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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332531/supporting-rape-survivors-through-the-criminal-injuries-compensation-scheme-an-exploration-of-english-and-welsh-independent-sexual-violence-advisors-experiences
#1
Olivia Smith, Jessica Galey
English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332431/validation-of-the-ceredigion-youth-screening-tool
#2
Gareth Norris, Gwyn Griffith, Megan West
Evidence suggests that only a small minority of youth offenders will continue their behaviour in the longer term and largely independent of any interventions they may receive (Bateman, 2011; Haines & Case, 2015). Hence, "screening out" this larger low-risk cohort could have a positive impact upon the individual through a reduction in stigmatisation/labelling and free up resources for higher risk clients. This article outlines development of the Ceredigion Youth Screening Tool (CYSTEM)-developed and tested to address the two facets of criminality and vulnerability-closely aligned to the eight key risk indicators identified in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (R-N-R) literature (Andrews & Bonta, 2010)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331098/blunted-cortisol-reactivity-and-risky-driving-in-young-offenders-a-pilot-study
#3
Sophie Couture, Marie Claude Ouimet, Katarina Dedovic, Catherine Laurier, Pierrich Plusquellec, Thomas G Brown
Adolescent risky driving is a significant burden on public health. Young offenders (i.e. under custody and supervision of the criminal justice system) may be particularly vulnerable, but research is scant. Previous work indicated that blunted cortisol reactivity to stress is a marker of risk-taking predisposition, including risky driving. In this study, we hypothesized that young offenders display higher levels of risky driving than a non-offender comparison group, and that cortisol reactivity contributes to the variance in risky driving independent of other associated characteristics (i...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324826/facial-responsiveness-of-psychopaths-to-the-emotional-expressions-of-others
#4
Janina Künecke, Andreas Mokros, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294992/women-s-experiences-of-social-reactions-from-informal-and-formal-supports-using-a-modified-administration-of-the-social-reactions-questionnaire
#5
Anne P DePrince, Julia Dmitrieva, Kerry L Gagnon, Tejaswinhi Srinivas
A growing literature links social reactions to disclosures of intimate violence to posttraumatic outcomes. The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ), a widely used measure developed to assess social reactions, asks about reactions received from people generally. The ability to examine the impact of social reactions from specific groups of people-such as criminal justice personnel versus community-based providers-has become increasingly more important from both research and practice perspectives. For example, as sexual assault responses nationally have relied on community-coordinated models that involve both criminal justice and community-based systems, tools are lacking to systematically assess the impact of social reactions from criminal justice personnel and community-based providers on survivors...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294939/multidisciplinary-responses-to-the-sexual-victimization-of-children-use-of-control-phone-calls
#6
J William Canavan, Christine Borowski, Stacy Essex, Stefan Perkowski
This descriptive study addresses the question of the value of one-party consent phone calls regarding the sexual victimization of children. The authors reviewed 4 years of experience with children between the ages of 3 and 18 years selected for the control phone calls after a forensic interview by the New York State Police forensic interviewer. The forensic interviewer identified appropriate cases for control phone calls considering New York State law, the child's capacity to make the call, the presence of another person to make the call and a supportive residence...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294891/lawyers-question-repetition-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#7
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the effects of repeated questions ( n = 7,968) on fifty-six 5- to 17-year-olds' testimony in child sexual abuse cases in Scottish criminal courts. We examined transcripts of direct- and cross-examinations, categorizing how lawyers asked repeated questions in court and how children responded. Defense lawyers repeated more questions (39.6% of all questions asked) than prosecutors (30.6%) and repeated questions using more suggestive prompts (52% of their repeated questions) than prosecutors (18%) did...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294790/the-gay-panic-defense-legal-defense-strategy-or-reinforcement-of-homophobia-in-court
#8
Jenna Tomei, Robert J Cramer, Marcus T Boccaccini, Nancy Ryba Panza
Gay panic refers to a heterosexual man violently responding to unwanted sexual advances from a gay man. In court, the defendant may argue he was provoked or temporarily insane. This study utilized 352 jury-eligible citizens to assess differences across mediums of gay panic. Participants were asked to read vignettes depicting a control, gay panic as provocation, or gay panic as insanity condition and provide verdicts and ratings of blame and responsibility. Participants also completed measures assessing political orientation and homonegativity...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294660/gender-differences-in-complex-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-outcomes-in-incarcerated-adults
#9
Paulette Giarratano, Julian D Ford, Thomas H Nochajski
Complex trauma (CT; for example, childhood abuse) has been associated with significant behavioral health problems (i.e., mental health and substance use disorders) and symptoms that are consistent with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). CT is prevalent in adult forensic populations, and particularly important for women as they tend to report more adverse consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors and are entering the criminal justice system at a heightened rate compared with men. However, no studies have empirically tested the relationship among CT, C-PTSD, and behavioral health problems with gender among incarcerated adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284802/being-a-forensic-psychiatrist-in-india-responsibilities-difficulties-and-criticalities
#10
REVIEW
B C Malathesh, Soumitra Das
Forensic psychiatry is in its infancy in India. There is a clear module or a well-structured training in the country except for recently opened few courses. Lack of trainer in the field might lead to compromised state when one has to take decision between the well-being of a person versus society. Starting from social contexts, such as marriage and mental illness, to the interpretation of criminal mind, there is a multitude of situations where forensic psychiatrist has a handful of jobs which suffer due to lack of infrastructure...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#11
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282238/behavioral-addictions-and-criminal-responsibility
#12
Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the legally relevant phenomenology and cognitive features of behavioral addictions. We then discuss how the legal system has approached two behavioral addictions, gambling disorder and kleptomania, during criminal trials and at sentencing...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279896/association-of-childhood-blood-lead-levels-with-criminal-offending
#13
Amber L Beckley, Avshalom Caspi, Jonathan Broadbent, Honalee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Aaron Reuben, Terrie E Moffitt
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273560/transnational-social-movement-theory-and-the-waning-war-on-drugs-case-studies-from-ungass-2016
#14
Ben Mostyn, Helen Gibbon
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs 1988 ("1988 Convention") expresses a strong normative preference for criminalising drug possession. Historically, the United Nations offices responsible for overseeing the treaties have held that decriminalisation of drug possession is contrary to the treaties. Leading up to and during UNGASS 2016, however, rather than emphasise criminalisation, the high-ranking officials from the drug control offices emphasised the treaties' allowance of alternatives to punishment for drug possession offences...
December 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237354/the-views-of-the-public-on-youth-offenders-and-the-new-zealand-criminal-justice-system
#15
Craig Barretto, Sarah Miers, Ian Lambie
Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice...
January 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237306/spiritual-criminology-the-case-of-jewish-criminology
#16
Natti Ronel, Y Ben Yair
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230987/-comparison-of-criminal-characteristics-in-depression-patients-and-schizophrenics-with-homicide-behavior
#17
J Wang, P X Fu, Y L Gao, M X Zhu, T T Shi
OBJECTIVES: To explore the criminal characteristics of forensic psychiatry expertise in depression patients and schizophrenics with homicide behavior. METHODS: A total of 40 depression (depressive episode) patients and 50 schizophrenics with homicide behavior were randomly assigned into the study group and control group, respectively. Data of demographic and criminal characteristic of the two groups were collected by a self-designed questionnaire, and then were compared...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213302/a-comprehensive-review-of-hiv-sti-prevention-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-among-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-settings-call-for-an-evidence-and-rights-based-approach-in-the-humanitarian-response
#18
REVIEW
Alyssa Ferguson, Kate Shannon, Jennifer Butler, Shira M Goldenberg
Background: While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199926/-from-defensive-paranoia-to%C3%A2-%C3%A2-openness-to-outside-scrutiny-prison-medical-officers-in-england-and-wales-1979-86
#19
Nicholas Duvall
This article examines how a branch of medicine based within the criminal justice system responded to a society which by the 1970s and 1980s was increasingly critical of the prison system and medical authority. The Prison Medical Service, responsible for the health care of prisoners in England and Wales, was criticised by prison campaigners and doctors alike for being unethical, isolated, secretive, and beholden to the interests of the Home Office rather than those of their patients. While prison doctors responded defensively to criticisms in the 1970s and 1980s, comparing their own standards of practice favourably with those found in the NHS, and arguing that doctors from outside would struggle to cope in the prison environment, by 1985 their attitudes had changed...
January 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172557/expanding-the-early-and-late-starter-model-of-criminal-justice-involvement-for-forensic-mental-health-clients
#20
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
November 27, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
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