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Chemotherapy Review

Jing Jia, Huijuan Wang, Miaomiao Wu, Feilong Zhang, Xuelin Liu, Wenming Chen, Aijun Liu
A 62-year-old female presenting with anemia and extensive hemorrhages is reported. Coagulation tests showed significantly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time. Decreased levels of clotting factor X activity were determined (5.4%). Bone marrow biopsy revealed neoplastic plasma cells. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis were both negative for monoclonal gammopathy, and both bone marrow and abdominal fat biopsies were negative for amyloid deposition. The patient was diagnosed as suffering from nonsecretory multiple myeloma (MM) complicated by acquired factor X deficiency...
August 16, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Natalie R Gassman, Nathaniel W Holton
Detection and characterization of DNA damage is essential for evaluating genotoxicity, monitoring DNA repair, developing biomarkers for exposures, and evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapies. These diverse applications for DNA damage measurements have spurred the continual development and refinement of methodologies for detecting, characterizing, and quantifying DNA damage from isolated DNA and in cells and tissues. Current damage detection methods cover a wide range of techniques from radiolabeling to mass spectrometry, and use of these techniques varies widely based on expense, expertise, and knowledge of adduct formation...
August 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
F Honecker, J Aparicio, D Berney, J Beyer, C Bokemeyer, R Cathomas, N Clarke, G Cohn-Cedermark, G Daugaard, K-P Dieckmann, K Fizazi, S Fosså, J R Germa-Lluch, P Giannatempo, J A Gietema, S Gillessen, H S Haugnes, A Heidenreich, K Hemminki, R Huddart, M A S Jewett, F Joly, J Lauritsen, A Lorch, A Necchi, N Nicolai, C Oing, J Oldenburg, D Ondruš, A Papachristofilou, T Powles, A Sohaib, O Ståhl, T Tandstad, G Toner, A Horwich
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on testicular cancer was held on 3-5 November 2016 in Paris, France. The conference included a multidisciplinary panel of 36 leading experts in the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer (34 panel members attended the conference; an additional two panel members [CB and K-PD] participated in all preparatory work and subsequent manuscript development). The aim of the conference was to develop detailed recommendations on topics relating to testicular cancer that are not covered in detail in the current ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and where the available level of evidence is insufficient...
August 3, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Zhaolun Cai, Zhaohui Cai, Tao He, Zhou Zhao, Yuan Yin, Chaoyong Shen, Xiaonan Yin, Zhixin Chen, Cao Dan, Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Comparative efficacy and safety of different hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapies (HIPEC) in patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy is unclear. To investigate this question, we conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: The protocol followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library will be searched systematically for eligible randomized controlled trials without language restriction...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yao Wang, Jiaxin Yang, Mei Yu, Dongyan Cao, Ying Zhang, Xuan Zong, Keng Shen
RATIONALE: Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are the second most common histologic type of ovarian germ cell tumors. Most patients are adolescent and young women, while cases in postmenopausal women were rarely reported. Due to its rarity, we know little about the treatment and prognosis of postmenopausal patients with ovarian YSTs. We reported 3 cases of mixed ovarian YST in postmenopausal females reviewed the related current English literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: The ages of the three patients were 61, 58 and 77 respectively...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xinren Ma, Lei Qin, Yueyu Liu, Wuyang Bian, Ding Sun
RATIONALE: Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the most common and best-studied extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the MALT. It is characterized by an indolent clinical course and excellent survival compared with other malignant tumor. Complications such as obstruction, perforation or bleeding are rarely observed. The treatment strategy is still controversial. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with MALT lymphoma by gastroscopy and biopsy one month before, came to the hospital for a sudden onset of abdominal pain after breakfast...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kathryn Stambough, Krista J Childress
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline ovarian conservation and fertility sparing surgery (FSS) in the management of the most common pediatric gynecology malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of gynecologic malignancies has evolved to have a greater appreciation for adverse late effects from radical surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. A growing body of literature has led to a paradigm shift toward ovarian conservation and FSS in the management of pediatric ovarian malignancies and genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Mukesh Patekar, Ajay Gogia, Akash Tiwari, Lalit Kumar, Atul Sharma, Soumya Ranjan Mallick, Mehar Chand Sharma, Sanjay Thulkar, Ritu Gupta
Background: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is treated with short, intensive, noncross resistant multidrug chemotherapy regimens. The management of this aggressive lymphoma is a challenge in our resource-limited setting, and the published data from India is scarce. Aim: This retrospective study aims to evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes in adult patients with BL treated with uniform chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate, ifosfamide, etoposide, cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC) protocol (± Rituximab)...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Sandip Ganguly, Bivas Biswas, Joydeep Ghosh, Deepak Dabkara
Aim: Data on epidemiology and outcome in metastatic stomach carcinoma patients from India are scarce. We aimed to evaluate clinical features and treatment outcome in patients treated at our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single institutional review of metastatic gastric carcinoma patients treated between May 2011 and October 2016. Patients who received at least one cycle of chemotherapy were included for modified intent-to-treat survival analysis. Results: total of 143 patients were diagnosed with metastatic stomach carcinoma with a median age of 56 years (range: 29-86)...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Aaron Galaznik, Rachel Huelin, Michael Stokes, Yelan Guo, Meredith Hoog, Tarun Bhagnani, Jill Bell, Yaping Shou
To identify real-world evidence on outcomes from therapies for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), we systematically reviewed literature in Medline/Embase for DLBCL/FL-related articles on real-world results published during January 2012-May 2016. Among 33 included articles, therapies included stem cell transplant (SCT) and chemotherapy, including experimental regimens. The highest overall survival rates were observed for SCT, long considered an optimal strategy following initial relapse...
July 2018: Future Science OA
Takashi Tamura, Kayo Suzuki, Taketoshi Yasuda, Shigeharu Nogami, Kenta Watanabe, Masahiko Kanamori, Tomoatsu Kimura
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 1-2% of all soft tissue sarcomas. ESOS originating in the superficial (cutaneous-subcutaneous) tissue is extremely rare, and only 17 cases with subcutaneous ESOS have been reported in detail to date. The aim of the present study was to report an additional case of subcutaneous ESOS of the lower leg and review previous reports of subcutaneous ESOS, focusing on the clinical characteristics, including the MIB-1 labeling index, treatment methods and outcomes...
September 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Astha Koolwal Kapoor, Sushma Bhatnagar
Suicide risk is very high in the patients suffering from advanced cancer. Around 60% of patients with advanced cancer suffer from cancer related pain and this further accentuates the risk of psychiatric disorders as well as suicide. A fifty year old male who was a known case of carcinoma of floor of mouth, post chemotherapy and post radiotherapy came in the outpatient clinic with complains of throat pain which increased on swallowing. On further probing, it was revealed, that he consumed poison in the recent past while being agitated and upset with the severe throat pain...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Chen Tian, Yue-Yang Li, Dong-Zhi Hu
Although the application of combined chemotherapy has made a great progress in treatment of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the overall survival rate is still not high, mainly because of high recurrence rate and drug resistance. The treatment regimen for relapsed/refractory AML is always strong. Due to the chemotherapy drugs lacking of specific identification of tumor cells, significant adverse reactions often come out and sometimes even endanger the life of patients. In order to improve the life quality and survival rate, the new treatment strategy is urgently needed...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Jing Shi, Tian-Tian Ma, Hua-Sheng Liu
In recent years, with the incidence of malignant tumors increasing year by year, its treatment has been made great progress on the basis of traditional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it mainly focuses on rapid development of cellular immunotherapy. The efficacy of dendritic cells combined with cytokine induced killer cell (DC-CIK) immunotherapy for cancer patients is positive, it shows good antitumor activities and the abilities to reconstruct and enhance the immune system of tumor patients in clinical application, it has potential application value...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Wen-Jing Fan, Tao Wu, Hai Bai
POEMS syndrome is a rare multiple organ involvement of the parasympathetic syndrome associated with abnormal plasma cells, mostly with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation for the treatment. Recently, more treatment attempts to treat POEMS syndrome have been utilized so as to improve the efficacy and safety for the patients with POEMS syndrome, such as immunomodulator, alkylating agent, cytokine-induced killer cells and so on. Lenalidomide has a significant effect on relapse/refractory POEMS syndrome and patients with endocrinopathy...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Sujen Jayakody, Danette Bianca Wright, Corrina Chiong, Mona Liu, Clare Bouffler, Toufic El-Khoury
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug commonly used in the management of ovarian cancer. Colonic perforation is an extremely rare complication of paclitaxel administration with few case reports in the medical literature. We report a case of a patient with advanced ovarian cancer who had a rectal perforation following administration of paclitaxel. There has only been one other case report of rectal perforation in the medical literature following paclitaxel therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman with advanced ovarian cancer awaiting elective debulking surgery for her tumor presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Deepa Jeevanantham, Venkadesan Rajendran, Line Tremblay, Céline Larivière, Andrew Knight
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are often treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and, if indicated, autologous stem cell transplant. In addition to side effects of the treatment, patients with MM often have bone pain, pathological fractures, spinal cord compressions, fatigue, and muscle weakness, which negatively impact functional performance and quality of life. Currently, there are no related guidelines for safe and effective physiotherapy (PT) management. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to develop guidelines for effective physiotherapy management of patients with MM by systematically reviewing and evaluating the available evidence followed by a consensus process to specifically describe the research questions as detailed below...
August 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mingqiu Chen, Minmin Shen, Yu Lin, Pingping Liu, Xiaohong Liu, Xiqing Li, Anchuan Li, Rongqiang Yang, Wei Ni, Xin Zhou, Lurong Zhang, Benhua Xu, Jianhua Lin, Junqiang Chen, Ye Tian
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: The clinical data of patients with ESCC treated with chemoradiotherapy with or without AC were collected and retrospectively reviewed. The overall survival (OS), locoregional failure-free survival (LFFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS) rates were analyzed statistically...
August 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Allison Barz Leahy, Caitlin W Elgarten, Stephan A Grupp, Shannon L Maude, David T Teachey
Cure rates for pediatric and young adult patients with refractory or recurrently relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia are dismal. Survival from time of relapse is typically measured in weeks to months, and standard chemotherapy and currently approved targeted therapy achieve remission in less than a third of affected patients. To date, the only definitive curative therapy has been allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Advances in immunotherapy, with the introduction of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies and the development of tisagenlecleucel, have changed the landscape...
August 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Jennifer K Litton, Hope S Rugo, Johannes Ettl, Sara A Hurvitz, Anthony Gonçalves, Kyung-Hun Lee, Louis Fehrenbacher, Rinat Yerushalmi, Lida A Mina, Miguel Martin, Henri Roché, Young-Hyuck Im, Ruben G W Quek, Denka Markova, Iulia C Tudor, Alison L Hannah, Wolfgang Eiermann, Joanne L Blum
Background The poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) inhibitor talazoparib has shown antitumor activity in patients with advanced breast cancer and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ( BRCA1/2). Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation were assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive talazoparib (1 mg once daily) or standard single-agent therapy of the physician's choice (capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine in continuous 21-day cycles)...
August 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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