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lung diffusion

Michael G Z Ghali, Ayman Samkari, J Steve Hou, Manjula Balasubramanian, Sherri Besmer, Matthew Keisling, Prithvi Narayan
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare in children with immunocompromise as an important risk factor. A 7-year-old girl with unspecified T-cell immunodeficiency presented with left-sided weakness and was found to have a right-sided frontal lobe mass on imaging. The mass was resected; histopathology and molecular studies evidenced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Prior chest imaging had revealed left upper lobe mass, and repeat chest imaging revealed multiple pulmonary nodules, initially concerning for metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Michael Dreher, Ayham Daher, András Keszei, Nikolaus Marx, Tobias Müller, Christian Cornelissen, Vincent Brandenburg
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) often occur together. However, COPD is underdiagnosed among CHD patients. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of COPD and relevant pulmonary function test (PFT) impairments in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Patients undergoing coronary angiography for AMI were prospectively included. Body plethysmography, lung diffusing capacity, blood gas analysis, and echocardiography were performed...
August 15, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Nannan Gao, Tengyue Zhang, Jiadong Ji, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease and the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been used as an effective therapy. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aims to quantify the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in LAM patients. METHODS: The following databases were searched for clinical trials regarding LAM patients treated with mTOR inhibitors until December 2017: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and OVID medicine...
August 14, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Rukman Awang Hamat, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Sridevi Chigurupati, Alex van Belkum, Vasanthakumari Neela
The present study assessed the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts of Allium stipitatum (Persian shallot) against planktonic cells and biofilm structures of clinically significant antibiotic resistant pathogens, with a special emphasis on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and emerging pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antibacterial activities were determined through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and electron microscopy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ramin Ghorbani, Anders Blomberg, Florian M Schmidt
Exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eCO) is a candidate biomarker for non-invasive assessment of oxidative stress and respiratory diseases. Standard end-tidal CO analysis, however, cannot distinguish, whether eCO reflects endogenous CO production, lung diffusion properties or exogenous sources, and is unable to resolve a potential airway contribution. Coupling real-time breath gas analysis to pulmonary gas exchange modeling holds promise to improve the diagnostic value of eCO. A trumpet model with axial diffusion (TMAD) is used to simulate the dynamics of CO gas exchange in the respiratory system and corresponding eCO concentrations for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Erik H Van Iterson, Joshua R Smith, Thomas P Olson
BACKGROUND: Peak exercise V̇O2 is a primary marker of prognosis in heart failure (HF). The pathophysiology of impaired peak V̇O2 is unclear in patients. To what extent alveolar airway function impacts V̇O2 during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to phenotype how changes in alveolar ventilation (V̇A ), volume (VA ), and related parameters couple with exercise V̇O2 in HF. METHODS: N=35 HF (LVEF=20±6%; ages, 53±7 years) participated in CPET with breath-to-breath measurements of ventilation and gas-exchange...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Naoto Oebisu, Manabu Hoshi, Makoto Ieguchi, Tadashi Iwai, Sayaka Tanaka, Masahiko Osawa, Hiroaki Nakamura
Methotrexate (MTX) is the key drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTX-treated RA has been associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Notably, the hyperimmune state of RA itself or the immunosuppressive state induced by MTX administration may contribute to development of LPD. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been indicated to contribute to the development of MTX-LPD. MTX-associated LPD (MTX-LPD) may affect nodal or extranodal sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs, kidneys, and soft tissues, at an almost equal frequency...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Xiaoming Yu, Keji Miao, Changsheng Zhou, Yuelin Cai, Xiaoying Huang, Yanfan Chen, Mayun Chen, Hui Cai, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus that often causes fatal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although T. marneffei-infected cases have been increasingly reported among non-HIV-infected patients in recent years, no cases of T. marneffei infection have been reported in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. In this case, we describe a T. marneffei infection in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis...
August 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Brigitte Kazzi, David Lederer, Emilio Arteaga-Solis, Anjali Saqi, Wendy K Chung
Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency causes diffuse lung disease with variable prognosis and severity that usually presents in infancy. We present the case of a patient with diffuse lung disease who was successfully treated with hydroxychloroquine and steroids in infancy, who presented again as a young adult with respiratory symptoms. Exome sequencing identified a novel de novo SFTPC mutation (c.397A > C p.S133R). Mutated SP-C accumulates and leads to injury of alveolar type II cells, which normally replenish alveolar type I cells after injury...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Diana Marangu, Komala Pillay, Ebrahim Banderker, Diane Gray, Aneesa Vanker, Marco Zampoli
Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation...
October 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Suzanne Miller, Clare Coveney, Janice Johnson, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Nishant Gupta, Martin D Tobin, Louise V Wain, Francis X McCormack, David J Boocock, Simon R Johnson
Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease of women. Decline in lung function is variable making appropriate targeting of therapy difficult. We used unbiased serum proteomics to identify markers associated with outcome in LAM. Methods: 101 women with LAM and 22 healthy controls were recruited from the National Centre for LAM (Nottingham, UK). 152 DNA and serum samples with linked lung function and outcome data were obtained from patients in the NHLBI LAM Registry (USA). Proteomic analysis was performed on a discovery cohort of 50 LAM and 20 control sera using a SCIEX SWATH mass spectrometric workflow...
August 9, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Clodoveo Ferri, Erica Artoni, Gian Luca Sighinolfi, Fabrizio Luppi, Gabriele Zelent, Michele Colaci, Dilia Giuggioli
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune systemic disease characterized by diffuse fibrosis of skin and visceral organs due to different genetic, infectious, and/or environmental/occupational causative factors, including the inhalation of silica dust. OBJECTIVES: To investigate serum trace elements including silicon (s-Si) levels in SSc patients living in a restricted geographical area with high density of worksites with silica exposure hazard. METHODS: This case-control study included 80 SSc patients (M:F 10:70; aged 58...
June 24, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Naomi Iwata, Haruna Nakaseko, Toaki Kohagura, Ryuhei Yasuoka, Naoki Abe, Shinji Kawabe, Shiro Sugiura, Yoshinao Muro
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and clinical subsets of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in Japanese patients. METHODS: Twenty-one patients at a single center who developed initial or relapsed JDM from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed. Serum concentrations of MSAs against TIF1-γ, MDA5, NXP2, Mi-2, ARS, and SAE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were obtained from clinical records...
August 10, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
D Merrill Dane, Khoa Cao, Hua Lu, Cuneyt Yilmaz, Jamie Dolan, Catherine D Thaler, Priya Ravikumar, Kimberly A Hammond, Connie C W Hsia
A colony of deer mice subspecies (Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis) native to high altitude (HA) has been maintained at sea level for 18-20 generations and remains genetically unchanged. To determine if these animals retain responsiveness to hypoxia, one group (9-11 weeks old) was acclimated to HA (3,800m) for 8 weeks. Age-matched control animals were acclimated to a lower altitude (LA, 252m). Maximal O2 uptake (VO2max ) was measured at the respective altitudes. On a separate day, lung volume, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and pulmonary blood flow were measured under anesthesia using a rebreathing technique at two inspired O2 tensions...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ximeng Lian, Xiaowei Chen, Jingping Sun, Guoliang An, Xiaoli Li, Yan Wang, Piye Niu, Zhonghui Zhu, Lin Tian
Silicosis is pathologically characterized by diffused pulmonary fibrosis and abundant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The ECM is mainly secreted by myofibroblasts which are the activated state of fibroblasts. MicroRNA-29b (miR-29b) is one of the well-known microRNAs involved in fibrosis, but its roles in silicosis have not been specified. In this study, we hypothesized that miR-29b might play a protective role in the progression of silicosis. MTT assay, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting were applied...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
Yin Liu, Zhibin Jin, Haiyan Zhang, Yingwei Zhang, Minke Shi, Fanqing Meng, Qi Sun, Hourong Cai
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma (MM). Diffuse parenchymal amyloidosis as pulmonary manifestation of MM is even rarer. We report a rare case of diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis associated with MM diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy (VATLB). CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old woman complained of cough and shortness of breath. HRCT disclosed diffuse ground-glass opacifications with interlobular septal thickening in bilateral lungs...
August 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
Rehab Ali Ibrahim, Nour El-Hoda Hussien Abdalla, Engy Amr Husssein Shabaan, Noha Bassiouny Hassan Mostafa
BACKGROUND: Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease. Many conditions mimic the presentation of SSc, especially skin thickening and fibrosis. One of these conditions is scleredema, a rare collagen and mucin deposition disorder which was found to be associated with diabetes mellitus, streptococcal infection or monoclonal gammopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55 years old female presented with insidious onset and progressive course of diffuse skin thickening of face, neck, arms, forearms, thighs, chest, back, and sparing both hands and feet of 6 years duration associated with arthralgia, dysphagia and dyspnea on exertion of 1-year duration...
August 7, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Ryan J Baron, Hooman Hamedani, Stephen J Kadlecek, Ian F Duncan, Yi Xin, Sarmad Siddiqui, Mehrdad Pourfathi, Maurizio Cereda, Rahim R Rizi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging markers in predicting future forced expiratory volume in one second decline/chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder progression in smokers compared to current diagnostic techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 60 subjects (15 nonsmokers and 45 smokers) participated in both baseline and follow-up visits (∼1.4 years apart)...
August 4, 2018: Academic Radiology
Joshua M Bovard, Joseph F Welch, Kristin M Houghton, Donald C McKenzie, James E Potts, Andrew William Sheel
Whether the large lungs of swimmers result from intensive training or genetic endowment has been widely debated. Given that peak lung growth velocities occur during puberty, this study examined if competitive swimming during puberty affected lung growth. Eleven- to fourteen-year-old healthy female competitive swimmers and controls were assessed before (PRE) and after (POST) one swimming season (7.4 ± 0.5 months). Pulmonary function testing included lung volumes, spirometry, diffusion capacity (DL , CO ), and maximal inspiratory (PIMAX ) and expiratory (PEMAX ) pressures...
August 2018: Physiological Reports
Masooma Aqeel, Nevin Uysal-Biggs, Timothy S Fenske, Nagarjun Rao
Introduction . Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) comprises approximately 3% to 10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although there is an increased risk for secondary malignancies after treatment among non-Hodgkin lymphomas survivors, a synchronous diagnosis of primary lung cancer arising in conjunction with lymphoma at the same site has rarely been reported. We report an unusual case of primary lung adenocarcinoma with coexistent MCL within the same lung lesion. Case Presentation . A 55-year-old female with newly diagnosed stage IV-B MCL was referred for workup of a right upper lobe cavitary lesion detected during lymphoma staging...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
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