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Psychological flexibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430015/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-and-acceptance-group-therapy-for-residential-substance-use-patients
#1
Ryan C Shorey, Joanna Elmquist, Michael J Gawrysiak, Catherine Strauss, Ellen Haynes, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424558/parents-relationship-to-pain-during-children-s-cancer-treatment-a-preliminary-validation-of-the-pain-flexibility-scale-for-parents
#2
Jenny Thorsell Cederberg, Sandra Weineland Strandskov, JoAnne Dahl, Gustaf Ljungman
OBJECTIVES: Pain is one of the most frequent and burdensome symptoms for children with cancer. Psychological acceptance has been shown to be beneficial in chronic pain. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced pain have been shown to predict increased pain tolerance and decreased pain intensity. An acceptance-based pilot study for children with cancer experiencing pain has shown promising results. Further, parental acceptance has been shown to predict decreased child distress...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421573/-forensic-flexible-assertive-community-treatment-client-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes
#3
L Neijmeijer, J Verwoerd, M van Vugt, C Place, H Kroon
BACKGROUND: (Flexible) Assertive community treatment ((f)act) is applied increasingly to forensic psychiatric clients. However, evidence about the effectiveness of forensic (f)act is scanty. AIM: To investigate to what extent (subgroups of) clients receiving care from forensic (f)act teams show, after a year, changes in their social and psychological functioning and are subjected to fewer justicial outcome measures. METHOD: Between 2009 and 2011, eight forensic (f)act teams collected, at two measurement moments separated by an average of 12 months, data relating to client characteristics and outcomes of care...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419626/influence-of-job-demands-and-job-control-on-work-life-balance-among-taiwanese-nurses
#4
Lee-Peng Ng, I-Chi Chen, Hui-Fuang Ng, Bo-Yen Lin, Lok-Sin Kuar
AIM: This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. BACKGROUND: The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. METHOD: The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414018/psychological-flexibility-mediates-change-in-intuitive-eating-regulation-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-interventions
#5
Essi Sairanen, Asko Tolvanen, Leila Karhunen, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Sanni Lindroos, Katri Peuhkuri, Riitta Korpela, Miikka Ermes, Elina Mattila, Raimo Lappalainen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the promising results related to intuitive eating, few studies have attempted to explain the processes encouraging this adaptive eating behaviour. The focus of the present study was on exploring mechanisms of change in intuitive eating and weight in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions. Mediation provides important information regarding the treatment processes and theoretical models related to specific treatment approaches. The study investigates whether psychological flexibility, mindfulness skills and sense of coherence mediated the interventions' effect on intuitive eating and weight...
April 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405908/how-orthographic-specific-characteristics-shape-letter-position-coding-the-case-of-thai-script
#6
Manuel Perea, Heather Winskel, Pablo Gomez
A central question for any model of visual word identification is the representation of the position at which letters are encoded (e.g., calm vs. clam). In this article, we examine whether the orthographic-specific characteristics of a writing system-namely, Thai-shape the process of letter position coding. Thai is an alphabetic script that lacks interword spaces and has an orthographic order that does not necessarily correspond to the phonological order for initial vowels. This implies that the initial letter position coding in Thai needs to be flexible enough that readers can successfully encode the letter positions of words...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390879/peripheral-nerve-injury-impairs-the-ability-to-maintain-behavioural-flexibility-following-acute-stress-in-the-rat
#7
David Mor, Michael D Kendig, James W M Kang, Gizem Gemikonakli, Paul J Austin, Eszter Kalman, Laura H Corbit
Chronic neuropathic pain often leads to impaired cognition and reduced behavioural flexibility. This study used a rat model to investigate if a peripheral nerve injury, with or without an additional acute psychological stress, alters behavioural flexibility and goal directed behavior as measured by sensitivity to devaluation. Neuropathic pain was induced by a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. CCI, sham-injury and naïve rats were trained to press two levers for two rewards. In outcome devaluation tests, one of the rewards was devalued by pre-feeding it to satiety, immediately prior to an extinction test measuring responding on the two levers...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390517/neuropsychological-evaluation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Jason R Soble, Edan A Critchfield, Justin J F O'Rourke
Clinical neuropsychology is a subspecialty of professional psychology that is concerned with the scientific study and clinical application of brain-behavior relationships. Broadly defined, a neuropsychological evaluation is a flexible clinical tool that involves integration of objective, psychometric test data along with various other sources of clinical information to comprehensively elucidate the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to characterizing TBI sequelae, evidenced-based neuropsychological assessment can contribute to TBI patient care by aiding with prognostic assessment, measuring interval change/recovery over time (eg, resolution of posttraumatic amnesia), informing and implementing rehabilitation strategies, and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390442/a-first-step-toward-integrating-schema-theory-in-geriatric-psychiatry-a-delphi-study
#9
M J H Legra, F R J Verhey, S P J van Alphen
BACKGROUND: Schematherapy (ST) is an effective therapy for personality disorders (PD's) in adults, however, empirical research into ST in older adults is limited. The manifestation of schemas over the life course is unclear. Besides, long-term patterns of schemas in old age and whether schemas change during the aging process remain unknown. METHODS: We performed a Delphi study involving a group meeting of nine experts in the field of ST in older adults. RESULTS: Full consensus was achieved that schemas vary later in life, and that this is due to biopsychosocial factors...
April 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386857/reconstructing-the-recent-visual-past-hierarchical-knowledge-based-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#10
Marie Poirier, Daniel Heussen, Silvio Aldrovandi, Lauren Daniel, Saiyara Tasnim, James A Hampton
This paper presents two experiments that examine the influence of multiple levels of knowledge on visual working memory (VWM). Experiment 1 focused on memory for faces. Faces were selected from continua that were constructed by morphing two face photographs in 100 steps; half of the continua morphed a famous face into an unfamiliar one, while the other half used two unfamiliar faces. Participants studied six sequentially presented faces each from a different continuum, and at test they had to locate one of these within its continuum...
April 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383995/embodiment-as-procedures-physical-cleansing-changes-goal-priming-effects
#11
Ping Dong, Spike W S Lee
Physical cleansing reduces the influence of numerous psychological experiences, such as guilt from immoral behavior, dissonance from free choice, and good/bad luck from winning/losing. How do these domain-general effects occur? We propose an integrative account of cleansing as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. By separating physical traces from a physical target object (e.g., detaching dirt from hands), cleansing serves as the embodied grounding for the separation of psychological traces from a psychological target object (e...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375723/brain-mechanisms-of-the-placebo-effect-an-affective-appraisal-account
#12
Yoni K Ashar, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
Placebos are sham medical treatments. Nonetheless, they can have substantial effects on clinical outcomes. Placebos depend on a person's psychological and brain responses to the treatment context, which influence appraisals of future well-being. Appraisals are flexible cognitive evaluations of the personal meaning of events and situations that can directly impact symptoms and physiology. They also shape associative learning processes by guiding what is learned from experience. Appraisals are supported by a core network of brain regions associated with the default mode network involved in self-generated emotion, self-evaluation, thinking about the future, social cognition, and valuation of rewards and punishment...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367200/the-relationship-between-dispositional-empathy-and-prefrontal-cortical-functioning-in-patients-with-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Amara Gul, Hira Ahmad
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation focuses brain-behavior relationship which highlights interaction between psychological and neurobiological factors for better patient care. There is a missing link in the literature about socio-cognitive aspects of frontal lobe epilepsy. Our objective was to examine prefrontal cortical functioning (PCF) and empathic abilities in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Further, we analyzed whether any relationship between components of dispositional empathy and PCF exists in patients with FLE...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363118/gender-differences-in-automatic-thoughts-and-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder
#14
Masayuki Kanehisa, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Kana Okamoto, Harumi Oshita, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Haruka Higuma, Taiga Ninomiya, Jotaro Akiyoshi
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360143/return-to-play-after-hamstring-injuries-in-football-soccer-a-worldwide-delphi-procedure-regarding-definition-medical-criteria-and-decision-making
#15
Nick van der Horst, Fjg Backx, Edwin A Goedhart, Bionka Ma Huisstede
There are three major questions about return to play (RTP) after hamstring injuries: How should RTP be defined? Which medical criteria should support the RTP decision? And who should make the RTP decision? The study aimed to provide a clear RTP definition and medical criteria for RTP and to clarify RTP consultation and responsibilities after hamstring injury. The study used the Delphi procedure. The results of a systematic review were used as a starting point for the Delphi procedure. Fifty-eight experts in the field of hamstring injury management selected by 28 FIFA Medical Centres of Excellence worldwide participated...
March 30, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360027/relative-effectiveness-of-insulin-pump-treatment-over-multiple-daily-injections-and-structured-education-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-treatment-for-type-1-diabetes-cluster-randomised-trial-repose
#16
(no author information available yet)
Objective To compare the effectiveness of insulin pumps with multiple daily injections for adults with type 1 diabetes, with both groups receiving equivalent training in flexible insulin treatment.Design Pragmatic, multicentre, open label, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial (Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE) trial).Setting Eight secondary care centres in England and Scotland.Participants Adults with type 1 diabetes who were willing to undertake intensive insulin treatment, with no preference for pumps or multiple daily injections...
March 30, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351293/the-synergy-of-the-refugee-crisis-and-the-financial-crisis-in-greece-impact-on-mental-health
#17
Dimitris C Anagnostopoulos, George Giannakopoulos, Nikos G Christodoulou
BACKGROUND: The current global financial crisis that started in 2008 resulted in a significant decline in global trade, slowing/reversing economic growth worldwide, and a dramatic increase in public sector debt. At the same time, the global migrant/refugee crisis has reached extreme rates, with millions of people being forced to abandon their homes and communities because of war, political violence or related threats. There is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of these crises on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse and suicidal behavior...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347524/-the-pain-emotion-advocating-pain-as-an-emotion
#18
J Fonseca Das Neves, N Sule, E Serra
OBJECTIVES: Pain is a common experience, both physical and emotional. However we often feel powerless with our patients suffering pain. This paper aims to give a new heuristic and psychological understanding of pain. METHODOLOGY: According to new theories, recent researches as well as different points of view, we form an analogy between pain and emotion. Throughout historical considerations pain has always been perceived through theories and beliefs, changing its definition...
March 24, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341610/differential-effects-of-social-and-novelty-enrichment-on-individual-differences-in-impulsivity-and-behavioral-flexibility
#19
Maya Zhe Wang, Andrew T Marshall, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Early life experience profoundly impacts behavior and cognitive functions in rats. The present study investigated how the presence of conspecifics and/or novel objects, could independently influence individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility. Twenty-four rats were reared in an isolated condition, an isolated condition with a novel object, a pair-housed social condition, or a pair-housed social condition with a novel object. The rats were then tested on an impulsive choice task, a behavioral flexibility task, and an impulsive action task...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338282/don-t-forget-to-look-down%C3%A2-%C3%A2-collaborative-approaches-to-predator-conservation
#20
Steve M Redpath, John D C Linnell, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Luigi Boitani, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, R J Gutiérrez, R J Irvine, Maria Johansson, Aleksandra Majić, Barry J McMahon, Simon Pooley, Camilla Sandström, Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist, Ketil Skogen, Jon E Swenson, Arie Trouwborst, Juliette Young, E J Milner-Gulland
Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. In many parts of the developed world, flexibility of approach is built into the legislation, so that conservation objectives are balanced with other legitimate goals...
March 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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