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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738913/cumulative-exposure-to-childhood-adversity-and-treated-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-cohort-study-of-543-650-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-sweden
#1
E Björkenstam, C Björkenstam, B Jablonska, K Kosidou
BACKGROUND: Though childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of cumulative CAs and whether there are clusters of CAs that are more closely related with ADHD. METHODS: We used a Swedish cohort of 543 650 individuals born 1987-1991. Register-based CAs included familial death, substantial parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation, household public assistance recipiency, and residential instability...
July 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737057/commercial-transactions-in-children-the-case-of-ghana
#2
Mensah Adinkrah
The current article represents an examination of commercial transactions involving the sale of children in contemporary Ghana. It presents the results of a criminological analysis of 20 cases of commercial transactions in children in Ghana. It describes the sociodemographic characteristics of offenders and victims, victim-offender relationships, offender motivations, public reactions to the phenomenon, as well as the criminal justice system's responses to the crime. The data were extracted from Ghanaian print and electronic presses...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#3
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704148/-i-was-not-sick-and-i-didn-t-need-to-recover-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-as-a-refuge-from-criminalization
#4
David Frank
BACKGROUND: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences, or meet the needs of people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom who use the program as a pragmatic means of reducing harms associated with criminalization...
July 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697909/women-and-the-opioid-crisis-historical-context-and-public-health-solutions
#5
REVIEW
Mishka Terplan
Driven by a legitimate but overly opioid-focused response to pain, the United States is currently experiencing an opioid crisis, a crisis with parallels to the first opioid epidemic at the turn of the 20th century. Women, particularly white reproductive-age women, are increasingly the face of the opioid crisis. Given the penetration of opioid misuse and addiction across all income and insurance strata, any provider who cares for women needs to be prepared to assess and evaluate opioid use, misuse, and addiction...
July 8, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697626/newspaper-articles-related-to-the-not-criminally-responsible-on-account-of-mental-disorder-ncrmd-designation-a-comparative-analysis
#6
Rob Whitley, JiaWei Wang, Victoria Carmichael, Ruth Wellen
OBJECTIVE: The not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) designation remains widely misunderstood by the public. Such misunderstandings may also be reflected in the media. As such, the aim of this study is to conduct a preliminary examination of the tone and content of recent Canadian newspaper articles where NCRMD is a major theme, comparing these to generic articles about mental illness. METHODS: Articles about mental illness were gathered from major Canadian newspapers...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694090/milnacipran-affects-mouse-impulsive-aggressive-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-distinct-dose-dependent-manner
#7
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used for the treatment for major depressive disorder, but these drugs induce several side effects including increased aggression and impulsivity, which are risk factors for substance abuse, criminal involvement, and suicide. To address this issue, milnacipran (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), an SNRI and antidepressant, was intraperitoneally administered to mice prior to the 3-choice serial reaction time task, resident-intruder test, and forced swimming test to measure impulsive, aggressive, and depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#8
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686545/the-concurrent-validity-of-the-problem-oriented-screening-instrument-for-teenagers-posit-substance-use-abuse-subscale-in-adolescent-patients-in-an-urban-federally-qualified-health-center
#9
Sharon M Kelly, Kevin E O'Grady, Jan Gryczynski, Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Arethusa Kirk, Robert P Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT)'s substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 Substance Use Disorder diagnoses...
July 7, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682096/social-networks-and-treatment-adherence-among-latino-offenders-with-mental-illness
#10
Jennifer Eno Louden, Sarah M Manchak
Mental health treatment adherence is often required for offenders with mental illness supervised on probation and parole. However, research on offenders with mental illness has largely overlooked cultural and ethnic responsivity factors that may affect adherence to treatment. Latinos are a quickly growing subgroup of offenders whose social networks differ in meaningful ways from European Americans' (e.g., size, composition, centrality of family). Social networks are known to relate to both clinical and criminal justice outcomes for offenders with mental illness, and there are features of nonoffender Latinos' social networks that suggest that findings distilled from work with non-Latino offenders may not apply to them...
July 6, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661308/homelessness-and-the-public-s-health-legal-responses
#11
James G Hodge, Barbara DiPietro, Amy E Horton-Newell
This commentary addresses public health issues underlying homelessness and related law, policy, and advocacy options. After framing public health issues for affected individuals and the community, legal and policy approaches and related barriers are assessed. Major topics include deficits in housing availability, the role of state-based Medicaid programs, criminalization of homelessness, and the use of emergency declarations seeking to address particular issues related to homelessness in select states and localities...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661292/action-not-rhetoric-needed-to-reverse-the-opioid-overdose-epidemic
#12
Corey Davis, Traci Green, Leo Beletsky
Despite shifts in rhetoric and some positive movement, Americans with the disease of addiction are still often stigmatized, criminalized, and denied access to evidencebased care. Dramatically reducing the number of lives unnecessarily lost to overdose requires an evidence-based, equity-focused, well-funded, and coordinated response. We present in this brief article evidence-based and promising practices for improving and refocusing the response to this simmering public health crisis. Topics covered include improving clinical decision-making, improving access to non-judgmental evidence-based treatment, investing in comprehensive public health approaches to problematic drug use, and changing the way law enforcement actors interact with people who use drugs...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656945/-forensic-medical-expertise-in-the-cases-of-neglect-of-the-exigencies-of-the-juveniles
#13
A V Kovalev, Yu V Kemeneva
The objective of the present study was the development of the method and the criteria to be used for forensic medical diagnostics of the constituent elements of neglect of the exigencies (abandonment) of the juveniles. The work was focused on the consideration of the performance of expert examination of one of the most widespread forms of the child abuse, such as neglect of the exigencies of the juveniles. We undertook the analysis of the causes underlying the emergence of the difficulties that tend to hamper the conduction of expert examination of the cases of neglect of the exigencies of the juveniles with special reference to the judicial qualification of such wrongdoings...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649215/does-watching-a-play-about-the-teenage-brain-affect-attitudes-toward-young-offenders
#14
Robert Blakey
Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634678/the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-evaluation-of-three-methods-in-pelvis-x-rays
#15
Viola Bartolini, Vilma Pinchi, Barbara Gualco, Stefano Vanin, Giusto Chiaracane, Giovanni D'Elia, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Martina Focardi
Age assessment in children and young adults is a relevant forensic issue. It is requested not only in evaluating criminal responsibility in youths without proper identification documents, often in relation to age thresholds, but also for release of a residency permit, and asylum seekers of minors. The analysis of the Risser sign and the iliac crest ossification process has been proposed as a useful tool for forensic age estimation. We evaluated the applicability of three different age estimation methods on a sample of 497 pelvic radiographs of Italian individuals between 10 and 25 years of age...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630559/drug-policy-and-indigenous-peoples
#16
Julian Burger, Mary Kapron
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630556/how-drug-control-policy-and-practice-undermine-access-to-controlled-medicines
#17
Naomi Burke-Shyne, Joanne Csete, Duncan Wilson, Edward Fox, Daniel Wolfe, Jennifer J K Rasanathan
Drug conventions serve as the cornerstone for domestic drug laws and impose a dual obligation upon states to prevent the misuse of controlled substances while ensuring their adequate availability for medical and scientific purposes. Despite the mandate that these obligations be enforced equally, the dominant paradigm enshrined in the drug conventions is an enforcement-heavy criminal justice response to controlled substances that prohibits and penalizes their misuse. Prioritizing restrictive control is to the detriment of ensuring adequate availability of and access to controlled medicines, thereby violating the rights of people who need them...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630552/decriminalization-and-women-s-access-to-abortion-in-australia
#18
Barbara Baird
This article considers the relationship between the decriminalization of abortion and women's access to abortion services. It focuses on the four Australian jurisdictions which are, with Canada, the only jurisdictions in the world where abortion has been removed from the criminal law. This paper draws on documentary evidence and an oral history project to give a "before and after" account of each jurisdiction. The paper assumes that the meaning and impact of decriminalization must be assessed in each local context...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619854/dissociation-defining-the-concept-in-criminal-forensic-psychiatry
#19
Dominique Bourget, Pierre Gagné, Stephen Floyd Wood
Claims of amnesia and dissociative experiences in association with a violent crime are not uncommon. Research has shown that dissociation is a risk factor for violence and is seen most often in crimes of extreme violence. The subject matter is most relevant to forensic psychiatry. Peritraumatic dissociation for instance, with or without a history of dissociative disorder, is quite frequently reported by offenders presenting for a forensic psychiatric examination. Dissociation or dissociative amnesia for serious offenses can have legal repercussions stemming from their relevance to the legal constructs of fitness to stand trial, criminal responsibility, and diminished capacity...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612900/italian-law-on-the-vehicular-homicide-medical-legal-issues-and-comparative-analysis
#20
G Montanari Vergallo, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, V Masotti, R Cecchi, S Zaami
Law no. 41/2016, enacted after a parliamentary debate characterized by a strong media pressure, intends to give a strong response to the growing social alarm caused by road accidents causing deaths. In this perspective, it introduced the categories of road homicide and road injuries within the Penal Code and the new hypotheses of mandatory and facultative arrest in flagrante delicto. This paper aims at comparing the rules by which the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany and Italy protect people's lives and safety of vehicular traffic in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses with a view to future reforms...
May 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
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