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Psychological flexibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929944/increasing-body-image-flexibility-in-a-residential-eating-disorder-facility-correlates-with-symptom-improvement
#1
Eric B Lee, Clarissa W Ong, Michael P Twohig, Tera Lensegrav-Benson, Benita Quakenbush-Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of changes in body image psychological flexibility over the course of treatment on various outcome variables. METHOD: Participants included 103 female, residential patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Pretreatment and posttreatment data were collected that examined body image psychological flexibility, general psychological flexibility, symptom severity, and other outcome variables. RESULTS: Changes in body image psychological flexibility significantly predicted changes in all outcome measures except for obsessive-compulsive symptoms after controlling for body mass index, depression, and anxiety...
September 20, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924946/listeners-are-maximally-flexible-in-updating-phonetic-beliefs-over-time
#2
David Saltzman, Emily Myers
Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919868/the-affective-core-of-the-self-a-neuro-archetypical-perspective-on-the-foundations-of-human-and-animal-subjectivity
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Alcaro, Stefano Carta, Jaak Panksepp
Psychologists usually considered the "Self" as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand, Carl Gustav Jung considered the Self as the core of our personality, in its conscious and unconscious aspects, as well as in its actual and potential forms. According to Jung, the Self originates from an inborn dynamic structure integrating the essential drives of our "brain-mind," and leading both to instinctual behavioral actions and to archetypal psychological experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914801/gender-differences-in-problematic-alcohol-consumption-in-university-professors
#4
Pablo Ruisoto, Silvia L Vaca, José J López-Goñi, Raúl Cacho, Iván Fernández-Suárez
The role of job satisfaction and other psychosocial variables in problematic alcohol consumption within professional settings remains understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the level of problematic alcohol consumption among male and female university professors and associated psychosocial variables. A total of 360 professors (183 men and 177 women) of a large private university in Ecuador were surveyed using standardized instruments for the following psychosocial measures: alcohol consumption, job satisfaction, psychological stress, psychological flexibility, social support and resilience...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912708/remodeling-pearson-s-correlation-for-functional-brain-network-estimation-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#5
Weikai Li, Zhengxia Wang, Limei Zhang, Lishan Qiao, Dinggang Shen
Functional brain network (FBN) has been becoming an increasingly important way to model the statistical dependence among neural time courses of brain, and provides effective imaging biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurological or psychological disorders. Currently, Pearson's Correlation (PC) is the simplest and most widely-used method in constructing FBNs. Despite its advantages in statistical meaning and calculated performance, the PC tends to result in a FBN with dense connections. Therefore, in practice, the PC-based FBN needs to be sparsified by removing weak (potential noisy) connections...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900235/neural-correlates-of-ambient-thermal-sensation-an-fmri-study
#6
Hajime Oi, Teruo Hashimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Natasha Kawata, Kanan Hirano, Yuki Yamamoto, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893181/meeting-psychosocial-needs-for-persons-with-dementia-in-home-care-services-a-qualitative-study-of-different-perceptions-and-practices-among-health-care-providers
#7
Anette Hansen, Solveig Hauge, Ådel Bergland
BACKGROUND: The majority of persons with dementia are home-dwelling. To enable these persons to stay in their own homes as long as possible, a holistic, individual and flexible care is recommended. Despite a requirement for meeting psychological, social and physical needs, home care services seem to focus on patients' physical needs. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore how the psychosocial needs of home-dwelling, older persons with dementia were perceived, emphasized and met by home care services...
September 11, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877756/jigsaw-puzzles-as-cognitive-enrichment-pace-the-effect-of-solving-jigsaw-puzzles-on-global-visuospatial-cognition-in-adults-50-years-of-age-and-older-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Patrick Fissler, Olivia C Küster, Laura S Loy, Daria Laptinskaya, Martin J Rosenfelder, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive disorders are an important societal challenge and the need for early prevention is increasingly recognized. Meta-analyses show beneficial effects of cognitive activities on cognition. However, high financial costs, low intrinsic motivation, logistic challenges of group-based activities, or the need to operate digital devices prevent their widespread application in clinical practice. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a cognitive activity without these hindering characteristics, but cognitive effects have not been investigated yet...
September 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877364/are-great-apes-able-to-reason-from-multi-item-samples-to-populations-of-food-items
#9
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871318/-psychotherapy-with-older-caregivers
#10
REVIEW
G Wilz, K Pfeiffer
Nursing and caring for a relative can be regarded as an important developmental task, which mainly affects elderly people who provide care for their very old parents or their (spouse) partners. Being responsible for the care of someone can be associated with a severe caregiver burden and experienced as a crisis. Possible psychological consequences are pronounced depressive symptoms or maladaptive stress reactions. For these caregivers, psychotherapeutic counselling can be sensible and helpful in addition to other resources of caregiver support...
September 4, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870754/clinical-and-non-clinical-depression-and-anxiety-in-young-people-a-scoping-review-on-heart-rate-variability
#11
REVIEW
Melissa Paniccia, David Paniccia, Scott Thomas, Tim Taha, Nick Reed
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, has emerged as a physiological indicator for emotional regulation and psychological well-being. HRV is understudied in the context of depression and anxiety in young people (10-24years old). Main objectives: (1) describe the nature and breadth of reviewed studies; and (2) synthesize main findings in the context of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression and/or anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870687/-act-in-the-treatment-of-sexual-addiction-about-a-clinical-case
#12
S Lantheaume
While referring to the theoretical and practical model of R. Harris (2012), this article proposes the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in the treatment of sexual addiction. While dependent behaviors begin and may be maintained by refusal of unpleasant emotional states (that is, addict individuals tend to fight or flee negative emotions by replacing eventually painful or otherwise unpleasant states by behaviors providing pleasure), the ACT framework appears as an ally in treatment of addictive behaviors, in that its goal is a fit between patients' behaviors and their values (instead avoidance of unpleasant states avoidance)...
September 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857574/cognitive-behavioral-interventions-for-alcohol-and-drug-use-disorders-through-the-stage-model-and-back-again
#13
Kathleen M Carroll, Brian D Kiluk
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have among the highest level of empirical support for the treatment of drug and alcohol use disorders. As Psychology of Addictive Behaviors marks its 30th anniversary, we review the evolution of CBT for the addictions through the lens of the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development. The large evidence base from Stage II randomized clinical trials indicates a modest effect size with evidence of relatively durable effects, but limited diffusion in clinical practice, as is the case for most empirically validated approaches for mental health and addictive disorders...
August 31, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857254/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-act-for-clinically%C3%A2-distressed-health-care-workers-waitlist-controlled-evaluation-of-an-act-workshop-in-a-routine-practice-setting
#14
Cerith S Waters, Neil Frude, Paul E Flaxman, Jane Boyd
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of a 1-day acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) workshop on the mental health of clinically distressed health care employees, and to explore ACT's processes of change in a routine practice setting. DESIGN: A quasi-controlled design, with participants block allocated to an ACT intervention or waiting list control group based on self-referral date. METHODS: Participants were 35 health care workers who had self-referred for the ACT workshop via a clinical support service for staff...
August 30, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838226/intradialytic-exercise-improves-physical-function-and-reduces-intradialytic-hypotension-and-depression-in-hemodialysis-patients
#15
So Yon Rhee, Jin Kyung Song, Suk Chul Hong, Jae Won Choi, Hee Jung Jeon, Dong Ho Shin, Eun Hee Ji, Eun-Hee Choi, Jiyeon Lee, Aram Kim, Seung Wook Choi, Jieun Oh
Background/Aims: As numbers of maintenance hemodialysis patients are growing, debilitating conditions of muscle wasting and atrophy are becoming some of the greatest concerns in end-stage renal disease patients. Exercise training has various potential benefits in terms of prevention of a sustained decline in functional status. This study aimed to evaluate the physical, psychological, laboratory, and dialysis-related effects of intradialytic exercise. Methods: We enrolled 22 patients from a hemodialysis center for a 6-month non-randomized prospective trial...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837956/physiological-mechanisms-of-prosociality
#16
REVIEW
Jonas G Miller
Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836916/the-use-of-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-in-oncology-settings-a-narrative-review
#17
Samantha R Fashler, Aliza Z Weinrib, Muhammad Abid Azam, Joel Katz
Various psychotherapeutic approaches have been developed to address the psychosocial stressors and distress associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment. One such approach, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), may be particularly well suited to people with cancer as it offers a model of healthy adaptation to difficult circumstances. This paper provides a description and theoretical rationale for using ACT in psychosocial oncology care that emphasizes emotional distress and cancer-related pain and provides a narrative review of the current state of evidence for this setting...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830035/does-outcome-measurement-of-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder-reflect-the-personal-concerns-of-patients-a-scoping-review-of-measures-recommended-in-europe
#18
REVIEW
Paula Alves, Célia Sales, Mark Ashworth
There are a growing number of authors stating that outcome measurement in treatment for substance use disorders should go beyond substance use and include other bio-psycho-social variables of interest. However, little is known about which topics tend to be covered by outcome measures and whether they reflect the typical concerns of this patient group. This study followed a scoping review methodology in which 42 outcome measures recommended by an EU agency for substance use disorders were reviewed. We identified the domains of problems covered by these 42 measures and then compared them with 54 domains derived from patients, in a previous study...
July 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#19
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806341/impact-of-cochlear-implantation-on-cognitive-functions-of-older-adults-pilot-test-results
#20
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Esmeralda Nel, Ralph N Martins, Marcus D Atlas, Hamid R Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
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