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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332197/music-making-for-health-and-wellbeing-in-youth-justice-settings-mediated-affordances-and-the-impact-of-context-and-social-relations
#1
Norma Daykin, Nick de Viggiani, Yvonne Moriarty, Paul Pilkington
Young people in the criminal justice system experience significant health and wellbeing issues that often stem from poverty and disadvantage and, in turn, are linked with offending and reoffending behaviour. There is ongoing interest in interventions such as participatory music programmes that seek to foster social reintegration, support mental wellbeing and equip young offenders with life skills, competencies and emotional resilience. However, there is a need for a situated understanding of both positive and negative experiences that shape potential outcomes of music projects...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331051/the-ethics-of-and-the-appropriate-legislation-concerning-killing-people-and-letting-them-die-a-response-to-merkel
#2
Hugh V McLachlan
With regard to ethics and legislation, what is the significant difference between a doctor terminating the life-supporting treatment of a patient in the course of his job and a greedy relative of the patient doing the same thing to inherit his wealth? Merkel offers an interesting and inventive answer to this question in terms of the improper violation of personal boundaries. However, despite Merkel's claim to the contrary, his answer does not directly address the question of the relevant ethical similarities and differences between killing and letting die in general...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270462/controversies-concerning-the-canadian-not-criminally-responsible-reform-act
#3
Robert Lacroix, Roy O'Shaughnessy, Dale E McNiel, Renée L Binder
In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262981/-it-happens-to-girls-all-the-time-examining-sexual-assault-survivors-reasons-for-not-using-campus-supports
#4
Kathryn J Holland, Lilia M Cortina
Sexual assault is a prevalent problem in higher education, and despite the increasing availability of formal supports on college campuses, few sexual assault survivors use them. Experiencing sexual assault can have devastating consequences on survivors' psychological and educational wellbeing, which may intensify if survivors do not receive adequate care. Drawing from existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research, this study used a mixed methodological approach to examine why survivors did not use three key campus supports-the Title IX Office, the sexual assault center, and housing staff-and if these reasons differed across the three supports...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250553/barriers-and-challenges-in-seeking-psychiatric-intervention-in-a-general-hospital-by-the-collaborative-child-response-unit-a-multidisciplinary-team-approach-to-handling-child-abuse-a-qualitative-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Vyjayanthi Kanugodu Srinivasa Subramaniyan, Anukant Mital, Chandrika Rao, Girish Chandra
Child abuse is a serious criminal act against children in our country and punishable according to protection of children from sexual offenses act 2012. No one agency has the ability to respond completely to the abuse. Hence a multidisciplinary team approach was developed in India. Aim is to narrate the collaborative effort among the multiple disciplines in a general hospital to deliver child protection services and explore the barriers to integrate psychiatric services. METHODOLOGY: Members of the team were recruited from different disciplines and trained by experts...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242031/is-the-french-criminal-psychiatric-assessment-in-crisis
#6
J Guivarch, M-D Piercecchi-Marti, D Glezer, V Murdymootoo, J-M Chabannes, F Poinso
The criminal psychiatric assessment in France seems to be facing growing criticism related to disagreements between experts and, on the other hand, a lack of interest of psychiatrists for the assessment. We start by explaining the current framework of the criminal psychiatric assessment in France, which differs from the assessment used in English-speaking countries, where Roman law applies. Then, we will describe the disagreements through a literature review and two clinical vignettes. Finally, we will try to understand the causes of discrepancies between experts and the reasons for a supposed lack of interest of the psychiatrists for the expertise...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225844/-diminished-culpability
#7
Luis Ohman, Adrián P Fantini
One of the central matters in forensic psychiatry is its culpability. Day after day we, the mental health professionals, are subpoenaed in different courts of our country to assess the mental state of a given individual in order to endorse a judge so that he can issue their view pertaining the culpability and the responsibility of accused subjects. Our current National Criminal Code, dating from 1921, in Art. 34 sub 1 holds for culpability a dichotomous model in which an individual is responsible and must be accountable for his behavior or not responsible and in such case must no be held accountable in criminal courts...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189101/the-structural-linguistic-complexity-of-lawyers-questions-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#8
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
In the first study to systematically assess the structural linguistic complexity of lawyers' questions of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5- to 17-year-old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Complexity was assessed using 8 quantitative measures of each utterance's components (number of questions, phrases, clauses, sentences, false starts, average word count, word length, and sentence length) and a composite measure was used in the analyses. Lawyers did not alter the complexity of questions when prompting children of different ages...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#9
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170052/illicit-drug-policy-in-spain-the-opinion-of-health-and-legal-professionals
#10
Paola Rossi, Ester Blay, Víctor Costela, Marta Torrens
The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143944/neutralising-fair-credit-factors-that-influence-unethical-authorship-practices
#11
Brad S Trinkle, Trisha Phillips, Alicia Hall, Barton Moffatt
This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139329/alternate-policing-strategies-cost-effectiveness-of-cautioning-for-cannabis-offences
#12
Marian Shanahan, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Tim McSweeney, Beth Ann Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is increasing international interest in alternatives to the use of arrest for minor drug offences. While Australia has been at the forefront in the provision of diversionary programs for minor drug offences there remain key gaps in knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of different approaches. Here we set out to assess the cost-effectiveness of cannabis cautioning schemes whereby police refer minor cannabis use and possession offenders to education and/or treatment instead of arresting and charging them...
January 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134427/preliminary-estimates-of-the-economic-implications-of-addiction-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#13
C M Doran
This study aimed to provide preliminary estimates of the economic implications of addiction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Local and international data sources were used to derive estimates of substancerelated healthcare costs, lost productivity and criminal behaviour. From an estimated population of 8.26 million: ~1.47 million used tobacco (20.5% of adults); 380 085 used cannabis (> 5%); 14 077 used alcohol in a harmful manner (0.2%); and 1408 used opiates (0.02%). The cost of addiction was estimated at US$ 5...
January 23, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129583/blind-source-computer-device-identification-from-recorded-voip-calls-for-forensic-investigation
#14
Mehdi Jahanirad, Nor Badrul Anuar, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab
The VoIP services provide fertile ground for criminal activity, thus identifying the transmitting computer devices from recorded VoIP call may help the forensic investigator to reveal useful information. It also proves the authenticity of the call recording submitted to the court as evidence. This paper extended the previous study on the use of recorded VoIP call for blind source computer device identification. Although initial results were promising but theoretical reasoning for this is yet to be found. The study suggested computing entropy of mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (entropy-MFCC) from near-silent segments as an intrinsic feature set that captures the device response function due to the tolerances in the electronic components of individual computer devices...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109653/an-examination-of-outlaw-motorcycle-gangs-and-their-involvement-in-the-illicit-drug-market-and-the-effectiveness-of-anti-association-legislative-responses
#15
Terry Goldsworthy, Laura McGillivray
BACKGROUND: In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes...
January 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104041/what-is-the-role-of-health-systems-in-responding-to-domestic-violence-an-evidence-review
#16
Jo Spangaro
Objective The aim of the present study was to review and analyse academic literature and program evaluations to identify promising evidence for health system responses to domestic violence in Australia and internationally.Methods English-language literature published between January 2005 and March 2016 was retrieved from search results using the terms 'domestic violence' or 'intimate partner violence' in different combinations with other relevant terms, resulting in 1671 documents, of which 59 were systematic reviews...
January 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#17
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029496/accuracy-of-the-estimation-of-dental-age-in-comparison-with-chronological-age-in-a-spanish-sample-of-2641-living-subjects-using-the-demirjian-and-nolla-methods
#18
María Melo, Javier Ata-Ali
Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#19
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018258/through-the-looking-glass-the-role-of-ethnicity-and-affiliation-in-responses-to-terrorism-in-the-media
#20
Anat Shoshani, Michelle Slone
This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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