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Cancer Pathology Pediatric

Judith L Kok, Jop C Teepen, Flora E van Leeuwen, Wim J E Tissing, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Helena J van der Pal, Jacqueline J Loonen, Dorine Bresters, Birgitta Versluys, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Berthe M P Aleman, Laurien A Daniels, Cornelis J A Haasbeek, Bianca Hoeben, Geert O Janssens, John H Maduro, Foppe Oldenburger, Caroline van Rij, Robbert J H A Tersteeg, Michael Hauptmann, Leontien C M Kremer, Cécile M Ronckers
Background: Pediatric cranial radiotherapy (CrRT) markedly increases risk of meningiomas. We studied meningioma risk factors with emphasis on independent and joint effects of CrRT dose, exposed cranial volume, exposure age, and chemotherapy. Methods: The DCOG-LATER cohort includes five-year childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) diagnosed 1963-2001. Histologically confirmed benign meningiomas were identified from the population-based Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA; 1990-2015)...
August 7, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Sophie Turpin, Marjorie Perron, Stéphanie Vairy, Sébastien Bénali, Amélie Damphousse
Pancreatic neoplasm is very rare in the pediatric population. Malignant tumors represent less than 0.2% of pediatric cancer-related mortality. Pancreas lesions can be from exocrine or endocrine origin or present themselves as cystic masses. Clinical, biological, and radiological findings usually are sufficient to establish diagnosis, but in some cases, they may be misleading. We present the case of a young patient presenting a pancreatic mass where anatomical and metabolic characteristics of the lesion were discordant to the final diagnosis...
August 4, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Gideon Sandler, Andrea Hayes-Jordan
Pediatric chest wall tumors are rare. Malignancies predominate of which sarcomas are the most common. Their resection and the subsequent reconstruction of the chest wall has been a surgical challenge since Dr. Frederick W. Parham published his first comprehensive account on the subject in 1898. Chest wall reconstruction is age, site and pathology dependent, must preserve long term function and cosmesis, must accommodate future growth and development, and must not be a hindrance to adjuvant radiotherapy. Bony reconstruction can be relatively simple or complex involving combinations of synthetic meshes, bioprosthetic materials, steel or titanium constructs, autografts, homografts and porcine or bovine xenografts...
June 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Virginie Bussières, Shreyas Roy, Johnny Deladoey, Élisabeth Rousseau, Dickens St-Vil, Nelson Piché
AIM OF THE STUDY: Recent publications suggest pediatric surgeons may not be well suited to perform thyroid surgeries unless considered high volume. We sought to assess the outcome of thyroidectomies performed by pediatric surgeons in an academic setting. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients younger than 18 years who underwent thyroid surgeries at a free standing children's hospital between April 2006 and October 2015. MAIN RESULTS: The analysis included 118 surgeries in 98 patients (mean age 11...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Gerald Dafe Forae, Darlington Ewaen Obaseki
Objectives: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) shows greater geographic variation in incidence than almost any other vascular tumor globally. KS is common in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 9% of all diagnosed cancer cases in men in the early 1990's in Uganda and Zaire. KS is classified by the World Health Organization as a borderline vascular tumor. We aimed to determine the trends and histopathological patterns of KS as seen in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria, and to compare with similar work in other centers...
July 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Germán Velez-Florez, María Camila Velez-Florez, Jose Oscar Mantilla-Rivas, Liliana Patarroyo-Rodríguez, Rodrigo Borrero-León, Santiago Rodríguez-León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the field of Pediatric Oncology have led to increased survival rates in children with cancer, and addressing the emotional well-being and quality of life of this specific population is a critical component of care. Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are an adjuvant modality of treatment that appears to have a positive impact on patient quality of life, patient mental health, and family perceptions toward illness. In this review, we describe several evidence-based MBTs, such as art therapy, meditation, prayer, music therapy, hypnosis and relaxation techniques, their use, and our personal experience with MBT in our institution...
July 21, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Peng Zhang, Glenson Samuel, Jennifer Crow, Andrew K Godwin, Yong Zeng
Ewing sarcoma was first described in 1921 in the Proceedings of the New York Pathological Society by an eminent American pathologist from Cornell named James R. Ewing as a "diffuse endothelioma of bone." Since this initial description, more has been discovered regarding Ewing sarcoma and in the 1980's both Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors due to their similar features and shared identical genetic abnormality were grouped into a class of cancers entitled Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs)...
June 23, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Ali C Ravanpay, Ariana Barkley, Gabrielle A White-Dzuro, Patrick J Cimino, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Christina Lockwood, Lia M Halasz, Fuki M Hisama, Manuel Ferreira
Rhabdoid meningiomas are rare WHO grade 3 tumors that tend to follow an aggressive course. Pediatric rhabdoid meningioma is an exceedingly rare pathology commonly found on recurrent tumors in conjunction with lower grade meningioma pathology. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient who came to us with a giant rhabdoid meningioma occurring in the right tentorium and invading the torcula and multiple venous structures, including the right jugular vein, down to the level of the right atrium. The patient underwent five separate surgeries for management of this tumor...
July 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Eliana Muñoz Benavides, María Luisa Cordero, Magdalena Castro, Macareba Derado
INTRODUCTION: in childhood cancer, the disease impacts resting energy expenditure (GER) in a way that is not estimable by predictive equations. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study is to determine the concordance between the measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry in pediatric oncology patients versus the World Health Organization (WHO) and Schofield predictive equations. METHOD: cross-sectional study in children aged 5-15 years receiving chemotherapy, in outpatient Clínica Las Condes and Hospital Dr...
June 4, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mariana M Cajaiba, Lisa M Dyer, James I Geller, Lawrence J Jennings, David George, Dawn Kirschmann, Stephen M Rohan, Nicholas G Cost, Geetika Khanna, Elizabeth A Mullen, Jeffrey S Dome, Conrad V Fernandez, Elizabeth J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are rare in young patients. Knowledge of their pathologic and molecular spectrum remains limited, and no prospective studies have been performed to date in this population. This study analyzes patients diagnosed with RCC who were prospectively enrolled in the AREN03B2 Children's Oncology Group (COG). The objective was to classify these tumors with the aid of focused genetic testing and to characterize their features. METHODS: All tumors registered as RCC by central review were retrospectively re-reviewed and underwent additional ancillary studies...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
Alaa AlAli, Stephanie Kletke, Brenda Gallie, Wai-Ching Lam
Retinoblastoma can present in 1 or both eyes and is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood. It is typically initiated by biallelic mutation of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene, leading to malignant transformation of primitive retinal cells. The most common presentation is leukocoria, followed by strabismus. Heritable retinoblastoma accounts for 45% of all cases, with 80% being bilateral. Treatment and prognosis of retinoblastoma is dictated by the disease stage at initial presentation. The 8th Edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNMH (tumor, node, metastasis, heritable trait) staging system defines evidence-based clinical and pathological staging for overall prognosis for eye(s) and child...
May 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Elisabetta Schiavello, Veronica Biassoni, Manila Antonelli, Piergiorgio Modena, Simone Cesaro, Paolo Pierani, Lorenza Gandola
BACKGROUND: Primary pediatric extraspinal sacrococcygeal ependymoma (ESE) is a very rare disease, poorly described in literature, whose diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up approach is still controversial. METHODS: We describe six cases of pediatric ESE treated at Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) centers in Italy since 1983, with a review of the literature. RESULTS: All six patients had primary sacrococcygeal disease (two presacral and four subcutaneous) with median age of 10 years...
July 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Trefa Mohamad, Noor Kazim, Abhinav Adhikari, Judith K Davie
EGR1, one of the immediate-early response genes, can function as a tumor suppressor gene or as an oncogene in cancer. The function of EGR1 has not been fully characterized in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a pediatric cancer derived from the muscle linage. We found that EGR1 is downregulated in the alveolar RMS (ARMS) subtype but expressed at levels comparable to normal skeletal muscle in embryonal RMS (ERMS). We found that overexpression of EGR1 in ARMS significantly decreased cell proliferation, mobility, and anchorage-independent growth while also promoting differentiation...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Danielle M Richman, Carol B Benson, Peter M Doubilet, Hope E Peters, Stephen A Huang, Elizabeth Asch, Ari J Wassner, Jessica R Smith, Christine E Cherella, Mary C Frates
Purpose To determine the relationship between demographic and sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules and malignancy in a pediatric population. Materials and Methods All thyroid nodules in patients younger than 19 years that underwent ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between January 2004 and July 2017 were retrospectively identified. Age, sex, and background appearance of the thyroid gland were recorded for each patient, and sonographic characteristics and pathologic diagnosis were recorded for each nodule...
August 2018: Radiology
Dora Molina-Ortiz, Carmen Torres-Zárate, Rocío Cárdenas-Cardós, José Martin Palacios-Acosta, Daniel Hernández-Arrazola, Jaime Shalkow-Klincovstein, Erick Díaz-Díaz, Araceli Vences-Mejía
BACKGROUND: Intratumoral up-regulation of genes coding for drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, such as MDR1 and CYP3A4, after chemotherapy are linked to cancer drug resistance. However their expression in primary soft tissue sarcomas (STS) prior to drug treatment and their role in innate resistance remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was characterize MDR1 and CYP3A4 expression pattern before to chemotherapy and its clinical implication in pediatric STS...
2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Marina Baretti, Dung T Le
Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the hypermutator phenotype secondary to frequent polymorphism in short repetitive DNA sequences and single nucleotide substitution, as consequence of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. MSI secondary to germline mutation in DNA MMR proteins is the molecular fingerprint of Lynch syndrome (LS), while epigenetic inactivation of these genes is more commonly found in sporadic MSI tumors. MSI occurs at different frequencies across malignancies, although original methods to assess MSI or MMR deficiency have been developed mostly in LS related cancers...
April 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hiroaki Ishiguchi, Shinji Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Yusuke Sakurai, Hisashi Kawai, Naotoshi Fujita, Shinji Abe, Atsushi Narita, Nobuhiro Nishio, Hideki Muramatsu, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Shinji Naganawa
OBJECTIVE: Recent many studies have shown that whole body "diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression" (DWIBS) seems a beneficial tool having higher tumor detection sensitivity without ionizing radiation exposure for pediatric tumors. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of whole body DWIBS and 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detecting lymph node and bone metastases in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. METHODS: Subjects in this retrospective study comprised 13 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastoma (7 males, 6 females; mean age, 2...
June 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
E Graham Englert, Guillermo Ares, Andrea Henricks, Karen Rychlik, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE: Finding a breast mass in a child provokes apprehension in parents, especially in those with a family history of breast cancer. Clinicians must decide between serial imaging or biopsy of the mass. Herein, we identify management differences in those with and without a positive family history, as well as identify cost differences. METHODS: An institutional retrospective review was performed of patients (2-18 years of age) with a diagnosis of breast mass...
June 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Ji Hye Won, Ji Ye Lee, Hyun Sook Hong, Sun Hye Jeong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rates of thyroid nodules and cancer in pediatric cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 89 pediatric and adolescent patients (age, 3-18.0 years) with HT who underwent thyroid ultrasonography (US) at our institution from February 2006 to July 2016. The diagnosis of HT was based on the presence of thyroid autoantibodies. The presence of any thyroid nodules with US and cytopathologic features was analyzed...
July 2018: British Journal of Radiology
J Šnajdauf, M Rygl, O Petrů, B Frýbová, J Náhlovský, V Mixa, R Keil, J Bronský, M Kynčl, R Kodet
INTRODUCTION: Surgical diseases of the pancreas in children are not common and may be associated with significant morbidity and potential mortality. A multidisciplinary approach is essential for correct diagnosis, surgical strategy and postoperative as well as follow-up care. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of patients operated on due to a pathological lesion of the pancreas focused on diagnostics, operating procedures, postoperative complications, and long-term results...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
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