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Cancer Pathology Pediatric

Ana Creo, Fares Alahdab, Alaa Al Nofal, Kristen Thomas, Amy Kolbe, Siobhan Pittock
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common pediatric endocrine cancer; accurate diagnosis and prompt management of pediatric thyroid nodules is critical. The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS), based upon clinical, ultrasound (US), and cytology criteria has recently been modified and studied in a pilot pediatric group with good results. We aim to describe the diagnostic accuracy of the pediatric modified MTNS (PMTNS) in a large pediatric cohort. METHODS: We utilized an established retrospective cohort between 1996 and 2015 of 99 patients ≤ 21 years old with 131 thyroid nodules...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
María Sol Brassesco, Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Maria Angelica Cortez, Karina Bezerra Salomão, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the high rate of cure (over 80%) it still has a big impact on morbidity and mortality. The Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), a transcriptional corepressor, has been described as dysregulated and recently emerged as a tumor marker in several cancer types, including hematologic malignancies. METHODS: In the present study TLE1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR...
September 26, 2018: Leukemia Research
Benjamin P Keith, Jasmine B Barrow, Takahiko Toyonaga, Nevzat Kazgan, Michelle Hoffner O'Connor, Neil D Shah, Matthew S Schaner, Elisabeth A Wolber, Omar K Trad, Greg R Gipson, Wendy A Pitman, Matthew Kanke, Shruti J Saxena, Nicole Chaumont, Timothy S Sadiq, Mark J Koruda, Paul A Cotney, Nancy Allbritton, Dimitri G Trembath, Francisco Sylvester, Terrence S Furey, Praveen Sethupathy, Shehzad Z Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is highly heterogeneous, due in large part to variability in cellular processes that underlie the natural history of CD, thereby confounding effective therapy. There is a critical need to advance understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive CD heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed small RNA sequencing of adult colon tissue from CD and NIBD controls. Colonic epithelial cells and immune cells were isolated from colonic tissues, and microRNA-31 (miR-31) expression was measured...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Jared W Garlick, Kristofor A Olson, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Brian T Bucher, Cindy B Matsen
Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a rare form of breast cancer found in both children and adults, and is the most common breast cancer in the pediatric population. Although SBC usually carries a favorable prognosis, there have been reported cases of axillary and distant metastases. Surgery is the primary mode of treatment, however, there exists variability within the literature surrounding the management of SBC. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with a firm, mobile, palpable breast mass...
September 24, 2018: Breast Journal
Lorna Renner, Shivani Shah, Nickhill Bhakta, Avram Denburg, Sue Horton, Sumit Gupta
PURPOSE: No published study to date has examined total cost and cost-effectiveness of maintaining a pediatric oncology treatment center in an African setting, thus limiting childhood cancer advocacy and policy efforts. METHODS: Within the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, costing data were gathered for all inputs related to operating a pediatric cancer unit. Cost and volume data for relevant clinical services (eg, laboratory, pathology, medications) were obtained retrospectively or prospectively...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Teresa Santiago, Caleb Hayes, Ana Concepción Polanco, Lisa Miranda, Argelia Aybar, Belkis Gomero, Elizabeth Orellana, Fabienne Anglade, Mázlova Luxely Toledo González, Eduviges Ruiz, Moisés Espino-Durán, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Monika L Metzger
Accessibility to immunohistochemistry (IHC) is invaluable to proper diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with malignant neoplasms. Whereas IHC is widely available in anatomic pathology laboratories in high-income countries, access to it in anatomic pathology laboratories of low- and middle-income countries remains a struggle, with many limitations. To advance the quality of the pathology service offered to children with cancer in areas with limited resources, a 5-day pathology training workshop was offered to pathologists and histotechnologists from various countries of the Central American and Caribbean region...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Oscar Ramirez, Paula Aristizabal, Alia Zaidi, Raul C Ribeiro, Luis E Bravo
PURPOSE: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) to assess childhood cancer outcomes. METHODS: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali's PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years) with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Nisreen Amayiri, Maisa Swaidan, Najiyah Abuirmeileh, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Tarik Tihan, James Drake, Awni Musharbash, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Uri Tabori, Hadeel Halalsheh, Ute Bartels, Eric Bouffet
PURPOSE: The management of central nervous system tumors is challenging in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about applicability of twinning initiatives with high-income countries in neuro-oncology. In 2004, a monthly neuro-oncology video-teleconference program was started between King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) and the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). More than 100 conferences were held and > 400 cases were discussed. The aim of this work was to assess the sustainability of such an initiative and the evolution of the impact over time...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Hongyi Li, Xianbiao Xie, Junqiang Yin, Jian Tu, Xiaoshuai Wang, Weihai Liu, Jiajun Zhang, Hongbo Li, Changye Zou, Yongqian Wang, Jingnan Shen, Gang Huang
Background: The treatment algorithm for solitary bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (SBL-LCH) in children extremities still remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare the feasibility of low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) and surgery for SBL-LCH in children extremities. Patients and methods: This study compares 43 pediatric patients starting LDC with a surgery control group (n = 44), matched for gender, age, follow-up time, and lesion sites and sizes, treated between 2001 and 2015 at our institution...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Meiling Huang, Changjiao Yan, Hongliang Wei, Yonggang Lv, Rui Ling
BACKGROUND: The specific clinical features of thyroid cancer patients in northwest China are unclear; therefore, we analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of this population. METHODS: Clinical characteristics including age, gender, blood type, histological type, and BRAFV600E gene mutation; and incidence; risk factors; surgical treatment; and prognosis were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 2490 thyroid cancer patients were included; 98% were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC)...
September 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Lucia De Martino, Maria Elena Errico, Serena Ruotolo, Daniele Cascone, Stefano Chiaravalli, Paola Collini, Andrea Ferrari, Paolo Muto, Giuseppe Cinalli, Lucia Quaglietta
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of primary lung adenocarcinoma in children remains challenging given its rarity. Here we highlight the clinical history, pathological evaluation, genomic findings, and management of a very young patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old white girl presented with brain metastases due to primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Next generation sequencing analysis with "Comprehensive Cancer Panel" highlighted the presence of multiple non-targetable mutations in the FLT4, UBR5, ATM, TAF1, and GUCY1A2 genes...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ravishankar Palaniappan, Arvind Krishnamurthy, S Swaminathan Rajaraman, R Krishna Kumar
Background: Papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) is a rare disease in children and adolescents and contributes to about 1.5%-3% of all pediatric malignancies. To date, no randomized trial has ever been performed in the pediatric population and management of these patients has been extrapolated from adult practice. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the patients treated for PTC in the age <21 years, between the years 1998-2013 at a tertiary cancer center from India...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Cancer
Kareem Sallam, Ahmed Refaat, Marwa Romeih
Ultrasound-guided venous access is becoming a standard technique in many centers worldwide. In small veins and in the pediatric population, successful venous puncture is sometimes followed by resistance in passing the wire. The needle seems to miss the small vein during syringe dismounting, wire mounting and wire advancement through the needle. This work describes a "wire-loaded puncture" technique as a solution for this problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Paediatric cancer patients who needed venous access for different indications were included in the study...
September 2018: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
James R Wright, Peter B Baker, Hiroyuki Shimada
William A (Bill) Newton Jr practiced pediatric pathology and hematology/oncology at Children's Hospital of Columbus, Ohio, for over 40 years starting in 1952. Newton was an original member of the Pediatric Pathology Club, which preceded the Society for Pediatric Pathology, and was its president from 1968 to 1969. He published important independent observations in pediatric pathology, helped establish systematic cooperative pediatric tumor pathology review by experts, became an acclaimed expert on the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma, was a critical contributor to many pediatric oncology clinical trials, made important early contributions to tumor banking in pediatrics, and trained numerous pediatric pathology and pediatric oncology fellows...
August 20, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Judith L Kok, Jop C Teepen, Flora E van Leeuwen, Wim J E Tissing, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Helena J van der Pal, Jacqueline J Loonen, Dorine Bresters, Birgitta Versluys, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Berthe M P Aleman, Laurien A Daniels, Cornelis J A Haasbeek, Bianca Hoeben, Geert O Janssens, John H Maduro, Foppe Oldenburger, Caroline van Rij, Robbert J H A Tersteeg, Michael Hauptmann, Leontien C M Kremer, Cécile M Ronckers
Background: Pediatric cranial radiotherapy (CrRT) markedly increases risk of meningiomas. We studied meningioma risk factors with emphasis on independent and joint effects of CrRT dose, exposed cranial volume, exposure age, and chemotherapy. Methods: The DCOG-LATER cohort includes five-year childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) diagnosed 1963-2001. Histologically confirmed benign meningiomas were identified from the population-based Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA; 1990-2015)...
August 7, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Sophie Turpin, Marjorie Perron, Stéphanie Vairy, Sébastien Bénali, Amélie Damphousse
Pancreatic neoplasm is very rare in the pediatric population. Malignant tumors represent less than 0.2% of pediatric cancer-related mortality. Pancreas lesions can be from exocrine or endocrine origin or present themselves as cystic masses. Clinical, biological, and radiological findings usually are sufficient to establish diagnosis, but in some cases, they may be misleading. We present the case of a young patient presenting a pancreatic mass where anatomical and metabolic characteristics of the lesion were discordant to the final diagnosis...
October 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Gideon Sandler, Andrea Hayes-Jordan
Pediatric chest wall tumors are rare. Malignancies predominate of which sarcomas are the most common. Their resection and the subsequent reconstruction of the chest wall has been a surgical challenge since Dr. Frederick W. Parham published his first comprehensive account on the subject in 1898. Chest wall reconstruction is age, site and pathology dependent, must preserve long term function and cosmesis, must accommodate future growth and development, and must not be a hindrance to adjuvant radiotherapy. Bony reconstruction can be relatively simple or complex involving combinations of synthetic meshes, bioprosthetic materials, steel or titanium constructs, autografts, homografts and porcine or bovine xenografts...
June 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Virginie Bussières, Shreyas Roy, Johnny Deladoey, Élisabeth Rousseau, Dickens St-Vil, Nelson Piché
AIM OF THE STUDY: Recent publications suggest pediatric surgeons may not be well suited to perform thyroid surgeries unless considered high volume. We sought to assess the outcome of thyroidectomies performed by pediatric surgeons in an academic setting. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients younger than 18 years who underwent thyroid surgeries at a free standing children's hospital between April 2006 and October 2015. MAIN RESULTS: The analysis included 118 surgeries in 98 patients (mean age 11...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Gerald Dafe Forae, Darlington Ewaen Obaseki
Objectives: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) shows greater geographic variation in incidence than almost any other vascular tumor globally. KS is common in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 9% of all diagnosed cancer cases in men in the early 1990's in Uganda and Zaire. KS is classified by the World Health Organization as a borderline vascular tumor. We aimed to determine the trends and histopathological patterns of KS as seen in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria, and to compare with similar work in other centers...
July 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Germán Velez-Florez, María Camila Velez-Florez, Jose Oscar Mantilla-Rivas, Liliana Patarroyo-Rodríguez, Rodrigo Borrero-León, Santiago Rodríguez-León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the field of Pediatric Oncology have led to increased survival rates in children with cancer, and addressing the emotional well-being and quality of life of this specific population is a critical component of care. Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are an adjuvant modality of treatment that appears to have a positive impact on patient quality of life, patient mental health, and family perceptions toward illness. In this review, we describe several evidence-based MBTs, such as art therapy, meditation, prayer, music therapy, hypnosis and relaxation techniques, their use, and our personal experience with MBT in our institution...
July 21, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
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