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forced oscillation technique

Akitomo Tachibana
Application of Alpha-oscillator theory to quantum electrodynamics (QED) solves the mystery (Feynman) of the double-slit phenomenon involved in the foundation of quantum mechanics (QM). Even if with the same initial condition given, different spots on the screen can be predicted deterministically with no introduction of hidden variables. The interference pattern is similar to, but cannot be reproduced quantitatively by, that of the QM wave function, contrary to many-years-anticipation: a new prediction, awaiting experimental test over and above the Bohr-Einstein gedanken experiment...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Alia M Alkalbani, Afaf Alblooshi, Junu George, Ghaya Albadi, Salwa M Kamal, Hassib Narchi, Abdul-Kader Souid
Introduction: Respiratory infections have significant effects on childhood asthma. Viral respiratory infections, such as rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are likely to be important in the development and exacerbation of asthma. In this study, we investigated the nasopharyngeal colonization in children with asthma to determine the prevalence of pathogens and their contribution to respiratory symptoms and airway resistance during winter. Methods: From December 2016 to March 2017, 50 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 18 patients (age, 5...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Alireza Nabavizadeh, Thomas Payen, Niloufar Saharkhiz, Matthew McGarry, Kenneth P Olive, Elisa E Konofagou
PURPOSE: Noninvasive quantitative assessment of coagulated tissue during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is one of the essential steps for tumor treatment, especially in such cases as the Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) that has low probability of diagnosis at the early stages and high probability of forming solid carcinomas resistant to chemotherapy treatment at the late stages. METHODS: Harmonic motion elastography (HME) is a technique for the localized estimation of tumor stiffness...
September 4, 2018: Medical Physics
L Starczewska-Dymek, A Bozek, M Jakalski
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) requires minimal patient cooperation and is useful for children. However, comprehensive values of respiratory impedance at baseline and after the reversibility test have not been definitively confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic parameters of FOT reactance (Xrs) and resistance (Rrs) in groups of healthy children and children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The second aim was the assessment of the reversibility bronchial test using the forced oscillation method in children with bronchial asthma...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Wanqing Zhang, Wanchun Chen, Wenbin Yu
To steer a hypersonic vehicle of high Lift-to-Drag ratio (L/D) safely and accurately, a new entry guidance is proposed based on drag-vs-energy profile. Over the rotating Earth, by assessing the nonlinear inertial forces reasonably, an accurate analytical glide-range formula is derived for formulaic drag profile. Then the reference drag-vs-energy profile is planned by utilizing the new formula in the entry corridor satisfying stress and thermal constraints. In order to closely track the reference profile, the Trajectory Damping Control Technique (TDCT) is adopted to suppress the underdamped, phugoid trajectory oscillations...
August 14, 2018: ISA Transactions
Bingqiang Ji, Qiang Song, Qiang Yao
HYPOTHESIS: Hydrophobic spheres may exhibit three impact modes after impacting the liquid surface. For the impact of common non-spherical particles in practical processes, particle shape affects the flow of surrounding fluid and forces acting on them, thus the impact behaviors of non-spherical particles may differ from those of spherical particles and remain to be revealed. SIMULATION: The impact of hydrophobic micron ellipsoidal particles is numerically studied by solving the coupled equations of particle motion and surrounding fluid flow combining VOF method and dynamic meshing technique...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lu Liu, Jianguo Xu, Rui Zhang, Sen Wu, Xiaodong Hu, Xiaotang Hu
This article presents an atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique for true three-dimensional (3D) characterization. The cantilever probe with flared tip was used in a home-made 3D-AFM system. The cantilever was driven by two shaking piezoceramics and oscillated around its vertical or torsional resonance frequency. The vertical resonance mode was used for upper surface imaging, and the torsional resonance mode was used for sidewall detecting. The 3D-AFM was applied to measure standard gratings with the height of 100 nm and 200 nm...
2018: Scanning
Joseph L Garrett, Marina S Leite, Jeremy N Munday
The spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) needed to resolve material interfaces is limited by the tip-sample separation ( d) dependence of the force used to record an image. Here, we present a new multiscale functional imaging technique that allows for in situ tunable spatial resolution, which can be applied to a wide range of inhomogeneous materials, devices, and interfaces. Our approach uses a multifrequency method to generate a signal whose d-dependence is controlled by mixing harmonics of the cantilever's oscillation with a modulated force...
August 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chuan Wu, Bo Yan, Guizao Huang, Bo Zhang, Zhongbin Lv, Qing Li
A numerical method to simulate air flow around a bundle conductor line by means of the FLUENT software is presented and verified by a wind tunnel test for aerodynamic characteristics of a twin bundle conductor line. The lift and drag coefficients of the leeward sub-conductor of a twin bundle conductor varying with its relative position in the wake zone to the windward one under different wind velocities are numerically determined by the presented method. A user-defined subroutine of ABAQUS software is developed to apply the aerodynamic loads on each sub-conductor and the electromagnetic force between sub-conductors...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
K Nilsen, K Gove, F Thien, T Wilkinson, B R Thompson
Airway closure has proved to be important in a number of respiratory diseases and may be the primary functional defect in asthma. A surrogate measure of closing volume can be identified using the forced oscillation technique (FOT), by performing a deflation maneuver and examining the resultant reactance (Xrs) lung volume relationship. This study aims to determine if a slow vital capacity maneuver can be used instead of this deflation maneuver and compare it to existing more complex techniques. Three subject groups were included in the study; healthy (n = 29), asthmatic (n = 18), and COPD (n = 10) for a total of 57 subjects...
October 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kan Kato, Hiroshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Usefulness of carrying out the reversibility test after inhaling bronchodilator by forced oscillation technique (FOT) in addition to spirometry was investigated in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma (BA), cough variant asthma (CVA) and allergic rhinitis (AR) with prolonged or chronic cough. METHODS: The subjects were the 622 patients at Idaimaeminamiyojo Clinic in Sapporo who complained cough over three weeks, and underwent bronchial reversibility test with salbutamol by using spirometry and FOT...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Claudia Calogero, Grazia Fenu, Enrico Lombardi
Lung function is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with asthma at all ages. Airway obstruction is a typical feature of asthma and it can be assessed with several lung function techniques. Spirometry, respiratory resistance and reactance, and lung volumes are available to measure it at different ages and in children. The assessment of a bronchodilator response is always recommended to show the reversibility of the obstruction. Poor lung function is a predictor of poor asthma outcome and a low Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second of expiration percent predicted measured with spirometry, has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of having an exacerbation during the following year independently of the presence of asthma symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Alison Pieterse, Susan D Hanekom
Background: Uncertainty exists regarding the physiological basis of physiotherapy strategies to facilitate mucus clearance. The aim of this review was to describe the physiological factors and intrinsic conditions that facilitate airway mucus transport. Method: A scoping review was performed. A systematic literature search of six databases was executed. Eligibility criteria were applied by two researchers to reach the aim of the review. Papers were identified independently by two reviewers on title, abstract and full-text level...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Amin Shams Khorrami, Pouya Rezai
Controllable generation of microdroplets at desired sizes and throughputs is important in many applications. Many biological assays require size-optimized droplets for effective encapsulation of analytes and reagents. To perform size optimization, different-size droplets must be generated from identical sources of samples to prevent potential cross-sample variations or other sources of error. In this paper, we introduce a novel alteration of the co-flow droplet generation technique to achieve multi-size generation of monodispersed droplets...
May 2018: Biomicrofluidics
P P de Oliveira Jorge, J H P de Lima, D C Chong E Silva, D Medeiros, D Solé, G F Wandalsen
PURPOSE: To review available evidence in the literature on impulse oscillometry in the assessment of lung function in children with respiratory diseases, especially asthma. DATA COLLECTION: Research in the Medline, PubMed, and Lilacs databases, with the keywords forced oscillation, impulse oscillometry, asthma and impulse oscillometry. RESULTS: The Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) allows the measurement of resistance and reactance of airways and is used as a diagnostic resource...
July 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Yoshimi Kondo, Mariko Nukaga, Mayumi Enseki, Hideyuki Tabata, Kota Hirai, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
OBJECTIVE: Breath sound parameters have been suggested to be a new biomarker of airway conditions in asthmatic patients. We investigated new breath sound parameters to determine their utility for evaluating asthmatic children. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (mean age, 9.0 years, 6-16 years) were included in the present study. The new breath sound parameters, the area under the curve (AUC)>1,000 Hz (A1000 [dBm·Hz]) and the ratio of the A1000 to the total AUC at 100 Hz to the highest frequency of the dBm power spectrum (AT ) (A1000 /AT [%]) were measured before and after β2 agonist inhalation...
July 20, 2018: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Hao Xu, Ping Zhao, Wen-Jing Zhang, Jun-Ying Qiu, Li Tan, Xiao-Cao Liu, Qian Wang, Xi Luo, Yu-Shan She, Dun-An Zang, Bei-Bei Liu, Lei Cao, Xiao-Xue Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Meng-Yue Li, Jinhua Shen, Yong-Bo Peng, Lu Xue, Meng-Fei Yu, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Gangjian Qin, Qing-Hua Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) induces oscillatory contractions in mouse airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, the generation and maintenance of oscillatory contractions and their role in ASM are unclear. METHODS: In this study, oscillations of ASM contraction and intracellular Ca2+ were measured using force measuring and Ca2+ imaging technique, respectively. TEA, nifedipine, niflumic acid, acetylcholine chloride, lithium chloride, KB-R7943, ouabain, 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, thapsigargin, tetrodotoxin, and ryanodine were used to assess the mechanism of oscillatory contractions...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ming Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiaoyan Deng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The crossed limbs stent graft technique is regularly employed to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm patients with unfavorable aneurysm necks or widely splayed common iliac arteries. This article numerically evaluates the hemodynamic performance of the crossed limbs strategy by analyzing numerical simulations and conducting experiments using two series of idealized bifurcated stent grafts with different cross angles and cross positions. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the absolute helicity at outlets decreased with increased cross angles and increased with decreased cross positions...
June 19, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Mariko Nukaga, Hideyuki Tabata, Mayumi Enseki, Kota Hirai, Hiroyuki Furuya, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Breath sound parameters have been suggested to be new biomarkers of airway function in patients with asthma. METHODS: We investigated the effect of bronchodilation on breath sound parameters in sixty-four children (mean age, 8.9 years; range, 6-16 years) using a breath sound analyzer. The breath sound parameters included frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F50 and F99 ), roll-off from 600-1200 Hz (slope), and spectrum curve indices such as the ratios of the third and fourth power area to the total area of the power spectrum (P3 /PT and P4 /PT ), total area under the curve (A3 /AT and B4 /AT ), and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF75 and RPF50 )...
September 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Yosuke Wada, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Masanori Yasuo, Fumika Ueno, Satoshi Kawakami, Kiyoyasu Fukushima, Keisaku Fujimoto, Masayuki Hanaoka
Introduction: This study was conducted in order to investigate the diversity of respiratory physiology, including the respiratory impedance and reversibility of airway obstruction, based on quantitative computed tomography (CT) in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Medical records of 174 stable COPD patients were retrospectively reviewed to obtain the patients' clinical data, including the pulmonary function and imaging data. According to the software-based quantification of the degree of emphysema and airway wall thickness, the patients were classified into the "normal by CT" phenotype, the airway-dominant phenotype, the emphysema-dominant phenotype, and the mixed phenotype...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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