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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783179/staged-crime-scene-determination-by-handling-physical-and-digital-evidence-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Lupariello, Serena Curti, Janet Barber Duval, Giovanni Abbattista, Giancarlo Di Vella
Geberth in 2006 stated that "staging is a conscious criminal action on the part of an offender to thwart an investigation." In the present paper two crime scenes staged by handling digital evidence are reported. The first case involves a 50-year-old woman who had been living with the offender for three years before he murdered her at the end of their relationship. He staged the scene as a sex-related crime committed by an unknown perpetrator. The second case concerns a young woman who was found dead in Southern Italy in January 2004 with a gunshot on the forehead...
May 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770101/resources-to-address-stigma-related-to-sexuality-substance-use-and-sexually-transmitted-and-blood-borne-infections
#2
R MacLean
Background: Stigma is widely recognized as a significant barrier to the prevention, management and treatment of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) in Canada. Despite major advances in STBBI prevention and treatment, and global efforts to reduce stigma, people living with or affected by STBBIs continue to experience stigma within health and social service settings in Canada. Objective: To describe the development, content and evaluation of knowledge translation resources and training workshops designed to equip health and social service professionals with the knowledge and skills needed to provide more respectful and inclusive sexual health, harm reduction and STBBI services...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767436/police-interactions-and-interventions-with-suspects-flagged-as-experiencing-mental-health-problems
#3
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Jurgen Mitsch, Tahseen Jilani, Philip Quinlan, Jack Cattell, Najat Khalifa
BACKGROUND: Interactions between individuals experiencing mental health (MH) problems and the police are complex, and effectiveness of innovative support and diversion models in England and Wales not yet fully evaluated. AIMS/HYPOTHESES: Our aims were to examine police interactions with suspects and to measure the immediate effectiveness of police/NHS MH interventions, including liaison and diversion and embedded staff in police contact and control rooms. We hypothesised that those with an MH flag would have significantly greater benefit from such interventions than those without in terms of how far they are taken down the criminal justice pathway and how long they spend in police custody...
May 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767338/-beginners-operations-and-medical-specialist-standards-avoidance-of-criminal-liability-and-civil-liability
#4
REVIEW
H Schneider
BACKGROUND: In all phases, patients are entitled to receive medical treatment according to medical specialist standards. This does not mean that patients necessarily have to be treated by a medical specialist. Operations performed by "beginners", e. g. assistant physicians, are permitted. However, there are increased liability risks, both for the specialist and the assistant physician. Furthermore, there are risks of criminal responsibility for causing bodily harm by negligence or negligent manslaughter...
May 16, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751222/development-of-forensic-medicine-in-post-reform-indonesia
#5
Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K Sunjaya
Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740734/syringe-decriminalization-advocacy-in-red-states-lessons-from-the-north-carolina-harm-reduction-coalition
#6
REVIEW
David H Cloud, Tessie Castillo, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Manisha Dubey, Robert Childs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition. RECENT FINDINGS: Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services...
May 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731288/the-impact-of-drug-policy-liberalisation-on-willingness-to-seek-help-for-problem-drug-use-a-comparison-of-20-countries
#7
Isabella Benfer, Renee Zahnow, Monica J Barratt, Larissa Maier, Adam Winstock, Jason Ferris
BACKGROUND: While the impact of changing drug policies on rates of drug use has been investigated, research into how help-seeking behaviour changes as drug policies become more public-health focused is limited. This paper investigates reported changes in confidence to utilise drug services following hypothetical changes in national drug policy among a sample of individuals who report recent illicit drug use. We predict that liberalising national drug policy will increase the propensity for people who take illegal drugs to utilise health services...
May 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726605/criminal-responsibility-meta-analysis-and-study-space
#8
Lauren E Kois, Preeti Chauhan
While some correlates of criminal responsibility (CR) outcomes are consistent, others are not. Study-level characteristics, such as sample selection, variability in the operational definition of insanity, or other unknown influences may explain discrepant findings. It is critical to systematically consolidate and assess the literature in order to guide future work. We conducted the first meta-analysis and study space analysis (see Malpass et al., ) in this area. 15 studies met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, which encompassed 19,500 cases...
May 4, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726310/readiness-to-change-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-engagement-and-outcome-for-partner-violent-men
#9
Ana I Maldonado, Christopher M Murphy
Resistance to change has been long recognized as a barrier to successful intervention for partner violent individuals. Using archival data from a community-based intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention program, the current study investigated readiness to change as a predictor of treatment engagement and outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for IPV, and examined whether court referral status, antisocial personality characteristics, and borderline personality characteristics moderate these associations...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712552/are-one-stop-centres-an-appropriate-model-to-deliver-services-to-sexually-abused-children-in-urban-malawi
#10
Yabwile Mulambia, Aaron J Miller, Geraldine MacDonald, Neil Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The Republic of Malawi is creating a country-wide system of 28 One-Stop Centres (known as 'Chikwanekwanes' - 'everything under one roof') to provide medical, legal and psychosocial services for survivors of child maltreatment and adult intimate partner violence. No formal evaluation of the utility of such services has ever been undertaken. This study focused on the experiences of the families served at the country's first Chikwanekwane in the large, urban city of Blantyre...
April 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710562/bridging-the-gap-between-climate-change-and-maritime-security-towards-a-comprehensive-framework-for-planning
#11
Antonios D Mazaris, Basil Germond
For the past two decades, the need to shield strategic maritime interests, to tackle criminality and terrorism at or from the sea and to conserve valuable marine resources has been recognized at the highest political level. Acknowledging and accounting for the interplay between climate change, the vulnerability of coastal populations and the occurrence of maritime criminality should be part of any ocean governance process. Still, given the complex interactions between climate change and socio-economic components of the marine realm, it has become urgent to establish a solid methodological framework, which could lead to sound and effective decisions...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709622/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-young-adult-health-outcomes-among-youth-aging-out-of-foster-care
#12
Rebecca Rebbe, Paula S Nurius, Mark E Courtney, Kym R Ahrens
OBJECTIVE: Former youth in foster care (YFC) are at greater risk of chronic health conditions than their peers. Although research in general population samples has demonstrated a dose-response relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health outcomes, few studies have conducted similar analyses in highly stress-exposed populations such as YFC. This paper uses person-centered latent class analysis (LCA) methods to examine the relationship between different profiles of ACE exposures and divergent health trajectories amongst this high-risk population...
April 27, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685647/in-defense-of-free-will-neuroscience-and-criminal-responsibility
#13
REVIEW
Paul G Nestor
Is neuroscience the death of free will and if so, does this mean the imminent demise of the psycho-legal practices related to insanity and criminal responsibility? For many scholars of neuro-jurisprudence, recent advances in brain sciences suggesting that the perception of free will is merely illusory, an epiphenomenon of unconscious brain activity, do indeed undermine our traditional understandings of moral and legal responsibility. In this paper, however, we reject this radical claim and argue that neuroscientific evidence can indeed reveal how free will actually works and how its underlying neural and perceptual machinery gives rise to our sense of responsibility for our actions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684939/loose-lipped-mobile-device-intelligent-personal-assistants-a-discussion-of-information-gleaned-from-siri-on-locked-ios-devices
#14
Graeme Horsman
The forensic analysis of mobile handsets is becoming a more prominent factor in many criminal investigations. Despite such devices frequently storing relevant evidential content to support an investigation, accessing this information is becoming an increasingly difficult task due to enhanced effective security features. Where access to a device's resident data is not possible via traditional mobile forensic methods, in some cases it may still be possible to extract user information via queries made to an installed intelligent personal assistant...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681401/capacity-control-and-responsibility-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-impulse-control-disorders-views-of-neurological-and-psychiatric-experts
#15
Andrew Dawson, Jordie Michael, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Wayne Hall, Nadeeka N Dissanayaka, Adrian Carter
Dopamine replacement therapy can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) (e.g., hypersexuality) in susceptible Parkinson's disease patients. ICDs can sometimes result in criminal offending. In a number of past Commonwealth cases, it appears offending ICD patients have been considered to be suffering from 'irresistible impulses' such that their decision-making capacity, behavioural control and responsibility were totally compromised. This contrasts with courts' general scepticism of drug-induced 'compulsion' in cases of addiction-related offending...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676480/medication-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-medication-noncompliance-insight-and-criminal-responsibility
#16
Caroline Titcomb Parrott, Michelle A Jones, Stanley L Brodsky, Clayton Shealy
This study used a mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology to examine whether mock jurors considered a defendant's meta-responsibility - specifically, the defendant's medication noncompliance and degree of insight into his/her schizophrenia - when determining the person's criminal responsibility. The degree of expert witness explanation regarding these factors was also varied. Participants (n = 173) were grouped into 30 juries, randomized across five conditions, and shown mock testimony and attorney arguments based on a real not guilty by reason of insanity court case...
April 20, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673337/communities-in-charge-of-alcohol-cica-a-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomised-control-trial-of-an-alcohol-health-champions-programme
#17
Penny A Cook, Suzy C Hargreaves, Elizabeth J Burns, Frank de Vocht, Steve Parrott, Margaret Coffey, Suzanne Audrey, Cathy Ure, Paul Duffy, David Ottiwell, Kiran Kenth, Susan Hare, Kate Ardern
BACKGROUND: Communities In Charge of Alcohol (CICA) takes an Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) approach to reducing alcohol harm. Through a cascade training model, supported by a designated local co-ordinator, local volunteers are trained to become accredited 'Alcohol Health Champions' to provide brief opportunistic advice at an individual level and mobilise action on alcohol availability at a community level. The CICA programme is the first time that a devolved UK region has attempted to coordinate an approach to building health champion capacity, presenting an opportunity to investigate its implementation and impact at scale...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671203/the-policy-driven-hiv-epidemic-among-opioid-users-in-the-russian-federation
#18
REVIEW
Robert Heimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America. RECENT FINDINGS: The syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids...
April 18, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669466/-everything-changes-listening-to-homicidally-bereaved-individuals-practice-and-intervention-needs
#19
Filipa Alves-Costa, Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Sarah Halligan
This study sought to understand how individuals bereaved through homicide (murder or manslaughter) describe their postevent experiences to inform clinical needs and promote mechanisms for change. A total of 21 participants (18 females) between the ages of 29 and 66 ( M age = 47.81 years, SD = 8.99) took part in this study. They were all participating in a residential program for homicidally bereaved individuals and were all residents in the United Kingdom. The sample comprised of 12 parents, five siblings, one partner, one daughter, one friend, and one grandmother of the deceased...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660136/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-diminished-criminal-responsibility-as-new-evidence-in-criminal-revision-procedures
#20
Eric Rassin, Irena Boskovic, Harald Merckelbach
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may affect victims of crime, but may also be reported by offenders. In the postappeal phase, offenders may claim to suffer from chronic PTSD and argue that this indicates diminished criminal responsibility at the time the index crime was committed. As members of a Dutch criminal cases review commission, we recently encountered two cases in which PTSD was presented as new evidence that would justify a reopening of the case. In this article, we argue that such claims are problematic in that clinical decision making resulting in a PTSD diagnosis adheres to quite different standards than those dictating forensic fact-finding...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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