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forced oscillation technique

Behrouz Mostafavi, Sandra Diaz, Eeva Piitulainen, Berend C Stoel, Per Wollmer, Hanan A Tanash
Background: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that predisposes to emphysema. A cohort of severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) AAT-deficient newborn infants was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972-1974 and has been followed-up since birth. Our aim was to study whether the cohort has signs of emphysema in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomography (CT) densitometry at 38 years of age in comparison with an age-matched control group, randomly selected from the population registry...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ryan P Butzko, Anays M Sotolongo, Drew A Helmer, Jacquelyn C Klein-Adams, Omowunmi Y Osinubi, Andrew R Berman, Ronaldo Ortiz-Pacheco, Michael J Falvo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) among military veterans with preserved spirometry and chronic unexplained respiratory symptoms. METHODS: 178 veterans referred for evaluation of unexplained respiratory symptoms completed pulmonary function testing and FOT. Preserved spirometry was defined as FEV1 /FVC, FEV1 and FVC ≥ 5th percentile. Frequency dependence of resistance (R4-R20) and reactance area (AX) were assessed via FOT, and R4-R20 ≥ 20% and AX ≥ 95th percentile were considered abnormal...
November 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Gene T Yocum, Jose F Perez-Zoghbi, Jennifer Danielsson, Aisha S Kuforiji, Yi Zhang, Guanguan Li, M S Rashid Roni, Revathi Kodali, Douglas C Stafford, Leggy A Arnold, James M Cook, Charles W Emala
Airway smooth muscle cells express GABAA receptors, and previous reports have demonstrated that GABAA receptor activators relax airway smooth muscle. However, given the activity of GABAA receptors in central nervous system inhibitory neurotransmission, concern exists that these activators may lead to undesirable sedation. MIDD0301 is a novel imidazobenzodiazepine and positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor with limited brain distribution, thus eliminating the potential for sedation. Here we demonstrate that MIDD0301 relaxes histamine-contracted guinea pig (p<0...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Diane M Gray, Dorottya Czovek, Lauren McMillan, Lidija Turkovic, Jacob A M Stadler, Anessa Vanker, Bence L Radics, Zoltan Gingl, Graham L Hall, Peter D Sly, Heather J Zar, Zoltán Hantos
RATIONALE: Lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children. Sensitive and non-invasive infant lung function techniques are needed to measure risk for and impact of LRTI on lung health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lung function derived from the intra-breath forced oscillation technique (FOT), was able to identify healthy infants at risk of LRTI in the first year. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: Lung function was measured with the novel intra-breath FOT, in six-week infants in a South African birth cohort (Drakenstein Child Health Study)...
November 21, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Genny Raffaeli, Chiara Veneroni, Stefano Ghirardello, Anna Lavizzari, Sofia Passera, Fabio Mosca, Giacomo Cavallaro, Raffaele L Dellacà
Respiratory management during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is complex. Assessment of lung mechanics might support a patient-tailored ventilatory strategy. We report, for the first time, the use of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to evaluate lung function during neonatal ECMO to improve the individualization of respiratory support. The patient was a formerly preterm infant at a corrected age of 40 weeks (gestational age 32 weeks) undergoing veno-arterial ECMO for refractory respiratory failure secondary to influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mattia Iannella, Paola D'Alessandro, Maurizio Biondi
The so-called glacial refugia, formed during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations, played a major role in shaping the distribution of European species, triggering migrations or isolating populations. Many of these events were recently investigated by genetic data, mainly for the European Last Glacial stage, in the Iberic, Italian and Greek-Balkan peninsulas. The amphibian genus Salamandrina, the most ancient living salamandrid lineage, was widespread in Europe until the climatic oscillations of Miocene probably forced it to shelter in the only suitable territory at that time, the Apennines...
November 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Yuko Ohara, Yuki Hosono, Ryuya Edahiro, Hiroyuki Kurebe, Seigo Kitada
Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic treatment that can ameliorate the symptoms of severe asthma. However, little is known about the mechanism by which BT improves exertional dyspnea without significantly changing the resting pulmonary function in asthmatics. To understand the mechanism, cardiopulmonary variables were investigated using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a patient with severe asthma before and after BT. Case presentation: A 57-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for consultation of the intractable asthma, which we managed with three treatment sessions of BT...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Michael Rosenblum, Arkady Pikovsky
We develop an approach for a fast experimental inference of synchronization properties of an oscillator. While the standard technique for determination of synchronization domains implies that the oscillator under study is forced with many different frequencies and amplitudes, our approach requires only several observations of a driven system. Reconstructing the phase dynamics from data, we successfully determine synchronization domains of noisy and chaotic oscillators. Our technique is especially important for experiments with living systems where an external action can be harmful and shall be minimized...
October 2018: Chaos
Marco Bianucci, Antonietta Capotondi, Silvia Merlino, Riccardo Mannella
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific variability at interannual timescales. Through atmospheric teleconnections, ENSO exerts large influences worldwide, so that improved understanding of this phenomenon can be of critical societal relevance. Extreme ENSO events, in particular, have been associated with devastating weather events in many parts of the world, so that the ability to assess their frequency and probability of occurrence is extremely important. In this study, we describe the ENSO phenomenon in terms of the Recharge Oscillator Model perturbed by multiplicative deterministic chaotic forcing, and use methodologies from the field of Statistical Mechanics to determine the average time between El Niño events of given strengths...
October 2018: Chaos
Caroline Oliveira Ribeiro, Alvaro Camilo Dias Faria, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for the early diagnosis of the effects of smoking and COPD. The contributions of the integer-order (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) models were also evaluated. Patients and methods: In total, 120 subjects were analyzed: 40 controls, 40 smokers (20.3±9.3 pack-years) and 40 patients with mild COPD. Results: Initially, it was observed that traditional FOT parameters and the InOr and FrOr models provided a consistent description of the COPD pathophysiology...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Pranay Mandal, Gouri Patil, Hreedish Kakoty, Ambarish Ghosh
Micro- and nanomotors are nonliving micro- and nanoparticles that are rendered motile by supplying energy from external sources, for example, through asymmetric chemical reactions or the application of electric, magnetic, optical, or acoustic fields. Their study is interesting for two reasons. First, nanomotors can impact future biomedical practices, where one envisions intelligent multifunctional nanomachines swarming toward a diseased site and delivering therapeutics with high accuracy. The second motivation stems from the prevalence of self-powered systems in nature, ranging from intracellular transport to human migration, which are nonequilibrium phenomena yet to be completely understood...
October 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Enrico Lombardi, Valentina Fainardi, Claudia Calogero, Monia Puglia, Fabio Voller, Marina Cuttini, Franca Rusconi
OBJECTIVE: We assessed lung function and respiratory health in an area-based prospective cohort of preschool children born very preterm. DESIGN: Lung function was measured by interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) and forced oscillation technique (FOT) (respiratory resistance (Rrs8), reactance (Xrs8), and area under the reactance curve (AX)) at a median age of 5.2 years in a cohort of 194 children born at 22-31 weeks of gestational age (GA) in Tuscany, Italy...
October 21, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Akitomo Tachibana
Application of Alpha-oscillator theory to quantum electrodynamics (QED) solves the mystery (Feynman) of the double-slit phenomenon involved in the foundation of quantum mechanics (QM). Even if with the same initial condition given, different spots on the screen can be predicted deterministically with no introduction of hidden variables. The interference pattern is similar to, but cannot be reproduced quantitatively by, that of the QM wave function, contrary to many-years-anticipation: a new prediction, awaiting experimental test over and above the Bohr-Einstein gedanken experiment...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Alia M Alkalbani, Afaf Alblooshi, Junu George, Ghaya Albadi, Salwa M Kamal, Hassib Narchi, Abdul-Kader Souid
Introduction: Respiratory infections have significant effects on childhood asthma. Viral respiratory infections, such as rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are likely to be important in the development and exacerbation of asthma. In this study, we investigated the nasopharyngeal colonization in children with asthma to determine the prevalence of pathogens and their contribution to respiratory symptoms and airway resistance during winter. Methods: From December 2016 to March 2017, 50 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 18 patients (age, 5...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Alireza Nabavizadeh, Thomas Payen, Niloufar Saharkhiz, Matthew McGarry, Kenneth P Olive, Elisa E Konofagou
PURPOSE: Noninvasive quantitative assessment of coagulated tissue during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is one of the essential steps for tumor treatment, especially in such cases as the Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) that has low probability of diagnosis at the early stages and high probability of forming solid carcinomas resistant to chemotherapy treatment at the late stages. METHODS: Harmonic motion elastography (HME) is a technique for the localized estimation of tumor stiffness...
September 4, 2018: Medical Physics
L Starczewska-Dymek, A Bozek, M Jakalski
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) requires minimal patient cooperation and is useful for children. However, comprehensive values of respiratory impedance at baseline and after the reversibility test have not been definitively confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic parameters of FOT reactance (Xrs) and resistance (Rrs) in groups of healthy children and children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The second aim was the assessment of the reversibility bronchial test using the forced oscillation method in children with bronchial asthma...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Wanqing Zhang, Wanchun Chen, Wenbin Yu
To steer a hypersonic vehicle of high Lift-to-Drag ratio (L/D) safely and accurately, a new entry guidance is proposed based on drag-vs-energy profile. Over the rotating Earth, by assessing the nonlinear inertial forces reasonably, an accurate analytical glide-range formula is derived for formulaic drag profile. Then the reference drag-vs-energy profile is planned by utilizing the new formula in the entry corridor satisfying stress and thermal constraints. In order to closely track the reference profile, the Trajectory Damping Control Technique (TDCT) is adopted to suppress the underdamped, phugoid trajectory oscillations...
August 14, 2018: ISA Transactions
Bingqiang Ji, Qiang Song, Qiang Yao
HYPOTHESIS: Hydrophobic spheres may exhibit three impact modes after impacting the liquid surface. For the impact of common non-spherical particles in practical processes, particle shape affects the flow of surrounding fluid and forces acting on them, thus the impact behaviors of non-spherical particles may differ from those of spherical particles and remain to be revealed. SIMULATION: The impact of hydrophobic micron ellipsoidal particles is numerically studied by solving the coupled equations of particle motion and surrounding fluid flow combining VOF method and dynamic meshing technique...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lu Liu, Jianguo Xu, Rui Zhang, Sen Wu, Xiaodong Hu, Xiaotang Hu
This article presents an atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for true three-dimensional (3D) characterization. The cantilever probe with flared tip was used in a home-made 3D-AFM system. The cantilever was driven by two shaking piezoceramics and oscillated around its vertical or torsional resonance frequency. The vertical resonance mode was used for upper surface imaging, and the torsional resonance mode was used for sidewall detecting. The 3D-AFM was applied to measure standard gratings with the height of 100 nm and 200 nm...
2018: Scanning
Joseph L Garrett, Marina S Leite, Jeremy N Munday
The spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) needed to resolve material interfaces is limited by the tip-sample separation ( d) dependence of the force used to record an image. Here, we present a new multiscale functional imaging technique that allows for in situ tunable spatial resolution, which can be applied to a wide range of inhomogeneous materials, devices, and interfaces. Our approach uses a multifrequency method to generate a signal whose d-dependence is controlled by mixing harmonics of the cantilever's oscillation with a modulated force...
August 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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