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OBJECTIVEPreoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a feasible alternative to postoperative SRS and may lower the risk of radiation necrosis (RN) and leptomeningeal disease (LMD) recurrence. The study goal was to report the efficacy and toxicity of preoperative SRS in an expanded patient cohort with longer follow-up period relative to prior reports.METHODSThe records for patients with brain metastases treated with preoperative SRS and planned resection were reviewed. Patients with classically radiosensitive tumors, planned adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy, or no cranial imaging at least 1 month after surgery were excluded...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Hongyu Jing, Huan Xia, Ming Qian, Xiaohong Lv
BACKGROUND: The long noncoding RNA colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) was reported to be involved in the initiation and development of multiple cancers. However, the detailed biological role of CRNDE in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely unclear. Herein, we aimed to explore the biological function and underlying molecular mechanism of CRNDE in NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to detect the expression of CRNDE in NSCLC tissues and cell lines...
December 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Majid Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Avadi, Farnoosh Attar, Fariba Dashtestani, Hedayatollah Ghorchian, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Ali Akbar Saboury, Mojtaba Falahati
Cancer is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world, which can be severely reduced by early detection to avoid future problems in the field of economics and mental health. Hence, electrochemical nanobiosensors as portable devices for rapid detection of  cancer biomarkers, have found an important place in clinical medicine for diagnosis, managements or cancer screening. Although, these biosensors have been receiving attention in the recent years, their principles are unchanged. By progress in nanotechnology, a great potential has been giving to nanobiosensors...
November 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Edgardo D'Angelo, Edoardo Calderini, Mario Tavola, Matteo Pecchiari
In 9 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs lung and chest-wall standard (viscous resistance, Rint, and quasi-static elastance, Est) and viscoelastic parameters (resistance, Rvel, and time constant, τvel) were measured in the supine posture before and after rib-cage block, after application of an expiratory threshold load, and after 75° head-up tilting before and after wide chest opening. Lung and chest-wall τvel were the same under all conditions. Rvel was independent of volume and posture, and greater for the lung...
December 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Sang Hun Lee, Jihwan Song, Byungrae Cho, SoonGweon Hong, Ori Hoxha, Taewook Kang, Dongchoul Kim, Luke P Lee
Microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been of great interest owing to its ability to perform rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification and analysis on small volumes of samples. One of the major drawbacks of microfluidic PCR is bubble generation and reagent evaporation, which can cause malfunctions. Here, through theoretical modeling and characterization of bubble behavior, we propose a bubble-free microfluidic PCR device via controlled fluid transfer. Our approach exploits a thin impermeable polyethylene (PE) top layer that minimizes the generation of bubbles by inhibiting mass transport along a vertical direction...
October 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mihaela Ghita, Victoria L Dunne, Stephen J McMahon, Sarah O Osman, Donna M Small, Sinead Weldon, Clifford C Taggart, Conor K McGarry, Alan R Hounsell, Edward E Graves, Kevin M Prise, Gerard G Hanna, Karl T Butterworth
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to define the dose and dose-volume relationship of radiation induced pulmonary toxicities occurring in and out-of-field in mouse models of early inflammatory and late fibrotic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Early radiation induced inflammation and fibrosis were investigated in C3H/NeJ and C57BL/6J mice respectively. Animals were irradiated with 20 Gy delivered to the upper region of the right lung as a single fraction or as three consecutive fractions using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP, Xstrahl Inc...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
James L Bedford, Irena Blasiak-Wal, Vibeke N Hansen
Current clinical practice is to prescribe to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) in 4D stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung. Frequently the PTV margin has a very low physical density so that the internal target volume (ITV) receives an unnecessarily high dose. This study investigates the alternative of prescribing to the ITV while including the effects of positional uncertainties. Five patients were retrospectively studied with volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans. Five plans were produced for each patient: a static plan prescribed to PTV D95% , three probabilistic plans prescribed to ITV D95% and a static plan re-prescribed to ITV D95% after inverse planning...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz, Bertram J Jobst, Oliver Weinheimer, Daniela Gompelmann, Felix J F Herth, Claus P Heussel
Novel therapeutic options in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require delicate patient selection and thus demand for expert radiologists visually and quantitatively evaluating high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with additional functional acquisitions such as paired inspiratory-expiratory scans or dynamic airway CT. The differentiation between emphysema-dominant and airway-dominant COPD phenotypes by imaging has immediate clinical value for patient management. Assessment of emphysema severity, distribution patterns, and fissure integrity are essential for stratifying patients for different surgical and endoscopic lung volume reduction procedures...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Emidio M Sivieri, Eric Eichenwald, Salma M Bakri, Soraya Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: This study compared CO2 clearance in a premature infant lung model connected to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system supplied with oscillatory versus non-oscillatory flow. DESIGN/METHODS: The lung model was set to compliance 1.0 mL/cmH2 O, RR 60 breaths/min, and 6 mL tidal volume. A 100% CO2 was injected at a constant 15 mL/min. To create oscillation, HFNC flow was interrupted at rates of 4-6-8 and 10 Hz. equilibrated end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2 ) was recorded with and without oscillation at set flows of 2-8 L/min and repeated for each oscillation frequency...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lana Sanford, Janelle Molloy, Sameera Kumar, Marcus Randall, Ronald McGarry, Damodar Pokhrel
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the plan quality and treatment delivery efficiency of single-isocenter/two-lesions volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). MATERIALS/METHODS: Eight consecutive patients with two peripherally located early stage nonsmall-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) lung lesions underwent single-isocenter highly conformal noncoplanar VMAT SBRT treatment in our institution. A single-isocenter was placed between the two lesions...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Dongdong Mei, Yan Luo, Yan Wang, Jingshan Gong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether radiomic features can be surrogate biomarkers for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation statuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred ninety six consecutive patients, who underwent CT examinations before operation within 3 months and had EGFR mutations tested, were enrolled in this retrospective study. CT texture features were extracted using an open-source software with whole volume segmentation. The association between CT texture features and EGFR mutation statuses were analyzed...
December 14, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Oliver Weinheimer, Benjamin A Hoff, Aleksa B Fortuna, Antonio Fernández-Baldera, Philip Konietzke, Mark O Wielpütz, Terry E Robinson, Craig J Galbán
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess variability in quantitative air trapping (QAT) measurements derived from spatially aligned expiration CT scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four paired CT examinations, from 16 school-age cystic fibrosis subjects examined at four separate time intervals, were used in this study. For each pair, visually inspected lobe segmentation maps were generated and expiration CT data were registered to the inspiration CT frame...
December 10, 2018: Academic Radiology
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Rodney J Hicks, Shankar Siva, Michael S Hofman
Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) is now possible by substituting Technetium-99m (99m Tc) with Gallium-68 (68 Ga), using the same carrier molecules as conventional V/Q imaging. Ventilation imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-carbon nanoparticles using the same synthesis device as Technegas. Perfusion imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Similar physiological processes can therefore be evaluated by either V/Q SPECT/CT or PET/CT. However, V/Q PET/CT is inherently a superior technology for image acquisition, with higher sensitivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and superior quantitative capability, allowing more accurate delineation and quantification of regional lung function...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Dale L Bailey, Catherine E Farrow, Edmund M Lau
Ventilation and perfusion lung imaging with SPECT/CT permits accurate delineation of the individual lobes of the lungs using the CT images for use in ascribing the relative functional contribution to overall lung function of the lobes of both ventilation and perfusion. Moreover, an advantage of using Technegas as the ventilation agent and radiolabelled macro-aggregated albumin microspheres as the perfusion agent is that the deposition pattern is fixed upon administration and thus different patient postures can be studied and the effect of gravity and position determined, even though the scans must be acquired with the subject supine using conventional gamma camera SPECT/CT systems...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Enid M Eslick, Mark J Stevens, Dale L Bailey
Curative-intent lung cancer radiation therapy either alone (RT) or combined with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with potential risk of serious radiation-induced lung injury. This review provides a summary of the role of SPECT ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging as an emerging adjunct to lung cancer RT planning and treatment dosimetry. Denoted "functional lung avoidance RT" it is hypothesized that preferential dosimetric avoidance of physiologically functional lung may reduce the frequency of radiation-induced lung injury...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Kshama Wechalekar, Justin Garner, Sima Gregg
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 400 million individuals worldwide and is predicted to be the third leading cause of death by 2020 with a projected economic cost of 4.8 trillion US dollars by 2030. Lung volume reduction surgery is an established means of targeting hyperinflation in patients with severe emphysema, optimizing ventilator mechanics, and reducing the work of breathing. Preoperative evaluation of regional lung function is essential to planning and predicting the outcomes of surgery. The traditional planar approach is inaccurate for lobar contribution since it is not based on anatomy...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Jann Mortensen, Ronan M G Berg
Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is a functional imaging biomarker that has the potential of captivating the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It specifically images the distribution of ventilation and perfusion within the lungs, which is a critical pathophysiological component of COPD. The extent of ventilation defects and ventilation inhomogeneity, as well as the ventilation-perfusion ratio distribution thus correlate with severity of disease. Furthermore, specific scintigraphic patterns, such as the "stripe sign" may detect centrilobular emphysematous lesions with a higher sensitivity than other imaging techniques...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Henrik Watz, Kay Tetzlaff, Helgo Magnussen, Achim Mueller, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Emiel F M Wouters, Claus Vogelmeier, Peter M A Calverley
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with loss of lung function and poor outcomes for patients. However, there are limited data on the time course of changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) preceding the first reported symptom and after the start of an exacerbation. METHODS: WISDOM was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, 52-week study in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD...
December 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Alexandra Lenoir, Jean-William Fitting, Pedro-Manuel Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Laurent P Nicod
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function predicts increased mortality, but its prevalence may vary depending on definition considered, use of bronchodilation and applied reference values. We aimed to assess lung function abnormalities in Lausanne, Switzerland, and their association with clinical history. METHODS: In a general population sample, spirometry was performed and bronchodilation applied if the ratio forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) or the FVC was below the lower limit of normal (LLN) according to Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 references...
December 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
Frederik Trinkmann, Joshua Gawlitza, Monique Künstler, Julia Schäfer, Michele Schroeter, Julia D Michels, Ksenija Stach, Christina Dösch, Joachim Saur, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
Airways obstruction is frequent in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Small airway disease (SAD) was identified as a major contributor to resistance and symptoms. However, it is easily missed using current diagnostic approaches. We aimed to evaluate more elaborate diagnostic tests such as impulse oscillometry (IOS) and SF₆-multiple-breath-washout (MBW) for the assessment of SAD in PH. Twenty-five PH patients undergoing body-plethysmography, IOS and MBW testing were prospectively included and equally matched to pulmonary healthy and non-healthy controls...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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