extensively explored in MTSS development is reduced lower leg girth. Further investigation of reduced lower leg girth is required due to the important role lower leg musculature plays in attenuating ground reaction forces during the gait cycle...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Xini Zhang, Rui Xia, Boyi Dai, Xiaole Sun, Weijie Fu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two fatigue protocols on lower-limb joint mechanics, stiffness and energy absorption during drop landings. Fifteen male athletes completed landing tasks before and after two fatigue protocols (constant speed running [R-FP] and repeated shuttle sprint plus vertical jump [SJ-FP]). Sagittal plane lower-limb kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Compared with R-FP, SJ-FP required significantly less intervention time to produce a fatigue state...
December 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Paul Sandamas, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik, Anton Arndt
This study investigated how manipulating first step width affects 3D external force production, centre of mass (CoM) motion and performance in athletic sprinting. Eight male and 2 female competitive sprinters (100m PB: 11.03 ± 0.36 s male and 11.6 ± 0.45 s female) performed 10 maximal effort block starts. External force and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded in both the block and first stance phases. Five trials were performed with the athletes performing their preferred technique (Skating) and five trials with the athletes running inside a 0...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Wouter Hoogkamer, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
BACKGROUND: We have shown that a prototype marathon racing shoe reduced the metabolic cost of running for all 18 participants in our sample by an average of 4%, compared to two well-established racing shoes. Gross measures of biomechanics showed minor differences and could not explain the metabolic savings. OBJECTIVE: To explain the metabolic savings by comparing the mechanics of the shoes, leg, and foot joints during the stance phase of running. METHODS: Ten male competitive runners, who habitually rearfoot strike ran three 5-min trials in prototype shoes (NP) and two established marathon shoes, the Nike Zoom Streak 6 (NS) and the adidas adizero Adios BOOST 2 (AB), at 16 km/h...
November 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Nicholas S Frank, Stephen D Prentice, Jack P Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Understanding how footwear cushioning influences movement stability may be helpful in reducing injuries related to repetitive loading. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between running experience and midsole cushioning on local dynamic stability of the ankle, knee and hip. METHODS: Twenty-four trained and novice runners were recruited to run on a treadmill for five minutes at the same relative intensity...
November 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
Ana Flavia Dos Santos, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Fábio Viadanna Serrão, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common running-related injury. It has been shown in previous studies that gait retraining may have a beneficial effect on patellofemoral joint stress (PFJS). RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there a reduction of PFJS across 4 running conditions: 1. runner's typical rearfoot strike pattern, 2. forefoot landing, 3. step rate increase by 10% and 4. forward trunk lean? METHODS: Nineteen healthy runners (28...
November 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
Alexander Thesleff, Sofie Ludvigsson, Emilia Ohr, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Direct skeletal attachment of lower limb prostheses ensures direct load transfer between the prosthetic leg and the skeleton. Knowledge of the load characteristics at the boneimplant interface during high-loading activities is needed to understand the limitations of current implant systems, as well as to inform their future development. The present study estimates the load scenario at the bone-implant interface of a transfemoral amputee while running with kinematic symmetry between the prosthetic and the intact limbs corresponding to that of an ablebodied subject...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Carlos Rodrigues, Miguel Correia, Joao M C S Abrantes, Marco A Benedetti Rodrigues, Jurandir Nadal
This study presents and applies generalized angular phase space analysis to lower limb joint angles of specific subject during normal and modified gait for discrimination of gait and joint angular movements. Case study of an adult healthy male in-vivo and noninvasive kinematic assessment of skin surface adhesive markers at lower limb was performed at human movement lab during normal gait, stiff knee gait and slow running. Musculoskeletal modeling was performed using AnyGait v.0.92 morphing Twente Lower Extremity Model (TLEM) to match the size and joint morphology of the stick-figure model...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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