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lung volume

Yu-Shan Chang, Long Hsu, Kuang-Lung Huang
When UV-curable material is used with a spherical glass lens, it is classified as a hybrid lens and can provide a new degree of freedom in designing a lens system. This method is used to explore the optical limitation of an ultrawide-angle imaging system of a folded structure, which is utilized to achieve a compact volume. The f-number and field of view of the system are 2.0 and 190°, respectively. Diffraction-limited performance is achieved within a field of view of 80° with Strehl ratios greater than approximately 80%...
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Melissa Burroughs Peña, Katrina Swett, Neil Schneiderman, Daniel M Spevack, Sonia G Ponce, Gregory A Talavera, Mayank M Kansal, Martha L Daviglus, Jianwen Cai, Barry E Hurwitz, Maria M Llabre, Carlos J Rodriguez
Objective: We assessed the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome is associated with adverse changes in cardiac structure and function in participants of the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (Echo-SOL). Methods: Non-diabetic Echo-SOL participants were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. Survey multivariable linear regression analyses using sampling weights were used adjusting for multiple potential confounding variables...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
B A Tudor-Drobjewski, P Marhofer, O Kimberger, W D Huber, G Roth, L Triffterer
BACKGROUND: Preoperative fasting is a major cause of perioperative discomfort in paediatric anaesthesia and leads to postoperative insulin resistance, thus potentially enhancing the inflammatory response to surgery. Addressing these problems by preoperative carbohydrate intake has not been a well-defined approach in children. METHODS: We randomised 120 children scheduled for gastroscopy under general anaesthesia to either a control group of standard preoperative fasting or a study group receiving a carbohydrate beverage (PreOp™; Nutricia, Erlangen, Germany)...
September 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jingjing Zhang, Svetlana Markova, Alejandro Garcia, Kirk Huang, Xingyu Nie, Wookjin Choi, Wei Lu, Abraham Wu, Andreas Rimner, Guang Li
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of automatically propagated contours of organs at risk (OARs) based on respiratory-correlated navigator-triggered four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (RC-4DMRI) for calculation of internal organ-at-risk volume (IRV) to account for intra-fractional OAR motion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: T2-weighted RC-4DMRI images were of 10 volunteers acquired and reconstructed using an internal navigator-echo surrogate and concurrent external bellows under an IRB-approved protocol...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Bindhu Joseph, Nisma Farooq, Sabari Kumar, C R Vijay, Kurian J Puthur, C Ramesh, Vishwanath Lokesh
Background and Purpose: To examine the feasibility of improving breast-conserving radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) and analyzing the efficiency of forward versus inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in providing the same. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) field-in-field (FIF) plans with simultaneous and sequential boost and IMRT SIB plans were generated for the datasets of 20 patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Felix Agyei Ampadu, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Newman Osafo, Charles Kwaku Benneh, Edmund Ekuadzi, Eric Woode
Maerua angolensis has been used traditionally in the management of pain, arthritis, and rheumatism in Ghana and Nigeria but no scientific evidence is currently available to give credence to its folkloric use. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of a stem bark extract of Maerua angolensis DC (MAE) in acute inflammatory models. The effects of MAE (30-300 mg kg-1 ) on neutrophil infiltration, exudate volume, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes in lung tissues and lung morphology were evaluated with the carrageenan induced pleurisy model in Sprague Dawley rats...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
William M Coutinho, Paulo J C Vieira, Fernanda M Kutchak, Alexandre S Dias, Marcelo M Rieder, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini
Context: Cough assist (CA) is a device to improve bronchial hygiene of patients with secretion in the airways and ineffective cough. Aims: To compare the physiological effects and the volume of secretion of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (CA device) with isolated endotracheal suctioning in mechanically ventilated patients. Settings and Design: Randomized crossover trial. Materials and Methods: The patients were randomly allocated to the first technique, then the following technique was performed in the next day...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Hui-Rong Xi, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Fang-Fang Yang, Wen-Yuan Li, Hui-Ping Ma, Ke-Ming Chen
To investigate the effect of Xianling Gubao capsule in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX), ethinylestradiol group (EE) and Xianling Gubao capsule group (XLGB). Rats in each group received ovariectomy, except for sham group. The XLGB group received Xianling Gubao capsule at the dose of 378 mg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹. The dosage of EE group was 200 μg·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹, and OVX and Sham groups were only fed with equal volume of distilled water...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xia Li, Ya-Hua Wang, Tian-Ci Yan, Hao-Lun Xu, He-Lu Yan, Lan-Yu He, Lan-Yu He, Xue Ying
Hispidulin(HPDL) chitosan microspheres were prepared in this study to deliver HPDL to the lesion sitevia intravenous injection, and further evaluate their anticancer effects in vitro and the growth inhibition effect on A549 cells spheroids. HPDL chitosan microspheres were prepared by emulsion crosslinking method with chitosan as a drug carrier and the amount of HPDL was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The morphology of microspheres was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Rachel E McCarroll, Beth M Beadle, Peter A Balter, Hester Burger, Carlos E Cardenas, Sameera Dalvie, David S Followill, Kelly D Kisling, Michael Mejia, Komeela Naidoo, Chris L Nelson, Christine B Peterson, Karin Vorster, Julie Wetter, Lifei Zhang, Laurence E Court, Jinzhong Yang
Purpose We assessed automated contouring of normal structures for patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC) using a multiatlas deformable-image-registration algorithm to better provide a fully automated radiation treatment planning solution for low- and middle-income countries, provide quantitative analysis, and determine acceptability worldwide. Methods Autocontours of eight normal structures (brain, brainstem, cochleae, eyes, lungs, mandible, parotid glands, and spinal cord) from 128 patients with HNC were retrospectively scored by a dedicated HNC radiation oncologist...
July 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Rupali Malik, Ilavarasi Vanidassane, Neelima Jain
Background - Reduced lung function in diabetes has been described for long but its clinical importance is not yet clear. Also, limited literature is available regarding its association with sugar control, and its correlation with inflammatory markers. Thus, we aimed to study the pulmonary function test abnormalities and systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 100 patients of type 2 diabetes were divided into two groups depending on control of diabetes (group A-HbA1C≤7% and group B-HbA1C >7%)...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Rabijit Dutta, Tao Xing, Gordon K Murdoch
This study employs a recently developed experimental technique for comparison of the flow characteristics and the effectiveness of gas washout between pressure control ventilation (PCV) and high frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) in high compliance and low compliance ex vivo porcine respiratory tracts.
 Approach: The ex vivo porcine lungs are filled with nitrogen prior to ventilating with atmospheric gas using either PCV or HFPV to investigate the flow characteristics and gas washout characteristics...
August 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Cem Mirili, Isa Burak Guney, Semra Paydas, Gulsah Seydaoglu, Tuba Korkmaz Kapukaya, Ali Ogul, Serkan Gokcay, Mahmut Buyuksimsek, Abdullah Evren Yetisir, Bilgin Karaalioglu, Mert Tohumcuoglu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to detect the prognostic significance of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in SCLC and to evaluate the relation with 18F-FDG PET-CT metabolic parameters (PET-CT MPs). METHODS: Demographic parameters, laboratory values including NLR and other clinical variables were analyzed in 112 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 54 of these patients had results of metabolic parameters detected with 18 FDG PET-CT [including SUVmax , SUVmean , metabolic tumor volume (MTV), whole body MTV (WBMTV), TLG (total lesion glycolysis), whole body TLG (WBTLG)] were evaluated for survival analyses...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Fanwen Wang, Bin Li, Pengcheng Fu, Qingqing Li, Heng Zheng, Xingzhen Lao
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Immunomodulatory and Enhanced Antitumor Activity of a Modified Thymosin α1 in Melanoma and Lung Cancer" (Wang et al., 2018). Tα1 has been evaluated as effective in cancer treatment. In order to make it capable to target tumor, a peptide iRGD was introduced to Tα1. The anti-tumor activity was accessed by constructing in vivo melanoma and human non-small-cell lung cancer models treated with Tα1-iRGD to measure the tumor volume over time and tumor weight at the last day...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Ivana Castaniere, Roberto Tonelli, Riccardo Fantini, Alessandro Marchioni, Martina Garofalo, Enrico M Clini, Stefania Cerri
A 56-year-old, non-smoker male with no exposure, presented with right chest pain and a huge loss in forced vital capacity due to right lung volume reduction with consensual pleural thickening on high-resolution computed tomography. All serological and microbiological tests were negative. The surgical lung biopsy showed fibrinous pleurisy while the search for neoplastic cells resulted negative. Because of symptoms worsening he started low dose steroids without benefits until he died 3 months later for cardiac ischemic attack...
August 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Howard J Lee, Jing Zeng, Hubert J Vesselle, Shilpen A Patel, Ramesh Rengan, Stephen R Bowen
PURPOSE: To apply a previously designed framework for predicting radiation pneumonitis by using pretreatment lung function heterogeneity metrics, anatomic dosimetry, and functional lung dosimetry derived from 2 imaging modalities within the same cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were co-registered with pretreatment [99m Tc] macro-aggregated albumin perfusion single-photon positron emission tomography (SPECT)/CT scans and [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans of 28 patients who underwent definitive thoracic radiation...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Nannan Gao, Tengyue Zhang, Jiadong Ji, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease and the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been used as an effective therapy. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aims to quantify the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in LAM patients. METHODS: The following databases were searched for clinical trials regarding LAM patients treated with mTOR inhibitors until December 2017: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and OVID medicine...
August 14, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Thomas Martens, Martin Kostolny, Helen Spencer, Nagarajan Muthialu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries is rare. Lung transplantation can be the last option in cases of failed medical therapy. We report 2 paediatric patients who underwent lung transplantation for this indication. Altered hilar anatomy, mediastinal adhesions and haemostatic control represent the main technical challenges. Volume-reduction surgery is sometimes necessary to address altered cardiopulmonary relationships while expanding the donor pool...
August 9, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Jie Liu, Teh Lin, Jiajin Fan, Lili Chen, Robert Price, C-M Charlie Ma
PURPOSE: Two different respiratory monitoring systems (Varian's Real-Time Position Management (RPM) System and Siemens' ANZAI belt Respiratory Gating System) are compared in the context of respiratory signals and 4D CT images that are accordingly reconstructed. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of combined use of RPM and ANZAI systems for 4DCT simulation and gated radiotherapy treatment, respectively. METHODS: The RPM infrared reflecting marker and the ANZAI belt pressure sensor were both placed on the patient's abdomen during 4DCT scans...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Shunsuke Itai, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Masato Sano, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Saori Handa, Kayo Hisamatsu, Yoshimi Nakamura, Yoshikazu Furusawa, Masato Fukui, Tomokazu Ohishi, Manabu Kawada, Hiroyuki Harada, Yukinari Kato
Oral cancers constitute approximately 2% of all cancers, with the most common histological type being oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), representing 90% of oral cancers. Although diagnostic technologies and therapeutic techniques have progressed, the survival rate of patients with OSCC is still 60%, whereas the incidence rate has increased. Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is detected in normal tissues such as heart, breast, and pancreas as well as in many cancers, including lung, renal, breast, colorectal, and oral cancers...
September 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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