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Chemotherapy Review

Wen-Chao Wang, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Jian Peng, Xi-Feng Li, Ai-Li Wang, Ya-Qin Bie, Le-Hua Shi, Mou-Bin Lin, Xiao-Feng Zhang
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shed from either the primary tumor or its metastases that circulate in the peripheral blood. The CTCs are regarded as the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis and speculated as the indicators of residual tumors, thereby indicating a poor prognosis. Although CTCs play a vital role in tumor metastasis and recurrence, little is known about the underlying survival mechanisms in the blood circulation. The accumulating evidence has revealed that CTCs might survive in the peripheral blood by overcoming the mechanical damage due to shear stress, resistance to anoikis, evasion of immune destruction, and resistance to chemotherapy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Erik W J Mollen, Jonathan Ient, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen, Liesbeth J Boersma, Lucio Miele, Marjolein L Smidt, Marc A G G Vooijs
Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy, worldwide. Treatment decisions are based on tumor stage, histological subtype, and receptor expression and include combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic treatment. These, together with earlier diagnosis, have resulted in increased survival. However, initial treatment efficacy cannot be guaranteed upfront, and these treatments may come with (long-term) serious adverse effects, negatively affecting a patient's quality of life. Gene expression-based tests can accurately estimate the risk of recurrence in early stage breast cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Ihab Eldessouki, Ola Gaber, Tariq Namad, Jiang Wang, John C Morris, Nagla Abdel Karim
Large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) of the lung exhibits morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of both neuroendocrine and large cell carcinomas. No defined optimal therapy has been described for this subset of patients and the question of whether these patients should be treated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment protocols, according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, or with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) due to histological and clinical similarities is still uncertain...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Varun Chowdhry, Saveli Goldberg, Thomas F DeLaney, Gregory M Cote, Ivan Chebib, Jason Kim, Santiago A Lozano-Calderón, Karen De Amorim Bernstein
Introduction: Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is a subtype of liposarcoma characterized morphologically by lipomatous differentiation with a myxoid stroma. The purpose of this study was to review clinical and pathological information for patients treated for MLS at our institution to better understand neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. Materials and Methods: An institutional database of sarcomas was queried for patients who were treated for MLS at our institution between 1992 and 2013...
2018: Sarcoma
Ronan F O'Toole, Sanjay S Gautam
The treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often viewed in isolation from other human microbial symbionts. Understandably, the clinical priority is eliminating active or latent tuberculosis (TB) in patients. With the increasing resolution of molecular biology technologies, it is becoming apparent that antibiotic treatment can perturb the homeostasis of the host microbiome. For example, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with an increased risk of the development of asthma, obesity and diabetes...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Chukwuebuka Emmanuel Umeyor, Onyedikachi Obachie, Rozeeta Chukwuka, Anthony Attama
BACKGROUND: The use of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) for effective malaria treatment is challenged by its poor aqueous solubility and inadequate bioavailability leading to treatment failures and emergence of resistant strains. A review of some novel drug delivery systems developed to address these challenges and their patents revealed that no study has reported the application of surface modified lipid nanoemulsions for improved antimalarial activity of DHA. OBJECTIVE: The main thrust of this study is to develop oral dihydroartemisinin formulations solubilized in surface modified lipid nanoemulsions, characterize, and evaluate their activity against murine malaria Methods: Lipid nanoemulsions containing dihydroartemisinin were formulated by high pressure homogenization using soybean oil, and polyethylene glycol 4000 was employed for surface modification...
December 3, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Chan Wook Kim, Jihun Kim, Yangsoon Park, Dong-Hyung Cho, Jong Lyul Lee, Yong Sik Yoon, In Ja Park, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Jin Cheon Kim
Purpose: Extranodal extension (ENE) is closely associated with the aggressiveness of both colon and rectal cancer. This study evaluated the clinicopathologic significance and prognostic impact of ENE in separate populations of patients with colon and rectal cancers. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 2,346 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent curative surgery at our institution between January 2003 and December 2011 were clinically and histologically reviewed...
November 29, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Hiromi Sasaki, Satoshi Nagano, Noboru Taniguchi, Takao Setoguchi
Malignant soft-tissue sarcoma resection is associated with a relatively high incidence of surgical site infection (SSI). The known risk factors for SSI following soft-tissue sarcoma resection include tumor size and location, prolonged surgery, and massive blood loss. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was used as a tool to help predict the occurrence of SSI after major surgery. We investigated the utility of the GNRI as a predictor of SSI following soft-tissue sarcoma resection. We retrospectively reviewed 152 patients who underwent surgical resection of soft-tissue sarcoma in our institute, and found that the incidence of SSI was 18...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Zoe K Price, Noor A Lokman, Carmela Ricciardelli
Hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan located in the extracellular matrix, is important in embryo development, inflammation, wound healing and cancer. There is an extensive body of research demonstrating the role of HA in all stages of cancer, from initiation to relapse and therapy resistance. HA interacts with multiple cell surface receptors, including CD44, receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) and intracellular signaling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase pathways, to promote the survival and proliferation of cancer cells...
December 3, 2018: Cancers
Arnaud Jeanson, Arnaud Boyer, Laurent Greillier, Pascale Tomasini, Fabrice Barlesi
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to be involved in the tumorigenesis of cancer cells including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and kinases involved in this pathway are frequently mutated. The development of new targeted therapies in cancer has led to the evaluation of MEK-inhibitors. Areas covered: This article reviews different studies using trametinib alone, in combination with other targeted therapies or associated with other non-targeted therapies in NSCLC, with a focus on KRAS mutant and BRAF mutant NSCLC...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Juan Martin-Liberal, Ezequiel Pérez, Xavier García Del Muro
Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by a historic lack of active treatment options. However, several new drugs and indications have become available in recent years. Areas covered: This article reviews the most relevant phase II studies that utilize chemotherapy agents (aldoxorubicin, amrubicin, trabectedin alone or in combination with doxorubicin, and gemcitabine plus docetaxel), targeted therapies (Imatinib, dasatinib, regorafenib, tivozanib, palbociclib and selinexor), a combination of chemotherapy plus targeted therapies (fucusing on doxorubicin plus olaratumab) and immunotherapies (pembrolizumab, combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab and adaptive cell therapy) in STS (other than gastrointestinal stromal tumors) (GIST) published from 2015...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Hannah A Blair
VYXEOS™ is a liposomal-encapsulated formulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine delivering a fixed, synergistic 1:5 molar ratio (hereafter referred to as daunorubicin/cytarabine liposome). Daunorubicin/cytarabine liposome is approved in several countries worldwide for the treatment of adults with therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (tAML) and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (MRC). Approval was based on its clinical benefit in older patients with newly diagnosed high-risk/secondary AML in a pivotal phase III trial...
December 3, 2018: Drugs
A Tzivanakis, S P Dayal, S J Arnold, F Mohamed, T D Cecil, A K Venkatasubramaniam, B J Moran
Background: Patients with peritoneal malignancy often have multiple laparotomies before referral for cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Some have substantial abdominal wall herniation and tumour infiltration of abdominal incisions. CRS involves complete macroscopic tumour removal and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Abdominal wall reconstruction is problematic in these patients. The aim of this study was to establish immediate and long-term outcomes of abdominal wall reconstruction with biological mesh in a single centre...
December 2018: BJS open
Fereydoon Abedi-Gaballu, Gholamreza Dehghan, Maryam Ghaffari, Reza Yekta, Soheil Abbaspour-Ravasjani, Behzad Baradaran, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Michael R Hamblin
Drug delivery systems for cancer chemotherapy are employed to improve the effectiveness and decrease the side-effects of highly toxic drugs. Most chemotherapy agents have indiscriminate cytotoxicity that affects normal, as well as cancer cells. To overcome these problems, new more efficient nanosystems for drug delivery are increasingly being investigated. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are an example of a versatile and reproducible type of nanocarrier that can be loaded with drugs, and modified by attaching target-specific ligands that recognize receptors that are over-expressed on cancer cells...
September 2018: Applied Materials Today
Xu Tian, Xiao-Ling Liu, Yuan-Ping Pi, Hui Chen, Wei-Qing Chen
Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is an extremely serious complication faced by cancer patients. The role of oral zinc sulfate in preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis remains a subject of debate. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the potential of oral zinc sulfate to alleviate this morbid condition. A systematic search was conducted electronically in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to capture all potential randomized controlled trials investigating efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulfate in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, and the retrieval time was limited from their inception to April 2018...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Medhat M Osman, Mark Fesler, Tarek Helmy, Nadeem Parker, Razi Muzaffar
This study aims to detect the potential impact of chemotherapy on the coronary calcium scoring (CCS) in lymphoma patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT at baseline and for therapy response using the CT portion of the exam to calculate the CCS. One hundred twelve lymphoma patients were included in the study based on having both baseline and at least 2 post-chemotherapy scans. The unenhanced CT portions of the scans were reviewed to measure the CCS which was then extracted using the Toshiba Vital Program. Agatston scores were assessed as category 1 with zero CCS unit and categories 2 to 5 having more than >1, 11, 101, and 400 CCS units respectively...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Valeriia Gulaia, Vadim Kumeiko, Nikita Shved, Eduardas Cicinskas, Stanislav Rybtsov, Alexey Ruzov, Alexander Kagansky
Cellular quiescence is a reversible, non-cycling state controlled by epigenetic, transcriptional and niche-associated molecular factors. Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied in most malignancies, including glioma...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yi Wang, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaoli Zheng, Xing Du
Background: Melatonin (MLT), a kind of neuroendocrine active substance, has been reported to function in the treatment of tumors. However, there remain controversies about the curative effect of MLT in tumors in clinical studies. This study investigates the efficacy of MLT on tumor therapeutic strategies by meta-analysis. Methods: After searching several main literature databases, a total of 5,057 articles were obtained and screened by inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Arabella Young, Zoe Quandt, Jeffrey A Bluestone
The explosion in novel cancer immunotherapies has resulted in extraordinary clinical successes in the treatment of multiple cancers. Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) that target negative regulatory molecules have become standard of care. However, with the growing use of CPIs, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, targeted therapies, or other immune modulators, a significant increase in immune-related adverse events (irAEs) has emerged. The wide-ranging and currently unpredictable spectrum of CPI-induced irAEs can lead to profound pathology and, in some cases, death...
December 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Wellington F da Silva, Lidiane Inês da Rosa, Gabriel Lacerda Marquez, Lucas Bassolli, Luciana Tucunduva, Douglas Rafaele Almeida Silveira, Valeria Buccheri, Israel Bendit, Eduardo Magalhães Rego, Vanderson Rocha, Elvira D R P Velloso
INTRODUCTION: Although a considerable improvement in survival of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been seen over the past decades, real-life outcomes seem to be worse than those reported by prospective studies. We aim to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients diagnosed with APL in an academic hospital from the University of Sao Paulo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 61 patients with APL diagnosed between January 2007 and May 2017...
November 12, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
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