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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884215/public-perception-of-emergency-medical-services-in-the-united-states
#1
Remle P Crowe, Roger Levine, Severo Rodriguez, Ashley D Larrimore, Ronald G Pirrallo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the public's experience, expectations, and perceptions related to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). METHODS: A population-based telephone interview of adults in the United States was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of 112 items. Demographic variables including age, race, political beliefs, and household income were collected. Data collection was performed by trained interviewers from Kent State University's (Kent, Ohio USA)Social Research Laboratory...
November 25, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874189/incapacity-of-the-mind-secondary-to-medication-misuse-as-a-not-criminally-responsible-defense
#2
Sebastien S Prat, Bruno J Losier, Heather M Moulden, Gary A Chaimowitz
The manifestations of disorders of the mind may play a role in the occurrence of criminal behavior. In the majority of the cases, the presence of a psychiatric disorder is cited as the reason that an individual was not fully aware of his behavior. However, other conditions, such as seizure disorders or hypoglycemia, have also been linked to an inability to understand the nature and consequences of one's actions. On occasion, these situations can be explained by a state of automatism that may be described as insane or noninsane...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869902/-on-the-unpredictability-of-suicide
#3
Massimo Biondi, Angela Iannitelli, Stefano Ferracuti
Suicide has become one of the main reasons of professional liability proceedings for psychiatrists. It is a widespread belief that suicide is a systematic expression of mental illness and that, as for many diseases is preventable by appropriate means. There is a lack of research data that can enable the identification of clinically useful variables to identify suicide risk, even in people who have already made a suicide attempt. Unfortunately, these convictions have led and lead to judgments of professional responsibility for psychiatrists that are not based on scientific data, but on social needs related to feelings of frustration and helplessness that develop after a suicide and by the urge to compensate in some way the family of suicide victim...
September 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858133/female-genital-mutilation-the-role-of-medical-professional-organizations
#4
Tony Bazi
Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM...
November 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854522/evidence-and-health-policy-using-and-regulating-systematic-reviews
#5
Daniel M Fox
Systematic reviews have, increasingly, informed policy for almost 3 decades. In many countries, systematic reviews have informed policy for public and population health, paying for health care, increasing the quality and efficiency of interventions, and improving the effectiveness of health sector professionals and the organizations in which they work. Systematic reviews also inform other policy areas: criminal justice, education, social welfare, and the regulation of toxins in the environment. Although the production and use of systematic reviews has steadily increased, many clinicians, public health officials, representatives of commercial organizations, and, consequently, policymakers who are responsive to them, have been reluctant to use these reviews to inform policy; others have actively opposed using them...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810658/international-approaches-to-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis-a-review-of-evidence-on-impact
#6
REVIEW
Tara Marie Watson, Robert E Mann
BACKGROUND: There are knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of different approaches designed to prevent and deter driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). Policymakers are increasingly interested in evidence-based responses to DUIC as numerous jurisdictions worldwide have legally regulated cannabis or are debating such regulation. We contribute a comprehensive review of international literature on countermeasures that address DUIC, and identify where and how such measures have been evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#7
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774235/what-does-recent-neuroscience-tell-us-about-criminal-responsibility
#8
Uri Maoz, Gideon Yaffe
A defendant is criminally responsible for his action only if he is shown to have engaged in a guilty act-actus reus (eg for larceny, voluntarily taking someone else's property without permission)-while possessing a guilty mind-mens rea (eg knowing that he had taken someone else's property without permission, intending not to return it)-and lacking affirmative defenses (eg the insanity defense or self-defense). We therefore first review neuroscientific studies that bear on the nature of voluntary action, and so could, potentially, tell us something of importance about the actus reus of crimes...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774213/neuroscientific-and-behavioral-genetic-information-in-criminal-cases-in-the-netherlands
#9
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774212/the-use-of-neuroscientific-evidence-in-canadian-criminal-proceedings
#10
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764959/-love-and-trust-you-can-be-blinded-hiv-risk-within-relationships-among-latina-women-in-miami-florida
#11
Gladys E Ibañez, Elaine Whitt, Tenesha Avent, Steve S Martin, Leah M Varga, Miguel A Cano, Daniel J O'Connell
OBJECTIVES: Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. DESIGN: Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753117/the-view-from-inside-the-system-how-police-explain-their-response-to-sexual-assault
#12
Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727430/withdrawn-day-care-for-pre-school-children
#13
REVIEW
Bozhena Zoritch, Ian Roberts, Ann Oakley
BACKGROUND: The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720501/putting-negative-attitudes-on-the-agenda-not-criminally-responsible-reform-act-publicity-and-juror-decision-making
#14
Evelyn M Maeder, Susan Yamamoto, Lesley Zannella
The current study examined the effect of publicity about Canada's recent Not Criminally Responsible (NCR) Reform Act - legislation surrounding accused in insanity cases that purportedly aims to enhance public safety - on juror decision-making. In line with agenda-setting theory, we expected that NCR Reform Act publicity might reinforce certain fears about the insanity defence, dependent on whether it had either a positive or negative evaluative slant. Contrary to previous work on the insanity defence, participants in this study generally favoured a NCR verdict...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681005/preventing-posttraumatic-stress-related-to-sexual-assault-through-early-intervention-a-systematic-review
#15
Emily R Dworkin, Julie A Schumacher
Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS), early contact with formal systems (e.g., health care, criminal justice, social services) and informal responders (e.g., friends, family) might be particularly important in preventing PTS. However, the effectiveness of these early interventions is unclear...
September 28, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662886/heightened-early-attentional-stimulus-orienting-and-impulsive-action-in-men-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#16
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641737/multiple-unexplained-fractures-in-infants-and-child-physical-abuse
#17
John Jacob Cannell, Michael F Holick
When an infant presents with X-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing (MUFVSH), the child is usually diagnosed with child abuse based on criteria of the Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAPCCAAN). Almost always, the infant is subsequently removed from the home and civil or criminal proceeding commence. It may be that healing infantile rickets or other poorly understood metabolic bone disorders of infancy are responsible for these x-rays. Activated vitamin D is a seco-steroid hormone, whose mechanism of action is genetic regulation...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634721/naturalizing-responsibility
#18
Silvia Zullo
In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634538/child-abuse-and-neglect-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Pietro Ferrara, Chiara Guadagno, Annamaria Sbordone, Maria Amato, Giulia Spina, Giacomo Perrone, Maria Cristin Basile, Francesca Ianniello, Giovanna Carmela Fabrizio, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello
Child maltreatment is a complex life experience happening when a parent or caregiver does an intentional or potential damage to a child, including acts of commission and omission. Child abuse is not an uncommon event, but it is not always recognized. Identifying the real number of maltreated children is a challenge because of the large variability in reported prevalence data across studies. Unfortunately, in the United States, it affects 1 in 8 children, by the age of 18 years, annually. Paediatricians may encounter a variety of forms of maltreatment such as neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse...
September 14, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630221/in-her-own-words-women-describe-their-use-of-force-resulting-in-court-ordered-intervention
#20
Lisa Young Larance, Susan L Miller
Although researchers and practitioners have established that men and women use force in their intimate heterosexual relationships for very different reasons, there is a dearth of information regarding the events surrounds women's arrests and subsequent court orders to anti-violence intervention programming. This information is fundamental to improving Criminal Legal System (CLS) and community-partner understanding of and response to intimate partner violence (IPV). The authors meet this need by analyzing 208 women's descriptions of their arrests and subsequent court order to intervention programs for using force...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
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