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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143322/certifying-death-in-the-united-states
#1
Leah Ruiz, Brianne M Posey, Melanie-Angela Neuilly, Mary K Stohr, Craig Hemmens
Accurately identifying death and its causes is integral to the compilation of mortality data and ultimately to the operation of the criminal justice and public health systems. A clear understanding of who is in charge of such processes is paramount to establishing the quality, or lack thereof, of the information provided in death certificates. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of all state statutes identifying death investigators charged with classifying and certifying death in the United States. We found that state statutes designate a broad range of individuals as responsible for the classification and certification of death...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118206/social-origins-of-developmental-risk-for-mental-and-physical-illness
#2
Judy L Cameron, Kathie L Eagleson, Nathan A Fox, Takao K Hensch, Pat Levitt
Adversity in early childhood exerts an enduring impact on mental and physical health, academic achievement, lifetime productivity, and the probability of interfacing with the criminal justice system. More science is needed to understand how the brain is affected by early life stress (ELS), which produces excessive activation of stress response systems broadly throughout the child's body (toxic stress). Our research examines the importance of sex, timing and type of stress exposure, and critical periods for intervention in various brain systems across species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117024/behavioral-genetics-in-criminal-and-civil-courts
#3
Maya Sabatello, Paul S Appelbaum
Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116878/evaluation-of-methadone-treatment-in-malaysia-findings-from-the-malaysian-methadone-treatment-outcome-study-mytos
#4
Norsiah Ali, Salina Abd Aziz, Salmah Nordin, Norliza Che Mi, Norni Abdullah, V Paranthaman, Maimunah Mahmud, Anne Yee, Mahmoud Danaee
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence is a global issue with a huge negative impact. In Malaysia, heroin is still the main illicit drug used, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used since 2005. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of MMT. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 103 treatment centers between October and December 2014 using a set of standard questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104701/-drugs-that-make-you-feel-bad-remorse-based-mitigation-and-neurointerventions
#5
Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen
In many jurisdictions, an offender's remorse is considered to be a relevant factor to take into account in mitigation at sentencing. The growing philosophical interest in the use of neurointerventions in criminal justice raises an important question about such remorse-based mitigation: to what extent should technologically facilitated remorse be honoured such that it is permitted the same penal significance as standard instances of remorse? To motivate this question, we begin by sketching a tripartite account of remorse that distinguishes cognitive, affective and motivational elements of remorse...
2017: Criminal Law and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068837/hiv-criminalization-exacerbates-subpar-diagnosis-and-treatment-across-the-united-states-response-to-the-association-of-hiv-diagnosis-rates-and-laws-criminalizing-hiv-exposure-in-the-united-states
#6
Pratha Sah, Meagan C Fitzpatrick, Abhishek Pandey, Alison P Galvani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064815/legal-aspects-of-counteracting-the-trafficking-of-falsified-medicines-in-the-european-union
#7
Vitalii Pashkov, Aleksey Soloviov, Andrii Olefir
INTRODUCTION: The paper identifies key risks associated with the illegal production and sale of medicines. Also there were generalized features of criminal responsibility for acts related to the trafficking of drugs in some Member States of the EU and analyzed legal means of combating the falsified drugs today. The problem concerning falsification of medicines is particularly acute not only in developing countries but also in developed ones. Fake is one in ten - twenty drug. The largest share of falsified drugs comes from the so-called «Asian tigers», already from which they come to the EU market...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062265/relations-between-attorney-temporal-structure-and-children-s-response-productivity-in-cases-of-alleged-child-sexual-abuse
#8
J Zoe Klemfuss, Kyndra C Cleveland, Jodi A Quas, Thomas D Lyon
PURPOSE: Previous research has demonstrated that attorney question format relates to child witness' response productivity. However, little work has examined the relations between the extent to which attorneys provide temporal structure in their questions, and the effects of this structure on children's responding. The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature in order to identify methods by which attorneys increase children's response productivity on the stand without risking objections from opposing counsel for "calling for narrative answers"...
September 2017: Legal and Criminological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051795/criminogenic-needs-substance-use-and-offending-among-rural-stimulant-users
#9
Christine Timko, Brenda M Booth, Xiaotong Han, Nicole R Schultz, Daniel M Blonigen, Jessie J Wong, Michael A Cucciare
There is a need to understand the determinants of both substance use and criminal activity in rural areas in order to design appropriate treatment interventions for these linked problems. The present study drew on a predominant model used to assess and treat offenders -- the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model -- to examine risk factors for substance use and criminal activity in a rural drug using sample. This study extends the RNR model's focus on offenders to assessing rural-dwelling individuals using stimulants (N=462)...
April 2017: Rural Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044920/co-responding-police-mental-health-programmes-service-user-experiences-and-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-centre
#10
Denise Lamanna, Gilla K Shapiro, Maritt Kirst, Flora I Matheson, Arash Nakhost, Vicky Stergiopoulos
As police officers are often the first responders to mental health crises, a number of approaches have emerged to support skilled police crisis responses. One such approach is the police-mental health co-responding team model, whereby mental health nurses and police officers jointly respond to mental health crises in the community. In the present mixed-method study, we evaluated outcomes of co-responding team interactions at a large Canadian urban centre by analysing administrative data for 2743 such interactions, and where comparison data were available, compared them to 16 226 police-only team responses...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043918/-being-able-to-speak-what-individuals-in-jail-perceived-as-helpful-about-participating-in-alcohol-related-brief-interventions
#11
Mandy D Owens, Megan Kirouac, Kylee Hagler, Lauren N Rowell, Emily C Williams
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of individuals within the criminal justice system meet criteria for a substance use disorder. Treatments for individuals who are incarcerated with substance use disorders show minimal to no benefit on post-release outcomes, suggesting a need to improve their effectiveness, particularly those that can be delivered in a brief format. The purpose of this study was to describe what individuals in jail with substance use disorders perceived as being helpful about two brief alcohol-focused interventions, which can be used to inform future treatments with this population...
October 18, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976301/forensic-evaluation-of-deaf-individuals-challenges-and-strategies
#12
Robert Q Pollard, Brian T Berlinski
Forensic evaluation of deaf individuals presents unique challenges due to many examinees' fund of information deficits, potential for language deprivation, and examiners' frequent lack of creativity regarding communication methods. This article describes challenges most frequently encountered in competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility evaluations and offers strategies for overcoming them. The value of employing multiple communication methods, especially the use of illustrations, is emphasized...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967324/fentanyl-and-the-evolving-opioid-epidemic-what-strategies-should-policy-makers-consider
#13
Colleen L Barry
Major policy efforts are being aimed at combating the epidemic of opioid addiction and overdose deaths. In response to the epidemic, the medical community and policy makers have attempted to intervene; to date, these varied approaches have done little to reverse the increase in mortality related to opioid overdose. One factor that has complicated efforts to control overdose deaths has been the emergence of a public health crisis related to illicit fentanyl. The rise in fentanyl-related overdose deaths means that new approaches are needed to combat the opioid epidemic, including adoption of harm reduction strategies...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939729/offenders-with-substance-abuse-who-receive-mandatory-psychiatric-treatment
#14
Pei-Chuan Wu, Yu-Ching Chou, Hui-Wen Yeh, San-Yuan Huang, Li-Hsiang Cheng, Yu-Chen Kao, Hsin-An Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
We examined the mandatory treatment referral rates before and after Taiwan's Penal Code revision of 2006 and factors associated with the mandatory treatment in Taiwan of criminals who engage in substance abuse. The 3,467 offenders who underwent forensic psychiatric assessments, based on Taiwan's court sentence dataset, included 3,163 offenders with substance-abuse-related crimes, but only 412 (13%) received mandatory treatment. There were no changes in mandatory treatment referral rates before and after the revision...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934893/what-works-in-israeli-prison-based-sex-offender-rehabilitation-programs-program-participants-perspective
#15
Brenda Geiger, Michael Fischer
This study invited 10 of the 22 sex offenders enrolled in a prison-based rehabilitation program in one of the prisons in Israel to engage in the two first of the 4-D ( Discover, Dream, Design, and Deliver) stages of the Appreciative Inquiry . Consistent with the responsivity principle, and the IA tenets, program participants were interviewed to Discover components to which they were responsive and Dream/envision additional ones that would increase engagement and progress. Content analysis of the interviews indicated that despite the initial decision to enrol based on external incentives, participants eventually engaged in group therapy and expressed the desire to understand and regulate their sexual behaviour...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926374/reducing-urban-violence-a-contrast-of-public-health-and-criminal-justice-approaches
#16
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: a) Cure Violence; and b) directed police patrol in violence hot spots...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923667/large-scale-forensic-investigations-into-the-missing-challenges-and-considerations
#17
Mercedes Salado Puerto, Hugh Tuller
Large-scale forensic investigations may follow episodes of mass violence and disasters where hundreds or thousands of people have died or are missing. A number of unique challenges for forensic science, different from domestic investigations, arise in these contexts. The setting and situation of these investigations regularly force forensic scientists into practices not regularly encountered while working in a standard criminal justice system. These practices can entail activities not specific to a practitioner's particular field or necessarily be scientific in nature, but are still needed in order for the investigation to move forward...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918240/contingency-management-treatment-in-cocaine-using-methadone-maintained-patients-with-and-without-legal-problems
#18
Meredith K Ginley, Carla J Rash, Todd A Olmstead, Nancy M Petry
BACKGROUND: Legal difficulties and cocaine use are prevalent in methadone maintenance patients, and they are related to one another, as well as to poor response to methadone treatment. Contingency management (CM) is efficacious for decreasing cocaine use, but the relation of CM treatment to criminal activities has rarely been studied. METHODS: This study evaluated whether baseline legal problems are related to subsequent substance use and illegal activities for cocaine using methadone maintained patients and whether CM differentially improves outcomes depending on baseline legal problems...
September 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914125/mobilizing-cross-sector-community-partnerships-to-address-the-needs-of-criminal-justice-involved-older-adults-a-framework-for-action
#19
Lia Metzger, Cyrus Ahalt, Margot Kushel, Alissa Riker, Brie Williams
Purpose The rapidly increasing number of older adults cycling through local criminal justice systems (jails, probation, and parole) suggests a need for greater collaboration among a diverse group of local stakeholders including professionals from healthcare delivery, public health, and criminal justice and directly affected individuals, their families, and advocates. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that local communities can use to understand and begin to address the needs of criminal justice-involved older adults...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914121/evidence-based-recommendations-to-improve-reproductive-healthcare-for-incarcerated-women
#20
Andrea Knittel, Angeline Ti, Sarah Schear, Megan Comfort
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe standards for evidence-based reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. Design/methodology/approach The literature on reproductive healthcare in the US criminal justice system and recommendations from professional organizations were reviewed and critical areas of concern were identified. Within these areas, studies and expert opinion were synthesized and policy recommendations were formulated through an iterative process of group discussion and document revision...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
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