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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189101/the-structural-linguistic-complexity-of-lawyers-questions-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#1
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
In the first study to systematically assess the structural linguistic complexity of lawyers' questions of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5- to 17-year-old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Complexity was assessed using 8 quantitative measures of each utterance's components (number of questions, phrases, clauses, sentences, false starts, average word count, word length, and sentence length) and a composite measure was used in the analyses. Lawyers did not alter the complexity of questions when prompting children of different ages...
February 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#2
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170052/illicit-drug-policy-in-spain-the-opinion-of-health-and-legal-professionals
#3
Paola Rossi, Ester Blay, Víctor Costela, Marta Torrens
The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143944/neutralising-fair-credit-factors-that-influence-unethical-authorship-practices
#4
Brad S Trinkle, Trisha Phillips, Alicia Hall, Barton Moffatt
This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139329/alternate-policing-strategies-cost-effectiveness-of-cautioning-for-cannabis-offences
#5
Marian Shanahan, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Tim McSweeney, Beth Ann Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is increasing international interest in alternatives to the use of arrest for minor drug offences. While Australia has been at the forefront in the provision of diversionary programs for minor drug offences there remain key gaps in knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of different approaches. Here we set out to assess the cost-effectiveness of cannabis cautioning schemes whereby police refer minor cannabis use and possession offenders to education and/or treatment instead of arresting and charging them...
January 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134427/preliminary-estimates-of-the-economic-implications-of-addiction-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#6
C M Doran
This study aimed to provide preliminary estimates of the economic implications of addiction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Local and international data sources were used to derive estimates of substancerelated healthcare costs, lost productivity and criminal behaviour. From an estimated population of 8.26 million: ~1.47 million used tobacco (20.5% of adults); 380 085 used cannabis (> 5%); 14 077 used alcohol in a harmful manner (0.2%); and 1408 used opiates (0.02%). The cost of addiction was estimated at US$ 5...
January 23, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129583/blind-source-computer-device-identification-from-recorded-voip-calls-for-forensic-investigation
#7
Mehdi Jahanirad, Nor Badrul Anuar, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab
The VoIP services provide fertile ground for criminal activity, thus identifying the transmitting computer devices from recorded VoIP call may help the forensic investigator to reveal useful information. It also proves the authenticity of the call recording submitted to the court as evidence. This paper extended the previous study on the use of recorded VoIP call for blind source computer device identification. Although initial results were promising but theoretical reasoning for this is yet to be found. The study suggested computing entropy of mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (entropy-MFCC) from near-silent segments as an intrinsic feature set that captures the device response function due to the tolerances in the electronic components of individual computer devices...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109653/an-examination-of-outlaw-motorcycle-gangs-and-their-involvement-in-the-illicit-drug-market-and-the-effectiveness-of-anti-association-legislative-responses
#8
Terry Goldsworthy, Laura McGillivray
BACKGROUND: In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes...
January 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104041/what-is-the-role-of-health-systems-in-responding-to-domestic-violence-an-evidence-review
#9
Jo Spangaro
Objective The aim of the present study was to review and analyse academic literature and program evaluations to identify promising evidence for health system responses to domestic violence in Australia and internationally.Methods English-language literature published between January 2005 and March 2016 was retrieved from search results using the terms 'domestic violence' or 'intimate partner violence' in different combinations with other relevant terms, resulting in 1671 documents, of which 59 were systematic reviews...
January 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#10
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029496/accuracy-of-the-estimation-of-dental-age-in-comparison-with-chronological-age-in-a-spanish-sample-of-2641-living-subjects-using-the-demirjian-and-nolla-methods
#11
María Melo, Javier Ata-Ali
Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#12
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018258/through-the-looking-glass-the-role-of-ethnicity-and-affiliation-in-responses-to-terrorism-in-the-media
#13
Anat Shoshani, Michelle Slone
This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992626/sex-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-positive-outcomes-in-delinquent-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Karen M Abram, Nicole M Azores-Gococo, Kristin M Emanuel, David A Aaby, Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Melinda S Rosenbaum, Linda A Teplin
Importance: Longitudinal studies of delinquent youth have focused on criminal recidivism, not on psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. This omission is critical because after detention most youth return to the community, where they become the responsibility of pediatric health care professionals. Objective: To investigate 8 positive outcomes among delinquent youth 5 and 12 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal US study of long-term outcomes of delinquent youth after detention, participants were interviewed in detention between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and reinterviewed up to 9 times during the 12-year study period, through May 12, 2011...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989568/child-abuse-and-neglect-profiles-and-their-psychosocial-consequences-in-a-large-sample-of-incarcerated-males
#15
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek
Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age)...
December 15, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977225/the-role-of-mental-health-and-specific-responsivity-in-juvenile-justice-rehabilitation
#16
Sarah McCormick, Michele Peterson-Badali, Tracey A Skilling
Understanding the role that mental health issues play in justice-involved youth poses challenges for research, policy, and practice. While mental health problems are generally not risk factors for criminal behavior according to the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) framework of correctional psychology practice, prevalence rates are very high and RNR principles suggest that mental health as a responsivity variable may moderate the success of interventions targeted to criminogenic needs. In this study we investigated the relationships among mental health status, criminogenic needs treatment, and recidivism in a sample of 232 youth referred for court-ordered assessments and followed through their community supervision sentence (probation)...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969086/homicide-and-mental-disorder-in-a-region-with-a-high-homicide-rate
#17
Andrei Golenkov, Matthew Large, Olav Nielssen, Alla Tsymbalova
There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934565/conscientious-objection-and-effective-referral
#18
Roger Trigg
Complicity in an immoral, and even criminal, activity, such as robbery or murder, is itself regarded as involving responsibility for those acts. What should the position be of health professionals who are expected to participate in actions that they believe are morally wrong? Professional responsibilities may clash with private conscience. Even referring a patient to someone else, when what is in question may be assisted suicide, or euthanasia, seems to involve some complicity. This is a live issue in Canada, but similar dilemmas occur elsewhere...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925131/-social-and-ethical-criteria-for-prioritizing-patients-a-survey-of-students-and-health-professionals-in-portugal
#19
Micaela Moreira Pinho
This qualitative/quantitative study examines the ethical dilemma of microallocation of health resources. It seeks to identify and compare the opinion of two groups in Portuguese society - students and health professionals - on the importance of personal characteristics of patients at the moment of prioritizing them and if the choices can be explained by bioethical references of a utilitarian or deontological nature. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to a sample of 180 students and 60 health professionals...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884215/public-perception-of-emergency-medical-services-in-the-united-states
#20
Remle P Crowe, Roger Levine, Severo Rodriguez, Ashley D Larrimore, Ronald G Pirrallo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the public's experience, expectations, and perceptions related to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). METHODS: A population-based telephone interview of adults in the United States was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of 112 items. Demographic variables including age, race, political beliefs, and household income were collected. Data collection was performed by trained interviewers from Kent State University's (Kent, Ohio USA)Social Research Laboratory...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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