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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#1
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029496/accuracy-of-the-estimation-of-dental-age-in-comparison-with-chronological-age-in-a-spanish-sample-of-2641-living-subjects-using-the-demirjian-and-nolla-methods
#2
María Melo, Javier Ata-Ali
Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024238/forensic-application-of-phylogenetic-analyses-exploration-of-suspected-hiv-1-transmission-case
#3
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Jovan Ranin, Marija Todorovic, Slobodan Nikolic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between individuals may have important legal implications and therefore may come to require forensic investigation based upon phylogenetic analysis. In criminal trials results of phylogenetic analyses have been used as evidence of responsibility for HIV transmission. In Serbia, as in many countries worldwide, exposure and deliberate transmission of HIV are criminalized. We present the results of applying state of the art phylogenetic analyses, based on pol and env genetic sequences, in exploration of suspected HIV transmission among three subjects: a man and two women, with presumed assumption of transmission direction from one woman to a man...
December 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018258/through-the-looking-glass-the-role-of-ethnicity-and-affiliation-in-responses-to-terrorism-in-the-media
#4
Anat Shoshani, Michelle Slone
This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992626/sex-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-positive-outcomes-in-delinquent-youth-after-detention-a-12-year-longitudinal-study
#5
Karen M Abram, Nicole M Azores-Gococo, Kristin M Emanuel, David A Aaby, Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Melinda S Rosenbaum, Linda A Teplin
Importance: Longitudinal studies of delinquent youth have focused on criminal recidivism, not on psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. This omission is critical because after detention most youth return to the community, where they become the responsibility of pediatric health care professionals. Objective: To investigate 8 positive outcomes among delinquent youth 5 and 12 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal US study of long-term outcomes of delinquent youth after detention, participants were interviewed in detention between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and reinterviewed up to 9 times during the 12-year study period, through May 12, 2011...
December 19, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989568/child-abuse-and-neglect-profiles-and-their-psychosocial-consequences-in-a-large-sample-of-incarcerated-males
#6
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek
Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age)...
December 15, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977225/the-role-of-mental-health-and-specific-responsivity-in-juvenile-justice-rehabilitation
#7
Sarah McCormick, Michele Peterson-Badali, Tracey A Skilling
Understanding the role that mental health issues play in justice-involved youth poses challenges for research, policy, and practice. While mental health problems are generally not risk factors for criminal behavior according to the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) framework of correctional psychology practice, prevalence rates are very high and RNR principles suggest that mental health as a responsivity variable may moderate the success of interventions targeted to criminogenic needs. In this study we investigated the relationships among mental health status, criminogenic needs treatment, and recidivism in a sample of 232 youth referred for court-ordered assessments and followed through their community supervision sentence (probation)...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969086/homicide-and-mental-disorder-in-a-region-with-a-high-homicide-rate
#8
Andrei Golenkov, Matthew Large, Olav Nielssen, Alla Tsymbalova
There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934565/conscientious-objection-and-effective-referral
#9
Roger Trigg
Complicity in an immoral, and even criminal, activity, such as robbery or murder, is itself regarded as involving responsibility for those acts. What should the position be of health professionals who are expected to participate in actions that they believe are morally wrong? Professional responsibilities may clash with private conscience. Even referring a patient to someone else, when what is in question may be assisted suicide, or euthanasia, seems to involve some complicity. This is a live issue in Canada, but similar dilemmas occur elsewhere...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925131/-social-and-ethical-criteria-for-prioritizing-patients-a-survey-of-students-and-health-professionals-in-portugal
#10
Micaela Moreira Pinho
This qualitative/quantitative study examines the ethical dilemma of microallocation of health resources. It seeks to identify and compare the opinion of two groups in Portuguese society - students and health professionals - on the importance of personal characteristics of patients at the moment of prioritizing them and if the choices can be explained by bioethical references of a utilitarian or deontological nature. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to a sample of 180 students and 60 health professionals...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884215/public-perception-of-emergency-medical-services-in-the-united-states
#11
Remle P Crowe, Roger Levine, Severo Rodriguez, Ashley D Larrimore, Ronald G Pirrallo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the public's experience, expectations, and perceptions related to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). METHODS: A population-based telephone interview of adults in the United States was conducted. The survey instrument consisted of 112 items. Demographic variables including age, race, political beliefs, and household income were collected. Data collection was performed by trained interviewers from Kent State University's (Kent, Ohio USA)Social Research Laboratory...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874189/incapacity-of-the-mind-secondary-to-medication-misuse-as-a-not-criminally-responsible-defense
#12
Sebastien S Prat, Bruno J Losier, Heather M Moulden, Gary A Chaimowitz
The manifestations of disorders of the mind may play a role in the occurrence of criminal behavior. In the majority of the cases, the presence of a psychiatric disorder is cited as the reason that an individual was not fully aware of his behavior. However, other conditions, such as seizure disorders or hypoglycemia, have also been linked to an inability to understand the nature and consequences of one's actions. On occasion, these situations can be explained by a state of automatism that may be described as insane or noninsane...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869902/-on-the-unpredictability-of-suicide
#13
Massimo Biondi, Angela Iannitelli, Stefano Ferracuti
Suicide has become one of the main reasons of professional liability proceedings for psychiatrists. It is a widespread belief that suicide is a systematic expression of mental illness and that, as for many diseases is preventable by appropriate means. There is a lack of research data that can enable the identification of clinically useful variables to identify suicide risk, even in people who have already made a suicide attempt. Unfortunately, these convictions have led and lead to judgments of professional responsibility for psychiatrists that are not based on scientific data, but on social needs related to feelings of frustration and helplessness that develop after a suicide and by the urge to compensate in some way the family of suicide victim...
September 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858133/female-genital-mutilation-the-role-of-medical-professional-organizations
#14
Tony Bazi
Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM...
November 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854522/evidence-and-health-policy-using-and-regulating-systematic-reviews
#15
Daniel M Fox
Systematic reviews have, increasingly, informed policy for almost 3 decades. In many countries, systematic reviews have informed policy for public and population health, paying for health care, increasing the quality and efficiency of interventions, and improving the effectiveness of health sector professionals and the organizations in which they work. Systematic reviews also inform other policy areas: criminal justice, education, social welfare, and the regulation of toxins in the environment. Although the production and use of systematic reviews has steadily increased, many clinicians, public health officials, representatives of commercial organizations, and, consequently, policymakers who are responsive to them, have been reluctant to use these reviews to inform policy; others have actively opposed using them...
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810658/international-approaches-to-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis-a-review-of-evidence-on-impact
#16
REVIEW
Tara Marie Watson, Robert E Mann
BACKGROUND: There are knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of different approaches designed to prevent and deter driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). Policymakers are increasingly interested in evidence-based responses to DUIC as numerous jurisdictions worldwide have legally regulated cannabis or are debating such regulation. We contribute a comprehensive review of international literature on countermeasures that address DUIC, and identify where and how such measures have been evaluated...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#17
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774235/what-does-recent-neuroscience-tell-us-about-criminal-responsibility
#18
Uri Maoz, Gideon Yaffe
A defendant is criminally responsible for his action only if he is shown to have engaged in a guilty act-actus reus (eg for larceny, voluntarily taking someone else's property without permission)-while possessing a guilty mind-mens rea (eg knowing that he had taken someone else's property without permission, intending not to return it)-and lacking affirmative defenses (eg the insanity defense or self-defense). We therefore first review neuroscientific studies that bear on the nature of voluntary action, and so could, potentially, tell us something of importance about the actus reus of crimes...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774213/neuroscientific-and-behavioral-genetic-information-in-criminal-cases-in-the-netherlands
#19
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774212/the-use-of-neuroscientific-evidence-in-canadian-criminal-proceedings
#20
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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