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Criminal responsibility

Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Bozhena Zoritch, Ian Roberts, Ann Oakley
BACKGROUND: The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Evelyn M Maeder, Susan Yamamoto, Lesley Zannella
The current study examined the effect of publicity about Canada's recent Not Criminally Responsible (NCR) Reform Act - legislation surrounding accused in insanity cases that purportedly aims to enhance public safety - on juror decision-making. In line with agenda-setting theory, we expected that NCR Reform Act publicity might reinforce certain fears about the insanity defence, dependent on whether it had either a positive or negative evaluative slant. Contrary to previous work on the insanity defence, participants in this study generally favoured a NCR verdict...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Emily R Dworkin, Julie A Schumacher
Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS), early contact with formal systems (e.g., health care, criminal justice, social services) and informal responders (e.g., friends, family) might be particularly important in preventing PTS. However, the effectiveness of these early interventions is unclear...
September 28, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
John Jacob Cannell, Michael F Holick
When an infant presents with X-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing (MUFVSH), the child is usually diagnosed with child abuse based on criteria of the Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAPCCAAN). Almost always, the infant is subsequently removed from the home and civil or criminal proceeding commence. It may be that healing infantile rickets or other poorly understood metabolic bone disorders of infancy are responsible for these x-rays. Activated vitamin D is a seco-steroid hormone, whose mechanism of action is genetic regulation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Silvia Zullo
In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Pietro Ferrara, Chiara Guadagno, Annamaria Sbordone, Maria Amato, Giulia Spina, Giacomo Perrone, Maria Cristin Basile, Francesca Ianniello, Giovanna Carmela Fabrizio, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello
Child maltreatment is a complex life experience happening when a parent or caregiver does an intentional or potential damage to a child, including acts of commission and omission. Child abuse is not an uncommon event, but it is not always recognized. Identifying the real number of maltreated children is a challenge because of the large variability in reported prevalence data across studies. Unfortunately, in the United States, it affects 1 in 8 children, by the age of 18 years, annually. Paediatricians may encounter a variety of forms of maltreatment such as neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse...
September 14, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
Lisa Young Larance, Susan L Miller
Although researchers and practitioners have established that men and women use force in their intimate heterosexual relationships for very different reasons, there is a dearth of information regarding the events surrounds women's arrests and subsequent court orders to anti-violence intervention programming. This information is fundamental to improving Criminal Legal System (CLS) and community-partner understanding of and response to intimate partner violence (IPV). The authors meet this need by analyzing 208 women's descriptions of their arrests and subsequent court order to intervention programs for using force...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
Raúl Necochea López
Augusta García Platas died after a clandestine abortion in Ayacucho in 1946. This article, based on material in the Historical Archive in Ayacucho, examines the criminal trial that was held to determine who was responsible for her death. Although the judicial authorities accused certain individuals of being directly responsible for inducing an abortion, they considered that the root cause of the young woman's death was neglect on the part of those who were supposed to protect her physical and moral health...
September 12, 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Patrick Lussier, Danielle A Harris, Anne-Marie McAlinden
For the past three decades or so, criminal justice policies have been enacted under the assumption that individuals who have been convicted of a sex offense are life course persistent sex offenders. In that context, research has been heavily focused on the assessment of risk and the prediction of sexual recidivism.Simultaneously, little to no attention has been given to the majority of individuals convicted of sex offenses who are not arrested or convicted again.Researchers have witnessed a growing gap between scientific knowledge and the sociolegal response to sexual violence and abuse...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
A Jueterbock, S U Franssen, N Bergmann, J Gu, J A Coyer, T B H Reusch, E Bornberg-Bauer, J L Olsen
Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adap-tation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substi-tution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm-temperatures along two inde-pendent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate northern hemisphere. A North-South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heat wave in a common-garden mesocosm...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Jan Copeland, Peter Gates, Izabella Pokorski
BACKGROUND: As policy responses to cannabis use and availability change internationally, levels of cannabis use disorder rise and treatment seeking increases. Diversion to cannabis treatment from the criminal justice system also increases demand in the system. At a time of developing treatment systems in response to this demand, an understanding of the evidence is increasingly important. OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the developing evidence-base for psycho-social interventions for cannabis use disorder, including adjunctive cannabinoid agonist therapy...
August 30, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
R Matthew Gladden, Pedro Martinez, Puja Seth
In March and October 2015, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and CDC, respectively, issued nationwide alerts identifying illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as a threat to public health and safety (1,2). IMF is unlawfully produced fentanyl, obtained through illicit drug markets, includes fentanyl analogs, and is commonly mixed with or sold as heroin (1,3,4). Starting in 2013, the production and distribution of IMF increased to unprecedented levels, fueled by increases in the global supply, processing, and distribution of fentanyl and fentanyl-precursor chemicals by criminal organizations (3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rachel Goldhill
This paper brings a close analysis to bear on tensions in the main discourses within probation and the wider criminal justice system, namely between punitive, target-driven approaches and the opposing gender-responsive, strengths-based, humanitarian, individualised ones. Drawing on a pilot study, which is an early part of the author's Ph.D., the article explores how probation practitioners attempt to work constructively within the constraints of statutory supervision and how the pressures and dilemmas are managed...
July 2016: British Journal of Social Work
Dohyung Kee, Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
The South Korea Sewol ferry accident in April 2014 claimed the lives of over 300 passengers and led to criminal charges of 399 personnel concerned including imprisonment of 154 of them as of Oct 2014. Blame and punishment culture can be prevalent in a more hierarchical society like South Korea as shown in the aftermath of this disaster. This study aims to analyse the South Korea ferry accident using Rasmussen's risk management framework and the associated AcciMap technique and to propose recommendations drawn from an AcciMap-based focus group with systems safety experts...
August 12, 2016: Applied Ergonomics
Priscilla Ferrazzi, Terry Krupa
RATIONALE: Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. OBJECTIVE: This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ayesha Ahmad, Simon Dein
Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
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