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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220381/pharmacological-management-of-people-living-with-end-stage-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Victoria Dalgliesh, Hilary Pinnock
Supportive care and pharmacological treatment can improve the quality of life of people with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who cope on a daily basis with substantial physical, psychological, social and spiritual morbidity. Smoking cessation is the only intervention that reduces the rate of progression of COPD, but evidence-based drug treatments and non-pharmacological strategies can relieve symptoms and reduce the impact of exacerbations. People with severe COPD live with increasingly troublesome breathlessness and other symptoms such as fatigue, pain, sputum production and weight loss...
February 21, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213755/pedagogical-approaches-to-and-effects-of-fundamental-movement-skill-interventions-on-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Claire Tompsett, Ross Sanders, Caitlin Taylor, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are assumed to be the basic prerequisite motor movements underpinning coordination of more integrated and advanced movement capabilities. FMS development and interventions have been associated with several beneficial health outcomes in individual studies. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this review was to identify FMS intervention characteristics that could be optimised to attain beneficial outcomes in children and adolescents, while the secondary aim was to update the evidence as to the efficacy of FMS interventions on physiological, psychological and behavioural health outcomes...
February 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204691/treatment-of-chronic-pain-for-adults-65-and-over-analyses-of-outcomes-and-changes-in-psychological-flexibility-following-interdisciplinary-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-act
#3
Whitney Scott, Aisling Daly, Lin Yu, Lance M McCracken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198653/psychological-flexibility-and-resilience-in-parentally-bereaved-college-students
#4
Amy R Murrell, Ryeshia Jackson, Ethan G Lester, Teresa Hulsey
Losing a parent prior to age 18 years can have life-long implications. The challenges of emerging adulthood may be even more difficult for parentally bereaved college students, and studying their coping responses is crucial for designing campus services and therapy interventions. This study examined the relationships between bereavement-related distress, experiential avoidance (EA), values, and resilience. Findings indicated that EA and low importance of values were correlated with bereavement difficulties, with EA accounting for 26% of the variance in the bereavement distress measure...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196772/intervening-variables-in-group-based-acceptance-commitment-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety
#5
Trine Eilenberg, Ditte Hoffmann, Jens S Jensen, Lisbeth Frostholm
OBJECTIVE: The present study is based on a previously reported successful randomized controlled trial (RCT) on Acceptance and Commitment Group therapy (ACT-G) for severe health anxiety (HA) and investigates intervening variables of ACT for HA. The process primarily targeted by ACT is psychological flexibility (PF). No randomized study has yet examined the possible intervening variables of ACT for HA. METHODS: 126 patients diagnosed with severe HA were enrolled in the RCT of which 107 were included in the analyses...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183347/application-of-incident-command-structure-to-clinical-trial-management-in-the-academic-setting-principles-and-lessons-learned
#6
Penny S Reynolds, Mary J Michael, Bruce D Spiess
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial success depends on appropriate management, but practical guidance to trial organisation and planning is lacking. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the 'gold standard' management system developed for managing diverse operations in major incident and public health arenas. It enables effective and flexible management through integration of personnel, procedures, resources, and communications within a common hierarchical organisational structure. Conventional ICS organisation consists of five function modules: Command, Planning, Operations, Logistics, and Finance/Administration...
February 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160720/increasing-valued-behaviors-precedes-reduction-in-suffering-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-using-act
#7
Andrew T Gloster, Jens Klotsche, Joseph Ciarrochi, Georg Eifert, Rainer Sonntag, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Jürgen Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Psychological flexibility theory (PFT) suggests three key processes of change: increases in value-directed behaviors, reduction in struggle with symptoms, and reduction in suffering. We hypothesized that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) would change these processes and that increases in valued action and decreases in struggle would precede change in suffering. METHOD: Data were derived from a randomized clinical trial testing ACT (vs. waitlist) for treatment-resistant patients with primary panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (n = 41)...
January 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150991/safety-climate-and-culture-integrating-psychological-and-systems-perspectives
#8
Tristan Casey, Mark A Griffin, Huw Flatau Harrison, Andrew Neal
Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131700/change-in-self-as-context-perspective-taking-occurs-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-people-with-chronic-pain-and-is-associated-with-improved-functioning
#9
Lin Yu, Sam Norton, Lance M McCracken
: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is based on the Psychological Flexibility (PF) model, which includes a therapeutic process, referred to as "self-as-context" (SAC). This study investigates whether ACT is associated with an effect on SAC and whether this effect is linked to treatment outcomes in people with chronic pain. 412 adults referred to a pain management center participated in the study. Participants completed measures of treatment processes (SAC, pain acceptance) and outcomes (pain-related interference, work and social adjustment, depression) before treatment, upon completion of treatment, and at nine-month follow-up...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124195/the-form-of-causation-in-health-disease-and-intervention-biopsychosocial-dispositionalism-conserved-quantity-transfers-and-dualist-mechanistic-chains
#10
David W Evans, Nicholas Lucas, Roger Kerry
Causation is important when considering: how an organism maintains health; why disease arises in a healthy person; and, how one may intervene to change the course of a disease. This paper explores the form of causative relationships in health, disease and intervention, with particular regard to the pathological and biopsychosocial models. Consistent with the philosophical view of dispositionalism, we believe that objects are the fundamental relata of causation. By accepting the broad scope of the biopsychosocial model, we argue that psychological and social constructs be considered objects...
January 25, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116111/a-review-of-the-physiological-and-psychological-health-and-wellbeing-of-naval-service-personnel-and-the-modalities-used-for-monitoring
#11
REVIEW
Cliodhna Sargent, Cormac Gebruers, Jim O'Mahony
Naval cohorts rely heavily on personnel to ensure the efficient running of naval organisations. As such, the wellbeing of personnel is essential. In an occupational setting, naval service personnel experience a variety of physiological and psychological stressors. Most naval services arrange annual physical fitness and body composition tests to ensure the physical readiness of personnel. However, these tests only evaluate a small amount of physiological capabilities. Components such as aerobic and strength capabilities are assessed, however, other components of physical fitness such as speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and flexibility are not...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110627/pragmatic-nihilism-how-a-theory-of-nothing-can-help-health-psychology-progress
#12
Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Rik Crutzen
Health psychology aims to explain and change a wide variety of behaviours, and to this end has developed a plethora of theories. Several attempts have been undertaken to build integrative theories, and some even strive for a Theory of Everything. We argue against these efforts, arguing that instead, adopting a stance that may be called 'pragmatic nihilism' is more fruitful in the endeavour to understand and change specific health behaviours. The first tenet of pragmatic nihilism is that psychological variables, those defined in our health psychology theories, are usefully considered as metaphors rather than referring to entities that exist in the mind...
January 22, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093759/supervising-away-from-home-clinical-cultural-and-professional-challenges
#13
Henry Abramovitch, Jan Wiener
This paper explores some challenges of supervising clinical work of trainees, known as 'routers', who live in countries with diverse cultural, social and political traditions, and the analysts who travel to supervise them. It is written as an evolving dialogue between the authors, who explore together the effects of their own culture of origin, and in particular the legacy and values of their own training institutes on the styles and models of analytic supervision. Their dialogue is framed around the meaning of home and experiences of homesickness for analysts working away from home in an interactive field of strangeness in countries where analytical psychology is a relatively new discipline...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#14
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077722/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#15
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart-rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the SD of normal-to-normal intervals) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077721/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-%C3%AE-oscillations
#16
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: Although working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks used to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static," involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed the following: (1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant; and (2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073811/exploratory-trials-in-mental-health-anything-to-learn-from-other-disciplines
#17
Sven Trelle
OBJECTIVE: Confirmatory randomised controlled trials require solid justifications, especially with regard to whether the experimental intervention is promising. Such evidence is generated in exploratory trials. However, empirical evidence shows that the quality of such trials is still suboptimal. More generally, the development process of healthcare interventions and especially of drugs, remains inefficient. Over the past 10-20 years, a vast amount of methodological work has been published about exploratory trials...
February 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054223/what-do-parents-perceive-are-the-barriers-and-facilitators-to-accessing-psychological-treatment-for-mental-health-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-and-quantitative-studies
#18
REVIEW
Tessa Reardon, Kate Harvey, Magdalena Baranowska, Doireann O'Brien, Lydia Smith, Cathy Creswell
A minority of children and adolescents with mental health problems access treatment. The reasons for poor rates of treatment access are not well understood. As parents are a key gatekeeper to treatment access, it is important to establish parents' views of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment. The aims of this study are to synthesise findings from qualitative and quantitative studies that report parents' perceptions of barriers/facilitators to accessing treatment for mental health problems in children/adolescents...
January 4, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051342/effects-of-thermal-agent-and-physical-activity-on-muscle-tendon-stiffness-and-effects-combined-with-static-stretching
#19
Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki, Noriaki Ichihashi
CONTEXT: A recent review or article reported that thermal agents (TA) or physical activity (PA) can increase range of motion (ROM), and that the combination of TA with stretching is superior to performing stretching only. However, since ROM is affected by the participants' psychological factors, it is questionable whether these studies measured the effect of these intervention on muscle flexibility. By measuring muscle stiffness, we attempted to evaluate the effect these intervention on muscle flexibility...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050185/comparing-acceptance-and-commitment-group-therapy-and-12-steps-narcotics-anonymous-in-addict-s-rehabilitation-process-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Manoochehr Azkhosh, Ali Farhoudianm, Hemn Saadati, Fateme Shoaee, Leila Lashani
Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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