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lung diffusion

Francisco J García-Hernández, María J Castillo-Palma, Carles Tolosa-Vilella, Alfredo Guillén-Del Castillo, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Mayka Freire, José A Vargas-Hitos, José A Todolí-Parra, Mónica Rodríguez-Carballeira, Gerard Espinosa-Garriga, Dolores Colunga-Argüelles, Norberto Ortego-Centeno, Luis Trapiella-Martínez, María M Rodero-Roldán, Xavier Pla-Salas, Isabel Perales-Fraile, Isaac Pons-Martín Del Campo, Antonio J Chamorro, Rafael A Fernández-de la Puebla Giménez, Ana B Madroñero-Vuelta, Manuel Ruíz-Muñoz, Vicent Fonollosa-Pla, Carmen P Simeón-Aznar
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to evaluate the pulmonary hypertension (PH) data for Spanish patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), define the PH types and determine the associated factors. METHOD: Descriptive study of PH-related data from the multicentre RESCLE registry. Estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (esPAP), measured via echocardiogram was considered elevated if ≥ 35 mmHg. Left heart disease (LHD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were identified...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Inge Raadal Skov, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen
This case report demonstrates 44-year old man, presenting with recurring clinical pneumonias during a period of over 1 year. The patient was clinically affected with, i.a., weight loss, finger clubbing and severely reduced diffusion capacity. Repetitive chest x-rays showed bilateral and consolidating infiltrates, and a high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) exposed ground glass opacities superimposed on a reticular pattern as the so-called 'crazy paving' pattern. A bronchoscopic alveolar lavage revealed alveolar proteinaceous material compatible with the diagnosis pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)...
2019: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Heleen Demeyer, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Elena Gimeno-Santos, Maria A Ramon, Jordi de Batlle, Marta Benet, Ignasi Serra, Stefano Guerra, Eva Farrero, Esther Rodriguez, Jaume Ferrer, Jaume Sauleda, Eduard Monso, Joaquim Gea, Robert Rodriguez-Roisin, Alvar Agusti, Josep M Antó, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
INTRODUCTION: COPD progression is variable and affects several disease domains, including decline in lung function, exercise capacity, muscle strength and health status as well as changes in body composition. We aimed to assess the longitudinal association of physical activity (PA) with these a priori selected components of disease progression. METHOD: We studied 114 COPD patients from the PAC-COPD cohort [94% male, mean (SD) 70 (8) years of age, 54 (16) FEV1 % predicted] at baseline and 2...
December 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
C H Ziener, T Kampf, F T Kurz, H P Schlemmer, L R Buschle
Magnetic resonance imaging of lung tissue is strongly influenced by susceptibility effects between spin-bearing water molecules and air-filled alveoli. The measured lineshape, however, also depends on the interplay between susceptibility effects and blood-flow around alveoli that can be approximated as pseudo-diffusion. Both effects are quantitatively described by the Bloch-Torrey-equation, which was so far only solved for dephasing on the alveolar surface. In this work, we extend this model to the whole range of physiological relevant air volume fractions...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Luca G Campana, Ibrahim Edhemovic, Declan Soden, Anna M Perrone, Marco Scarpa, Laura Campanacci, Maja Cemazar, Sara Valpione, Damijan Miklavčič, Simone Mocellin, Elisabetta Sieni, Gregor Sersa
The treatment of tumors with electrochemotherapy (ECT) has surged over the past decade. Thanks to the transient cell membrane permeabilization induced by the short electric pulses used by ECT, cancer cells are exposed to otherwise poorly permeant chemotherapy agents, with consequent increased cytotoxicity. The codification of the procedure in 2006 led to a broad diffusion of the procedure, mainly in Europe, and since then, the progressive clinical experience, together with the emerging technologies, have extended the range of its application...
December 1, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Ganesh Raghu, Luca Richeldi, Alexandre Jagerschmidt, Valerie Martin, Arun Subramaniam, Marie-Laure Ozoux, Corinne A Esperet, Christina Soubrane
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with 3 to 5 years' survival. Although FVC is used to assess disease progression and treatment response, identifying predictive circulating blood biomarkers could help identify specific biologic pathways for treatment. An international, prospective, noninterventional, case-controlled, 52-week study was therefore conducted to identify a clinical and biomarker baseline profile predictive of longitudinal disease behavior...
December 2018: Chest
Thomas Kowoll, Susanne Fritsch-Decker, Silvia Diabaté, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Dagmar Gerthsen, Carsten Weiss
BACKGROUND: Particokinetic models are important to predict the effective cellular dose, which is key to understanding the interactions of particles with biological systems. For the reliable establishment of dose-response curves in, e.g., the field of pharmacology and toxicology, mostly the In vitro Sedimentation, Diffusion and Dosimetry (ISDD) and Distorted Grid (DG) models have been employed. Here, we used high resolution scanning electron microscopy to quantify deposited numbers of particles on cellular and intercellular surfaces and compare experimental findings with results predicted by the ISDD and DG models...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Olja Simoska, Marta Sans, Mignon D Fitzpatrick, Christopher M Crittenden, Livia S Eberlin, Jason B Shear, Keith J Stevenson
Here, we use a recently developed electrochemical sensing platform of transparent carbon ultramicroelectrode arrays (T-CUAs) for the in vitro detection of phenazine metabolites from the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specifically, redox-active metabolites pyocyanin (PYO), 5-methylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-MCA) and 1-hydroxyphenazine (OHPHZ) are produced by P. aeruginosa, which is commonly found in chronic wound infections and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. As highly diffusible chemicals, PYO and other metabolites are extremely toxic to surrounding host cells and other competing microorganisms, thus their detection is of great importance as it could provide insights regarding P...
December 10, 2018: ACS Sensors
Roan A S Vasdev, Lachlan F Gaudin, Dan Preston, Jackmil P Jogy, Gregory I Giles, James D Crowley
New bis- quinoline ( L q ) and bis- isoquinoline-based ( L iq ) ligands have been synthesized, along with their respective homoleptic [Pd2 ( L q or L iq )4 ]4+ cages ( C q and C iq ). The ligands and cages were characterized by 1 H, 13 C and diffusion ordered (DOSY) NMR spectroscopies, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESIMS) and in the case of the bis -quinoline cage, X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of the C q architecture showed that the [Pd2 ( L q )4 ]4+ cage formed a twisted meso isomer where the [Pd( quinoline )4 ]2+ units at either end of the cage architecture adopt the opposite twists (left and right handed)...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Madhuchhanda Roy, Darya G Buehler, Ranran Zhang, Michael L Schwalbe, Rebecca M Baus, M Shahriar Salamat, Ricardo V Lloyd, Jason N Rosenbaum
Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) and orthopedia homeobox (OTP) are transcription factors that play a critical role in neuroendocrine (NE) and neuroepithelial cell development. INSM1 has been identified in multiple tumors of NE or neuroepithelial origin, whereas OTP expression has been mainly studied in NE tumors of pulmonary origin. Expression of OTP appears to correlate with poorer prognosis in pulmonary carcinoids; however, its expression patterns in other NE/neuroepithelial tumors need further investigation...
December 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Hyun-Jin Bae, Chang-Wook Kim, Namju Kim, BeomHee Park, Namkug Kim, Joon Beom Seo, Sang Min Lee
Deep learning is now widely used as an efficient tool for medical image classification and segmentation. However, conventional machine learning techniques are still more accurate than deep learning when only a small dataset is available. In this study, we present a general data augmentation strategy using Perlin noise, applying it to pixel-by-pixel image classification and quantification of various kinds of image patterns of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD). Using retrospectively obtained high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images from 106 patients, 100 regions-of-interest (ROIs) for each of six classes of image patterns (normal, ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation) were selected for deep learning classification by experienced thoracic radiologists...
December 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kai Ruppert, Kun Qing, James T Patrie, Talissa A Altes, John P Mugler
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperpolarized xenon-129 magnetic resonance (MR) provides sensitive tools that may detect early stages of lung disease in smokers before it has progressed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) apparent to conventional spirometric measures. We hypothesized that the functional alveolar wall thickness as assessed by hyperpolarized xenon-129 MR spectroscopy would be elevated in clinically healthy smokers before xenon MR diffusion measurements would indicate emphysematous tissue destruction...
December 3, 2018: Academic Radiology
Akihiko Gemma, Masahiko Kusumoto, Yasuyuki Kurihara, Noriyuki Masuda, Shigeo Banno, Yutaka Endo, Hiroyuki Houzawa, Naomi Ueno, Emiko Ohki, Akinobu Yoshimura
INTRODUCTION: The study objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with an orally available small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib in the real-world clinical setting. METHODS: Post-marketing surveillance was performed in Japan to obtain information on the safety and efficacy of crizotinib. Target patients included all patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received crizotinib, during the enrollment period between May 2012 and December 2014...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Florence Jeny, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Young-Wouk Kim, Olivia Freynet, Hilario Nunes, Dominique Valeyre
High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis, prognosis, and in some cases the prediction of therapeutic response in interstitial lung disease (ILD). HRCT represents an essential second step to a patient's clinical history, before considering any other investigation, including lung biopsy. Areas covered: This review describes the current place of HRCT in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of ILD. It also lists some perspectives for the near future. Expert commentary: Since the 1980s, HRCT and its interpretation have improved, the diagnosis value of patterns, and the integration of bio-clinical elements to HRCT have been better standardized...
December 5, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Laura Gochicoa-Rangel, Rodrigo Del-Río-Hidalgo, María René Álvarez-Arroyo, David Martínez-Briseño, Uri Mora-Romero, Luisa Martínez-Valdeavellano, Johanna Navarrete-Rivera, Luis Rodríguez-Moreno, Selene Guerrero-Zúñiga, Rosario Fernández-Plata, Gabriela Cantú-González, Silvia Cid-Juárez, Cecilia García-Sancho, Ireri Thirión-Romero, Mónica Silva-Cerón, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Luis Torre-Bouscoulet
RATIONALE: Single breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCOsb) evaluates gas exchange; however, the quality of maneuvers performed by children has not been evaluated, and reference values for young people living at moderate altitudes are not well established. OBJECTIVES: 1) to determine whether DLCOsb maneuvers performed by a pediatric population would meet 2017 ERS/ATS quality control standards; and 2) to report normal DLCOsb values for Mexican/Latino children and adolescents living at moderate altitudes...
December 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ho-Fung Chan, Guilhem J Collier, Nicholas D Weatherley, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To compare in vivo lung morphometry parameters derived from theoretical gas diffusion models, the cylinder model and stretched exponential model, in a range of acinar microstructural length scales encountered in healthy and diseased lungs with 3 He and 129 Xe diffusion-weighted MRI. METHODS: Three-dimensional multiple b-value 3 He and 129 Xe diffusion-weighted MRI was acquired with compressed sensing at 1.5 T from 51 and 31 subjects, respectively, including healthy volunteers, ex-smokers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
December 4, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Shin Nagai, Junji Hiraga, Noriyuki Suzuki, Naruko Suzuki, Yusuke Takagi, Michihiko Narita, Yoshitoyo Kagami
We report a rare case of composite lymphoma comprising extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, (ENKL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a 70-year-old man complaining of fatigue. Computed tomography showed multiple consolidations in both lungs, and ENKL was diagnosed from transbronchial lung biopsy. Positron emission tomography also detected abnormal uptake in the stomach, and DLBCL was diagnosed from subsequent gastroscopy. Two courses of chemotherapy including rituximab achieved reduction in DLBCL, but ENKL proved resistant to this treatment and progressed...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
Xiaoli Li, Guoliang An, Yan Wang, Di Liang, Zhonghui Zhu, Lin Tian
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is a common occupational disease, characterized by silicotic nodules and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrated an anti-fibrotic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in silica-induced lung fibrosis. In the present study, we sought to clarify the homing ability of BMSCs and the specific mechanisms for their effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biodistribution of BMSCs was identified by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in vivo and in vitro...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Stylianos Panopoulos, Maria Tektonidou, Alexandros A Drosos, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Alexandros Garyfallos, Lazaros Sakkas, Dimitrios Boumpas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Dimitrios Daoussis, Konstantinos Thomas, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Georgios Vosvotekas, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Petros P Sfikakis
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in chronic systemic connective tissue diseases and are associated with adverse outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence of comorbidities has been well-studied in isolated diseases, comparative studies between different autoimmune diseases are limited. In this study, we compared the prevalence of common comorbidities between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, 408 consecutive patients with SSc, aged 59 ± 13 years (87% women), were matched 1:1 for age and gender with 408 patients with RA; mean disease duration was 10 ± 8 and 9 ± 8 years, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Ernest Onyeforo, Adrian Barnett, Debbie Zagami, David Deller, Iain Feather
Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis (DPL) is a rare disease caused by uncontrolled lymphatic vessel proliferation resulting in respiratory dysfunction. Lymphatic vessel growth is influenced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It has been shown that bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to VEGF type A, may be helpful in treating diseases characterized by excessive vessel proliferation. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with DPL treated with 1 mg/kg bevacizumab every three weeks for 6 months. A significant improvement in lung infiltrates was seen on post-treatment computed tomography (CT) chest with a 17...
January 2019: Respirology Case Reports
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