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Michael Pujari-Palmer, Hua Guo, David Wenner, Hélène Autefage, Christopher D Spicer, Molly M Stevens, Omar Omar, Peter Thomsen, Mattias Edén, Gerard Insley, Philip Procter, Hakan Engqvist
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are clinically effective void fillers that are capable of bridging calcified tissue defects and facilitating regeneration. However, CPCs are completely synthetic/inorganic, unlike the calcium phosphate that is found in calcified tissues, and they lack an architectural organization, controlled assembly mechanisms, and have moderate biomechanical strength, which limits their clinical effectiveness. Herein, we describe a new class of bioinspired CPCs that can glue tissues together and bond tissues to metallic and polymeric biomaterials...
December 7, 2018: Materials
Anton du Plessis, Chris Broeckhoven
Albert Einstein once said "look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better". Looking deep into nature has in the last few years become much more achievable through the use of high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT). The non-destructive nature of microCT, combined with three-dimensional visualization and analysis, allows for the most complete internal and external "view" of natural materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scale. This capability brings with it the possibility to learn from nature at an unprecedented level of detail in full three dimensions, allowing us to improve our current understanding of structures, learn from them and apply them to solve engineering problems...
December 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
William E Bentley, Donald K Martin, Takeshi Gotoh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Fatemeh Elmi, Elahe Valipour, Shahram Ghasemi
Nanohybrid films containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully coated on 304-stainless steel (304ss) for anti-corrosion use. The nanocompositewas made by a self-assembly of poly (dopamine), wrapped with MWCNTs (CNT@PDA) through a mussel inspired method. In order to enhance the corrosion protection, an inner layer of L-cysteine, an adhesive amino acid to 304ss surface through thiol (-SH) functional group were constructed through a dip-coating process. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the double nano-layer could act as a noble anticorrosive coating in 3...
November 30, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Negin Mahmoodi-Babolan, Ali Nematollahzadeh, Amir Heydari, Arezoo Merikhy
Focusing on the encouraging properties of starch-based composite materials, starch‑g‑(acrylic acid‑co‑acrylamide) superabsorbent was synthesized using solution polymerization method, and then the catecholamine functional groups were introduced on to pore surface of the absorbent via oxidative polymerization of dopamine (DA). The adsorbent was optimized in terms of the monomers' mass ratio and synthesis conditions, and characterized by different characterization techniques. The polydopamine (PDA) coating thickness was estimated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image and it was found to be 83 nm...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jayeon Baek, Bunyarat Rungtaweevoranit, Xiaokun Pei, Myeongkee Park, Sirine C Fakra, Yi-Sheng Liu, Roc Matheu, Sultan A Alshmimri, Saeed Alshihri, Christopher A Trickett, Gabor A Somorjai, Omar M Yaghi
Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an enzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol with high activity and selectivity. Limited success has been achieved in incorporating biologically relevant ligands for the formation of such active site in a synthetic system. Here, we report the design and synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) catalysts inspired by pMMO for selective methane oxidation to methanol. By judicious selection of a framework with appropriate topology and chemical functionality, MOF-808 was used to post-synthetically install ligands bearing imidazole units for subsequent metalation with Cu(I) in the presence of dioxygen...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pai Peng, Yi Du, Jiao Zheng, Huihui Wang, Tao Li
In nature, the formation of spider silk fibers begins with dimerizing the pH-sensitive N-terminal domains of silk proteins (spidroins) upon lowering pH, which provides a natural masterpiece for programmable assembly. Inspired by the similarity of pH-dependent dimerization behaviors, here we introduce an i-motif-guided model to mimic the initial step of spidroin assembly at the subcellular level. A framework nucleic acid (FNA) nanoplatform is designed using two tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) with different branched vertexes carrying a bimolecular i-motif and a split ATP aptamer...
December 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
William S Rone, Yujiong Liu, Pinhas Ben-Tzvi
This paper analyzes control methodologies to implement maneuvering and stabilization behaviors in a bipedal robot using a bioinspired robotic tail. Looking to nature, numerous animals augment their legs' functionality using a tail to assist with both maneuvering and stabilization; looking to the robotics literature, previous research primarily focuses on single-mass, pendulum-like tails designed to perform a specific task. The overarching goal of this research is to study how bioinspired tail designs may be used in conjunction with low-complexity leg designs to achieve high-performance behaviors...
November 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Andrew Bodling, Anupam Sharma
Numerical analysis of airfoil geometries inspired by the down coat of the night owl is presented. The bioinspired geometry consists of an array of 'finlet fences', which is placed near the trailing edge of the baseline (NACA 0012) airfoil. Two fences with maximum nondimensional heights, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are investigated, where [Formula: see text] is the displacement thickness at 2.9% chord upstream of the airfoil trailing edge. Wall-resolved large eddy simulations are performed at chord-based Reynolds number, [Formula: see text], flow Mach number, [Formula: see text], and angle of attack, [Formula: see text]...
December 7, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Bing Yin, Xiaomeng Liu, Hongyan Gao, Tianda Fu, Jun Yao
Biological sensory organelles are often structurally optimized for high sensitivity. Tactile hairs or bristles are ubiquitous mechanosensory organelles in insects. The bristle features a tapering spine that not only serves as a lever arm to promote signal transduction, but also a clever design to protect it from mechanical breaking. A hierarchical distribution over the body further improves the signal detection from all directions. We mimic these features by using synthetic zinc oxide microparticles, each having spherically-distributed, high-aspect-ratio, and high-density nanostructured spines resembling biological bristles...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Yan Li, Longjie Li, Xunbo Lu, Yulong Bai, Yufan Wang, Yuzhou Wu, Fangrui Zhong
Inspired by the heme iron-catalyzed radical insertion of dioxygen to the tryptophan indole ring, herein we utilize alkylperoxy radical species as a coupling partner to trigger a peroxycyclization of readily accessible tryptophan derivatives and enable the first synthesis of peroxypyrroloindolenines. A preliminary biological evaluation revealed promising anti-cancer activities (IC50 = 22.00 μM for compound 2a), and revealed that both the indolenine core and the peroxy functionality are responsible for the antiproliferation effect against Hela cell lines...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jaime Gómez-Morales, Cristóbal Verdugo-Escamilla, Raquel Fernández-Penas, Carmen Maria Parra-Milla, Christophe Drouet, Michele Iafisco, Francesca Oltolina, Maria Prat, Jorge Fernando Fernández-Sánchez
Biocompatible nanosystems exhibiting long-lifetime (∼millisecond) luminescence features are particularly relevant in the field of bioimaging. In this study, citrate-functionalized calcium-doped europium phosphates nanophosphors of the rhabdophane type were prepared at different synthesis times by a bioinspired crystallization route, consisting in thermal decomplexing of Ca2+ /Eu3+ /citrate/phosphate/carbonate solutions. The general formula of this material is Caα Eu1-α (PO4 )1-α (HPO4 )α ·nH2 O, with α ranging from 0 to 0...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Asiya F Shaikh, Mohaseen S Tamboli, Rajendra H Patil, Ashita Bhan, Jalindar D Ambekar, Bharat B Kale
Carbon dots, very tiny carbon material with various surface passivations, have emerged as a new class of nanomaterials for various applications. Herein, we describe a simple, economical, and green approach for the synthesis of colloidal luminescent carbon dots (C-dots) by solvothermal method from fruit juice of Citrus limetta , an abundantly available plant in Asian countries. The existence of C-dots was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy studies. The C-dots size was observed to be 2-4 nm...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Lu Feng, Attila Mándi, Chunping Tang, Tibor Kurtán, Shuai Tang, Chang-Qiang Ke, Ning Shen, Ge Lin, Sheng Yao, Yang Ye
(±)-Cryptomeriolide, a pair of racemic bis- seco-abietane diterpenoids, were isolated from the bark of Cryptomeria fortunei. The separation of enantiomers was achieved by using chiral stationary phase HPLC. Their structures including the absolute configuration and conformations in solution and solid state were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and comparison of calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism data. A bioinspired one-pot enantiomeric synthesis of 1a and 1b was accomplished via a readily made intermediate orthoquinone from sugiol...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Yeongjun Lee, Jin Young Oh, Wentao Xu, Onnuri Kim, Taeho Roy Kim, Jiheong Kang, Yeongin Kim, Donghee Son, Jeffery B-H Tok, Moon Jeong Park, Zhenan Bao, Tae-Woo Lee
Emulation of human sensory and motor functions becomes a core technology in bioinspired electronics for next-generation electronic prosthetics and neurologically inspired robotics. An electronic synapse functionalized with an artificial sensory receptor and an artificial motor unit can be a fundamental element of bioinspired soft electronics. Here, we report an organic optoelectronic sensorimotor synapse that uses an organic optoelectronic synapse and a neuromuscular system based on a stretchable organic nanowire synaptic transistor (s-ONWST)...
November 2018: Science Advances
Jochen Mueller, Jordan R Raney, Dennis M Kochmann, Kristina Shea
To be of engineering relevance, it is essential for stiff and strong materials to possess also high toughness. However, as these properties are typically mutually exclusive, they are rarely found in nature and synthetic replications are extremely limited. Here, an elegant albeit simple physical principle that enables ligaments in cellular networks to possess these mechanical properties simultaneously is presented. The underlying architecture consists of multiple, coaxially aligned layers separated by interfaces that prevent crack propagation, hence increasing the energy required for complete rupture...
November 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Mohamad Alsalman, Brendan Colvert, Eva Kanso
We consider the inverse problem of classifying flow patterns from local sensory measurements. This problem is inspired by the ability of various aquatic organisms to respond to ambient flow signals, and is relevant for translating these abilities to underwater robotic vehicles. In Colvert, Alsalman and Kanso, B&B (2018), we trained neural networks to classify vortical flows by relying on a single flow sensor that measures a 'time history' of the local vorticity. Here, we systematically investigate the effects of distinct types of sensors on the accuracy of flow classification...
November 27, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chuying Ma, Xinggui Tian, Jimin P Kim, Denghui Xie, Xiang Ao, Dingying Shan, Qiaoling Lin, Maria R Hudock, Xiaochun Bai, Jian Yang
A comprehensive understanding of the key microenvironmental signals regulating bone regeneration is pivotal for the effective design of bioinspired orthopedic materials. Here, we identified citrate as an osteopromotive factor and revealed its metabonegenic role in mediating citrate metabolism and its downstream effects on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our studies show that extracellular citrate uptake through solute carrier family 13, member 5 (SLC13a5) supports osteogenic differentiation via regulation of energy-producing metabolic pathways, leading to elevated cell energy status that fuels the high metabolic demands of hMSC osteodifferentiation...
November 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Riikka Peltomaa, Bettina Glahn-Martínez, Elena Benito-Peña, María C Moreno-Bondi
Label-free optical biosensors are an intriguing option for the analyses of many analytes, as they offer several advantages such as high sensitivity, direct and real-time measurement in addition to multiplexing capabilities. However, development of label-free optical biosensors for small molecules can be challenging as most of them are not naturally chromogenic or fluorescent, and in some cases, the sensor response is related to the size of the analyte. To overcome some of the limitations associated with the analysis of biologically, pharmacologically, or environmentally relevant compounds of low molecular weight, recent advances in the field have improved the detection of these analytes using outstanding methodology, instrumentation, recognition elements, or immobilization strategies...
November 24, 2018: Sensors
Juan Barrios-Avilés, Alfredo Rosado-Muñoz, Leandro D Medus, Manuel Bataller-Mompeán, Juan F Guerrero-Martínez
Sensors provide data which need to be processed after acquisition to remove noise and extract relevant information. When the sensor is a network node and acquired data are to be transmitted to other nodes (e.g., through Ethernet), the amount of generated data from multiple nodes can overload the communication channel. The reduction of generated data implies the possibility of lower hardware requirements and less power consumption for the hardware devices. This work proposes a filtering algorithm (LDSI-Less Data Same Information) which reduces the generated data from event-based sensors without loss of relevant information...
November 24, 2018: Sensors
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