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Cancer Pathology Pediatric

Samuel A Gold, Vikram K Sabarwal, Chirag Gordhan, Graham R Hale, Andrew Winer
Pediatric renal and suprarenal cancers are relatively rare malignancies, but are not without significant consequence to both the patient and caretakers. These tumors are often found incidentally and present as large abdominal masses. Standard of care management involves surgical excision of the mass, but contemporary treatment guidelines advocate for use of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced stage disease, such as those cases with lymph node involvement (LNI). However, LNI detection is based primarily on surgical pathology and performing extended lymph node dissection can add significant morbidity to a surgical case...
October 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Z J Gao, Q Jiang, X L Chen, Q Chen, X N Ji, Y Y Mao, S Feng, J J Dong, K M Xu
Objective: To analyze the de novo point mutations in known genes among patients with unexplained intellectual disability (ID) or developmental retardation (DD). Methods: A total of 120 outpatients with ID or DD were recruited in the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics between September 2015 and April 2017. Target gene sequencing was used to screen the candidate gene. The sequencing data were analyzed by a variety of bioinformatics software. Combining with the phenotypes of the patients, the candidate genetic/genomic variants were identified from next-generation sequencing data...
November 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Yuehui Liu, Haiping Liu, Dongwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most devastating types of pediatric cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the dysregulated expression of long non-coding (lnc)-RNAs is associated with various pathologies of the CNS. However, the expression patterns and prognostic roles of lncRNAs in DIPG have not yet been systematically determined. In the present study, lncRNA expression profiles were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database using the lncRNA-mining approach and a differential expression analysis for lncRNAs was performed between DIPG and low-grade brainstem glioma and DIPG and normal pediatric brainstem tissue...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Jill C Rubinstein, Catherine Dinauer, Kayleigh Herrick-Reynolds, Raffaella Morotti, Glenda G Callender, Emily R Christison-Lagay
BACKGROUND: Regional lymph node (LN) metastasis at the time of presentation plays a significant role in predicting recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Multiple studies in the adult population have demonstrated that the lymph node ratio (LNR) in both the central and lateral neck can improve the accuracy of recurrence prediction, but this ratio has not been studied in the pediatric population. In this study, we sought to investigate the LNR in the central and lateral compartments as a prognostic predictor for recurrence in pediatric patients with PTC...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Honglai Zhang, Rork Kuick, Sung-Soo Park, Claire Peabody, Justin Yoon, Ester Calvo Fernández, Junying Wang, Dafydd Thomas, Benoit Viollet, Ken Inoki, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Jean-François Rual
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that has a dual role in cancer, i.e., pro- or anti-tumorigenic, depending on the context. In medulloblastoma, the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor, several in vitro studies previously showed that AMPK suppresses tumor cell growth. The role of AMPK in this disease context remains to be tested in vivo. Here, we investigate loss of AMPKα2 in a genetically engineered mouse model of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-medulloblastoma. In contrast to previous reports, our study reveals that AMPKα2 KO impairs SHH medulloblastoma tumorigenesis...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana Creo, Fares Alahdab, Alaa Al Nofal, Kristen Thomas, Amy Kolbe, Siobhan Pittock
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common pediatric endocrine cancer; accurate diagnosis and prompt management of pediatric thyroid nodules is critical. The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS), based upon clinical, ultrasound (US), and cytology criteria has recently been modified and studied in a pilot pediatric group with good results. We aim to describe the diagnostic accuracy of the pediatric modified MTNS (PMTNS) in a large pediatric cohort. METHODS: We utilized an established retrospective cohort between 1996 and 2015 of 99 patients ≤ 21 years old with 131 thyroid nodules...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
María Sol Brassesco, Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Maria Angelica Cortez, Karina Bezerra Salomão, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
PURPOSE: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children, and despite the high rate of cure (over 80%) it still has a big impact on morbidity and mortality. The Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1), a transcriptional corepressor, has been described as dysregulated and recently emerged as a tumor marker in several cancer types, including hematologic malignancies. METHODS: In the present study TLE1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR...
September 26, 2018: Leukemia Research
Benjamin P Keith, Jasmine B Barrow, Takahiko Toyonaga, Nevzat Kazgan, Michelle Hoffner O'Connor, Neil D Shah, Matthew S Schaner, Elisabeth A Wolber, Omar K Trad, Greg R Gipson, Wendy A Pitman, Matthew Kanke, Shruti J Saxena, Nicole Chaumont, Timothy S Sadiq, Mark J Koruda, Paul A Cotney, Nancy Allbritton, Dimitri G Trembath, Francisco Sylvester, Terrence S Furey, Praveen Sethupathy, Shehzad Z Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is highly heterogeneous, due in large part to variability in cellular processes that underlie the natural history of CD, thereby confounding effective therapy. There is a critical need to advance understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive CD heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed small RNA sequencing of adult colon tissue from CD and NIBD controls. Colonic epithelial cells and immune cells were isolated from colonic tissues, and microRNA-31 (miR-31) expression was measured...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
Jared W Garlick, Kristofor A Olson, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Brian T Bucher, Cindy B Matsen
Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a rare form of breast cancer found in both children and adults, and is the most common breast cancer in the pediatric population. Although SBC usually carries a favorable prognosis, there have been reported cases of axillary and distant metastases. Surgery is the primary mode of treatment, however, there exists variability within the literature surrounding the management of SBC. We report a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with a firm, mobile, palpable breast mass...
September 24, 2018: Breast Journal
Lorna Renner, Shivani Shah, Nickhill Bhakta, Avram Denburg, Sue Horton, Sumit Gupta
PURPOSE: No published study to date has examined total cost and cost-effectiveness of maintaining a pediatric oncology treatment center in an African setting, thus limiting childhood cancer advocacy and policy efforts. METHODS: Within the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, costing data were gathered for all inputs related to operating a pediatric cancer unit. Cost and volume data for relevant clinical services (eg, laboratory, pathology, medications) were obtained retrospectively or prospectively...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Teresa Santiago, Caleb Hayes, Ana Concepción Polanco, Lisa Miranda, Argelia Aybar, Belkis Gomero, Elizabeth Orellana, Fabienne Anglade, Mázlova Luxely Toledo González, Eduviges Ruiz, Moisés Espino-Durán, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Monika L Metzger
Accessibility to immunohistochemistry (IHC) is invaluable to proper diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with malignant neoplasms. Whereas IHC is widely available in anatomic pathology laboratories in high-income countries, access to it in anatomic pathology laboratories of low- and middle-income countries remains a struggle, with many limitations. To advance the quality of the pathology service offered to children with cancer in areas with limited resources, a 5-day pathology training workshop was offered to pathologists and histotechnologists from various countries of the Central American and Caribbean region...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Oscar Ramirez, Paula Aristizabal, Alia Zaidi, Raul C Ribeiro, Luis E Bravo
PURPOSE: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) to assess childhood cancer outcomes. METHODS: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali's PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years) with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Nisreen Amayiri, Maisa Swaidan, Najiyah Abuirmeileh, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Tarik Tihan, James Drake, Awni Musharbash, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Uri Tabori, Hadeel Halalsheh, Ute Bartels, Eric Bouffet
PURPOSE: The management of central nervous system tumors is challenging in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about applicability of twinning initiatives with high-income countries in neuro-oncology. In 2004, a monthly neuro-oncology video-teleconference program was started between King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan) and the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). More than 100 conferences were held and > 400 cases were discussed. The aim of this work was to assess the sustainability of such an initiative and the evolution of the impact over time...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Hongyi Li, Xianbiao Xie, Junqiang Yin, Jian Tu, Xiaoshuai Wang, Weihai Liu, Jiajun Zhang, Hongbo Li, Changye Zou, Yongqian Wang, Jingnan Shen, Gang Huang
Background: The treatment algorithm for solitary bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (SBL-LCH) in children extremities still remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare the feasibility of low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) and surgery for SBL-LCH in children extremities. Patients and methods: This study compares 43 pediatric patients starting LDC with a surgery control group (n = 44), matched for gender, age, follow-up time, and lesion sites and sizes, treated between 2001 and 2015 at our institution...
September 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Meiling Huang, Changjiao Yan, Hongliang Wei, Yonggang Lv, Rui Ling
BACKGROUND: The specific clinical features of thyroid cancer patients in northwest China are unclear; therefore, we analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of this population. METHODS: Clinical characteristics including age, gender, blood type, histological type, and BRAFV600E gene mutation; and incidence; risk factors; surgical treatment; and prognosis were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 2490 thyroid cancer patients were included; 98% were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC)...
November 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Lucia De Martino, Maria Elena Errico, Serena Ruotolo, Daniele Cascone, Stefano Chiaravalli, Paola Collini, Andrea Ferrari, Paolo Muto, Giuseppe Cinalli, Lucia Quaglietta
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of primary lung adenocarcinoma in children remains challenging given its rarity. Here we highlight the clinical history, pathological evaluation, genomic findings, and management of a very young patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old white girl presented with brain metastases due to primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Next generation sequencing analysis with "Comprehensive Cancer Panel" highlighted the presence of multiple non-targetable mutations in the FLT4, UBR5, ATM, TAF1, and GUCY1A2 genes...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ravishankar Palaniappan, Arvind Krishnamurthy, S Swaminathan Rajaraman, R Krishna Kumar
Background: Papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) is a rare disease in children and adolescents and contributes to about 1.5%-3% of all pediatric malignancies. To date, no randomized trial has ever been performed in the pediatric population and management of these patients has been extrapolated from adult practice. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the patients treated for PTC in the age <21 years, between the years 1998-2013 at a tertiary cancer center from India...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Cancer
Kareem Sallam, Ahmed Refaat, Marwa Romeih
Ultrasound-guided venous access is becoming a standard technique in many centers worldwide. In small veins and in the pediatric population, successful venous puncture is sometimes followed by resistance in passing the wire. The needle seems to miss the small vein during syringe dismounting, wire mounting and wire advancement through the needle. This work describes a "wire-loaded puncture" technique as a solution for this problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Paediatric cancer patients who needed venous access for different indications were included in the study...
September 2018: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
James R Wright, Peter B Baker, Hiroyuki Shimada
William A (Bill) Newton Jr practiced pediatric pathology and hematology/oncology at Children's Hospital of Columbus, Ohio, for over 40 years starting in 1952. Newton was an original member of the Pediatric Pathology Club, which preceded the Society for Pediatric Pathology, and was its president from 1968 to 1969. He published important independent observations in pediatric pathology, helped establish systematic cooperative pediatric tumor pathology review by experts, became an acclaimed expert on the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma, was a critical contributor to many pediatric oncology clinical trials, made important early contributions to tumor banking in pediatrics, and trained numerous pediatric pathology and pediatric oncology fellows...
August 20, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Judith L Kok, Jop C Teepen, Flora E van Leeuwen, Wim J E Tissing, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Helena J van der Pal, Jacqueline J Loonen, Dorine Bresters, Birgitta Versluys, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Berthe M P Aleman, Laurien A Daniels, Cornelis J A Haasbeek, Bianca Hoeben, Geert O Janssens, John H Maduro, Foppe Oldenburger, Caroline van Rij, Robbert J H A Tersteeg, Michael Hauptmann, Leontien C M Kremer, Cécile M Ronckers
Background: Pediatric cranial radiotherapy (CrRT) markedly increases risk of meningiomas. We studied meningioma risk factors with emphasis on independent and joint effects of CrRT dose, exposed cranial volume, exposure age, and chemotherapy. Methods: The DCOG-LATER cohort includes five-year childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) diagnosed 1963-2001. Histologically confirmed benign meningiomas were identified from the population-based Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA; 1990-2015)...
August 7, 2018: Neuro-oncology
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