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Chemotherapy Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342363/leishmania-treatment-and-prevention-natural-and-synthesized-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Adnan A Bekhit, Eman El-Agroudy, Aliaa Helmy, Tamer M Ibrahim, Amin Shavandi, Alaa El-Din A Bekhit
Leishmaniasis affects over 150 million people all over the world, especially in subtropical regions. Currently used antileishmanial synthesized drugs are associated with some drawbacks such as resistance and cytotoxicity, which hamper the chances of treatment. Furthermore, effective leishmanial vaccines are not well developed. Promising chemotherapy, either from natural or synthetic compounds, was or still is the most promising treatment. This review focuses on recent findings in drugs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis including; chemical and natural antileishmanial moieties, different potential targets, as well as various trials of vaccination development...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341914/cyclooxygenase-2-in-cancer-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Masoud Najafi, Eniseh Salehi, Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in many types of cancers exerting a pleiotropic and multifaceted role in genesis or promotion of carcinogenesis and cancer cell resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. COX-2 is released by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), macrophage type 2 (M2) cells, and cancer cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME). COX-2 induces cancer stem cell (CSC)-like activity, and promotes apoptotic resistance, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341887/glutathione-s-transferase-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-an-improved-treatment-response-to-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-a-meta-analysis
#3
Hongyan Wang, Xuehan Gao, Xiaolin Zhang, Wenjian Gong, Ziheng Peng, Bingshuang Wang, Li Wang, Saishuo Chang, Peiru Ma, Shijie Wang
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown an association with glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and treatment response. This study aimed to undertake a literature review and meta-analysis of GST gene polymorphisms, including GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val, and the treatment response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature search was undertaken of the main medical publication databases for publications, up to March 2017, on the association between GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms and the clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy...
October 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341417/optimizing-the-outcomes-of-pancreatic-cancer-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Oliver Strobel, John Neoptolemos, Dirk Jäger, Markus W Büchler
Pancreatic cancer is likely to become the second most frequent cause of cancer-associated mortality within the next decade. Surgical resection with adjuvant systemic chemotherapy currently provides the only chance of long-term survival. However, only 10-20% of patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed with localized, surgically resectable disease. The majority of patients present with metastatic disease and are not candidates for surgery, while surgery remains underused even in those with resectable disease owing to historical concerns regarding safety and efficacy...
October 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341109/-arrabidaea-chica-for-oral-mucositis-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#5
Núbia de Cassia Almeida Queiroz, Michelle Pedroza Jorge, Ilza Maria de Oliveira Sousa, Carmen Silvia Passos Lima, Maria Christina de Miranda Matias, Ana Cristina Dal Rio, Eduardo Baldon Pereira, Victória Hahn Kakas Galassi, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Tais Freire Galvao, Mary Ann Foglio
INTRODUCTION: Oral mucositis is an iatrogenic condition of erythematous inflammatory changes which tends to occur on buccal and labial surfaces, the ventral surface of the tongue, the floor of the mouth and the soft palate of patients receiving chemotherapy. This protocol of ongoing randomised parallel group clinical trial aims to access the therapeutic effect of an herbal gel containing 2.5% Arrabidaea chica Verlot standardised extract on oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer compared with low-level laser therapy...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340976/endoscopic-management-of-esthesioneuroblastoma-our-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Georgios Klironomos, Lior Gonen, Karolyn Au, Eric Monteiro, Alireza Mansouri, Mazda Keki Turel, Ian Witterick, Alan Vescan, Gelareh Zadeh, Fred Gentili
During the last two decades evolution of the endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) has offered the option of minimally invasive techniques in the management of esthesioneuroblastomas (ENB), either as endoscope assisted cranial resection or as pure endoscopic procedures. This study presents the use of pure EEA in the management of ENB in our center, along with a literature review. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiology and pathology records of patients with ENB treated during the period July 2006 to January 2016...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340362/cutting-edge-therapeutic-insights-derived-from-molecular-biology-of-pediatric-high-grade-glioma-and-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-dipg
#7
REVIEW
Cavan P Bailey, Mary Figueroa, Sana Mohiuddin, Wafik Zaky, Joya Chandra
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and brainstem gliomas are some of the most challenging cancers to treat in children, with no effective therapies and 5-year survival at ~2% for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients. The standard of care for pHGG as a whole remains surgery and radiation combined with chemotherapy, while radiation alone is standard treatment for DIPG. Unfortunately, these therapies lack specificity for malignant glioma cells and have few to no reliable biomarkers of efficacy. Recent discoveries have revealed that epigenetic disruption by highly conserved mutations in DNA-packaging histone proteins in pHGG, especially DIPG, contribute to the aggressive nature of these cancers...
October 18, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339769/triplet-therapies-the-new-standard-of-care-for-multiple-myeloma-how-to-manage-common-toxicities
#8
Agne Paner, Tochukwu M Okwuosa, Kristin J Richardson, Edward N Libby
Multiple three drug combination regimens have been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma in the last few years. Triplets have become the new standard of care for transplant eligible and ineligible patients with newly diagnosed as well as relapsed multiple myeloma. Novel agents have a unique profile of side effects. The management of toxicities is important to maintain quality of life and maximize treatment duration and benefit. Areas covered: This article reviews efficacy data, incidence of key adverse events and provide recommendations and expert opinion regarding how to manage common toxicities in triplet therapies...
October 19, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339561/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-treatment-failure-and-prolonged-illness-in-cancer-patients
#9
Hamzah Abu-Sbeih, Kati Choi, Cynthia N Tran, Xuemei Wang, Phillip Lum, Gladis Shuttlesworth, John R Stroehlein, Pablo C Okhuysen, Yinghong Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are susceptible to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that is increasing globally, necessitating new approaches to prevent fatal consequences. We examined the clinical characteristics of cancer patients with recurrent CDI (RCDI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of cancer patients with C. difficile-positive test between January 2015 and May 2017 was carried out. CDI was defined as diarrhea and toxigenic C. difficile detection in the stool by nucleic acid amplification test and enzyme immunoassay...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338916/clinical-investigation-of-the-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-apatinib-yn968d1-in-stage-iii-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-second-line-chemotherapy-treatment-a-retrospective-study
#10
Di Zhang, Chufeng Zhang, Jiaqi Huang, Yan Guan, Qisen Guo
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of apatinib (YN968D1) as third or subsequent-line treatment for stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A total of 100 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with apatinib at a daily dose of 250/425/500 mg at Shandong Cancer Hospital from January 2016 to June 2018 were enrolled in our study. The objective response, disease control, and median progression-free survival rates were reviewed and evaluated...
October 19, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338841/cardiovascular-complications-after-radiotherapy
#11
Izabela Nabiałek-Trojanowska, Ewa Lewicka, Anna Wrona, Anna M Kaleta, Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka, Grzegorz Raczak, Rafał Dziadziuszko
Over the past decades, effective cancer therapies have resulted in a significant improvement in the survival rates for a number of cancers and an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Radiation therapy is widely used in the treatment of cancer, and it can induce various cardiotoxicities that differ considerably from chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. They occur primarily as late radiation-induced complications, several years from the end of anticancer treatment and present as coronary artery disease, heart failure, pericardial disease, valvular heart disease and arrhythmias...
October 19, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337741/-transurethral-flexible-ureteroscopic-holmium-laser-resection-for-tumors-of-renal-pelvis-6-cases-report-and-literature-review
#12
Y C Hao, K Chen, Y Q Liu, J Lu, C L Xiao, L L Ma
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience of flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser resection in treatment of renal pelvic carcinoma and to evaluate its value in treatment of renal pelvic carcinoma. METHODS: The clinical data of 6 patients with renal pelvic carcinoma treated in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2015 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The 6 patients were treated by the same experienced urologist and by flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser resection of renal pelvic tumors under general anesthesia...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337125/a-brainstem-mass-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-type-epithelial-origin-without-any-primary-cancer-source
#13
REVIEW
Brian Fiani, Syed A Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Robert J Rosser, Blake W Berman, Jerry Noel, Xin S Xin, Behnam Badie, Anirudh Ramachandran, Javed Siddiqi
Brainstem tumors are rare, even rarer is a brainstem tumor containing tissues of an embryologic gynecologic origin. We report a very rare case of presence of a calcified heterogeneously contrast enhancing brainstem mass of Müllerian origin in a patient in a 38 year old female with no female genital tract cancer and past surgical history of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement for congenital hydrocephalus. To our knowledge this is the very first and unusual case of a mass of gynecologic origin in the brainstem region especially in the setting of no history of gynecological tumor...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337049/-results-of-a-retrospective-study-on-radiotherapy-for-gastric-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma
#14
L Ghorbal, A Hdiji, H Ben Salah, F Elloumi, M Frikha, M Elloumi, J Daoud
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate therapeutic results of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the records of 11 patients presenting with gastric MALT lymphoma treated between 1993 and 2014. Patients with low-grade lymphoma in failure after helicobacter eradication had exclusive gastric external radiotherapy. Chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy were indicated in case of high grade lymphoma...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335021/anthracycline-versus-nonanthracycline-adjuvant-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Wu Ding, Zhian Li, Caiyun Wang, Jiangfeng Dai, GuoDong Ruan, Chuanjian Tu
PURPOSE: The clinical benefits provided by using anthracycline-contained regimens in patients with early breast cancer (EBC) remain uncertain. This meta-analysis used data from all relevant trials to compare treatment outcomes for patients with EBC receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with non-anthracycline-contained regimens or anthracycline-contained regimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individual patient data were collected on 7 randomized trials comparing non-anthracycline-contained regimens with anthracycline-contained regimens, a total of 14,451 women were analyzed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334998/sertoli-leydig-cell-tumors-of-ovary-a-case-series
#16
Qiong Xu, Yu Zou, Xiao Fei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical features, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, clinical management, and prognoses of 7 patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT) of ovary, and to review the literature of this rare condition. METHODS: Seven patients with pathologically confirmed ovarian SLCT were included. Their clinical, CT and MRI characteristics (CT images obtained from 6 patients and MR images from 4 patients), clinical management, and prognoses of 7 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334903/young-adult-with-osteosarcoma-of-the-mandible-and-the-challenge-in-management-review-of-the-pediatric-and-adult-literatures
#17
Christopher Kuo, Paul M Kent
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma of the jaw (OSJ) remains controversial despite being a standardized treatment in osteosarcoma of the long bones. We present a case of a 22-year-old male with OSJ and performed a retrospective systemic review of previously published literatures of OSJ. We identified 27 articles: 7% recommended neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 22% recommended adjuvant chemotherapy, 19% recommended both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy, 33% recommended against chemotherapy and 19% stated the role of chemotherapy is unknown...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334834/management-of-extraretroperitoneal-masses-in-germ-cell-tumor
#18
Ankeet Shah, Nima Nassiri, Siamak Daneshmand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of extraretroperitoneal (ERP) germ cell tumor (GCT) is a complex clinical scenario faced by urologic oncologists. This article reviews the indications and approach to management of ERP GCT masses. RECENT FINDINGS: ERP GCT management starts with chemotherapy, and for any residual masses, a careful consideration of surgical intervention versus salvage chemotherapy. Decision-making regarding residual ERP masses hinges on tumor markers, and also the anatomical location...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334473/how-to-make-p-glycoprotein-abcb1-mdr1-harbor-mutations-and-measure-its-expression-and-activity-in-cell-cultures
#19
Pablo Zubiaur, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Dora Koller, María Carmen Ovejero-Benito, Aneta Wojnicz, Francisco Abad-Santos
Several polymorphisms have been identified in ABCB1, the gene encoding for the P-glycoprotein. This transporter alters the pharmacokinetics or effectiveness of drugs by excreting them from cells where it is expressed (e.g., blood-brain barrier, intestine or tumors). No consensus has been reached regarding the functional consequences of these polymorphisms in the transporter's function. The aim of this review was to describe a methodology that allows the assessment of P-gp function when harboring polymorphisms...
October 18, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333277/an-interesting-case-of-hepatic-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#20
Hikmat Permana, Guntur Darmawan, Ervita Ritonga, Maya Kusumawati, Miftahurachman Miftahurachman, Nanny Natalia Soetedjo
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare solid tumor with an incidence of 0.5 to 2 cases per million per year. It affects women more commonly than men with a ratio of 1.5:1. Ectopic ACC are considered to be extremely rare with no exact incidence data yet. We report an interesting case of hepatic ACC in a young woman with clinical signs of virilization.A-21-year old Sundanese woman visited our endocrine clinic with progressive hirsutism over the face, body, and extremities starting 14 years previously. She had irregular, heavy periods when she was 7 years old...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
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