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Psychological flexibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345801/individual-psychological-therapy-in-an-acute-inpatient-setting-service-user-and-psychologist-perspectives
#1
Catherine Small, Nancy Pistrang, Vyv Huddy, Claire Williams
OBJECTIVES: The acute inpatient setting poses potential challenges to delivering one-to-one psychological therapy; however, there is little research on the experiences of both receiving and delivering therapies in this environment. This qualitative study aimed to explore service users' and psychologists' experiences of undertaking individual therapy in acute inpatient units. It focused on the relationship between service users and psychologists, what service users found helpful or unhelpful, and how psychologists attempted to overcome any challenges in delivering therapy...
January 18, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338020/autonomic-stress-reactivity-and-craving-in-individuals-with-problematic-internet-use
#2
Tania Moretta, Giulia Buodo
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320375/psychological-flexibility-mediates-the-effect-of-an-online-based-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-chronic-pain-an-investigation-of-change-processes
#3
Jiaxi Lin, Laura-Isabelle Klatt, Lance M McCracken, Harald Baumeister
One way to improve treatment effects of chronic pain is to identify and improve control over mechanisms of therapeutic change. One treatment approach that includes a specific proposed mechanism is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with its focus on increasing psychological flexibility (PF). The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PF as a mechanism of change in ACT. This is based on mediation analyses of data from a previously reported randomized controlled trial, evaluating the effectiveness of an ACT-based online intervention for chronic pain (ACTonPain)...
December 15, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300416/the-association-between-bmi-and-different-frailty-domains-a-u-shaped-curve
#4
M L Rietman, D L van der A, S H van Oostrom, H S J Picavet, M E T Dollé, H van Steeg, W M M Verschuren, A M W Spijkerman
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294937/understanding-how-domestic-violence-shelter-rules-may-influence-survivor-empowerment
#5
Katie Gregory, Nkiru Nnawulezi, Cris M Sullivan
Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294732/individual-versus-group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-partner-violent-men-a-preliminary-randomized-trial
#6
Christopher M Murphy, Christopher I Eckhardt, Judith M Clifford, Adam D Lamotte, Laura A Meis
A randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that a flexible, case formulation-based, individual treatment approach integrating motivational interviewing strategies with cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is more efficacious than a standardized group cognitive-behavioral approach (GCBT) for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-two men presenting for services at a community domestic violence agency were randomized to receive 20 sessions of ICBT or a 20-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283590/tutorial-the-practical-application-of-longitudinal-structural-equation-mediation-models-in-clinical-trials
#7
Kimberley A Goldsmith, David P MacKinnon, Trudie Chalder, Peter D White, Michael Sharpe, Andrew Pickles
The study of mediation of treatment effects, or how treatments work, is important to understanding and improving psychological and behavioral treatments, but applications often focus on mediators and outcomes measured at a single time point. Such cross-sectional analyses do not respect the implied temporal ordering that mediation suggests. Clinical trials of treatments often provide repeated measures of outcomes and, increasingly, of mediators as well. Repeated measurements allow the application of various types of longitudinal structural equation mediation models...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280505/representing-running-and-revising-mental-models-a%C3%A2-computational-model
#8
Scott Friedman, Kenneth Forbus, Bruce Sherin
People use commonsense science knowledge to flexibly explain, predict, and manipulate the world around them, yet we lack computational models of how this commonsense science knowledge is represented, acquired, utilized, and revised. This is an important challenge for cognitive science: Building higher order computational models in this area will help characterize one of the hallmarks of human reasoning, and it will allow us to build more robust reasoning systems. This paper presents a novel assembled coherence (AC) theory of human conceptual change, whereby people revise beliefs and mental models by constructing and evaluating explanations using fragmentary, globally inconsistent knowledge...
December 27, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260889/doctor-patient-relationship-and-quality-of-life-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-an-exploratory-study-of-the-potential-mediating-role-of-illness-perceptions-and-acceptance
#9
Katrin Hulme, Joseph Chilcot, Michael A Smith
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by unpredictable bowel symptoms. These can be difficult to manage, consequently impacting quality of life (QoL). In addition, a strained doctor-patient relationship is independently reported in the qualitative literature. Given the doctor is often the first port of call for people with IBS, a difficult relationship may influence subsequent IBS management. Research suggests illness perceptions are important in determining IBS outcomes in therapy; however, their association with doctor-patient relationship and QoL is yet to be investigated...
December 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259567/using-functional-analysis-as-a-framework-to-guide-individualized-treatment-for-negative-symptoms
#10
REVIEW
Tania M Lincoln, Marcel Riehle, Matthias Pillny, Sylvia Helbig-Lang, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Matthias Hartmann-Riemer, Stefan Kaiser
Although numerous interventions are available for negative symptoms, outcomes have been unsatisfactory with pharmacological and psychological interventions producing changes of only limited clinical significance. Here, we argue that because negative symptoms occur as a complex syndrome caused and maintained by numerous factors that vary between individuals they are unlikely to be treated effectively by the present "one size fits all" approaches. Instead, a well-founded selection of those interventions relevant to each individual is needed to optimize both the efficiency and the efficacy of existing approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251659/exercise-in-the-management-of-knee-and-hip-osteoarthritis
#11
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Yvonne Golightly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on studies published during July 2001 to August 2017 of exercise as an intervention in knee and hip osteoarthritis, including its influence on an array of patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies continue to illustrate the efficacy of exercise in treating and managing osteoarthritis, with current literature more focused on the knee compared with the hip joint. Both traditional (e.g. strength, aerobic, flexibility) and more nontraditional (e...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247385/within-subject-mediation-analysis-for-experimental-data-in-cognitive-psychology-and-neuroscience
#12
Matti Vuorre, Niall Bolger
Statistical mediation allows researchers to investigate potential causal effects of experimental manipulations through intervening variables. It is a powerful tool for assessing the presence and strength of postulated causal mechanisms. Although mediation is used in certain areas of psychology, it is rarely applied in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. One reason for the scarcity of applications is that these areas of psychology commonly employ within-subjects designs, and mediation models for within-subjects data are considerably more complicated than for between-subjects data...
December 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246282/impulsiveness-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-glucoregulation-affect-measures-of-behavioral-flexibility
#13
Leigh M Riby, Derek Lai Teik Ong, Nurulnadia Binti Mohamad Azmie, Ee Lyn Ooi, Caroline Regina, Eugene Ki Wai Yeo, Jacqueline Massa, Luca Aquili
Behavioral flexibility (BF) performance is influenced by both psychological and physiological factors. Recent evidence suggests that impulsivity and blood glucose can affect executive function, of which BF is a subdomain. Here, we hypothesized that impulsivity, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose changes (ie, glucoregulation) from postprandial blood glucose (PBG) following the intake of a 15-g glucose beverage could account for variability in BF performance. The Stroop Color-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of BF, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) to quantify participants' impulsivity...
December 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238497/the-role-of-anxiety-and-depression-on-acceptance-and-action-considering-emotional-schemas-in-diabetics-of-birjand-iran
#14
Elham Imani, Fatemeh Shahabizadeh, Alireza Mahmoodirad
Background: Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases around the world that accompanies assorted psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression due to being chronic. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anxiety and depression on acceptance and action, considering emotional schemas of diabetics referring to diabetes clinics of health centers in Birjand, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in 2016 and was a correlational study with a structural equation modeling approach...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238320/understanding-appearance-enhancing-drug-use-in-sport-using-an-enactive-approach-to-body-image
#15
Denis Hauw, Jean Bilard
From an enactive approach to human activity, we suggest that the use of appearance-enhancing drugs is better explained by the sense-making related to body image rather than the cognitive evaluation of social norms about appearance and consequent psychopathology-oriented approach. After reviewing the main psychological disorders thought to link body image issues to the use of appearance-enhancing substances, we sketch a flexible, dynamic and embedded account of body image defined as the individual's propensity to act and experience in specific situations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237208/-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-disease
#16
Katharina Kuba, Gregor Weißflog
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an intervention representing a transdiagnostic and contextual approach that assumes that psychological suffering is caused by experiential avoidance. The primary intention of ACT is not to eliminate symptoms and to treat mental disorders. Instead, ACT aims to increase psychological flexibility, i. e. to broaden the repertoire of cognitions and behaviors when facing inner and outer aversive events or experiences. Psychological flexibility can be enhanced by working with the 6 core components of the ACT model...
December 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236623/group-based-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-act-for-older-veterans-findings-from-a-quality-improvement-project
#17
M Lindsey Jacobs, Katherine Luci, Lauren Hagemann
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a 12-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Older Veterans group protocol. METHODS: The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement model was the foundational process for this project. Veterans age 55 years and older participated in an ACT for Older Veterans group in an outpatient geropsychology clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Study methods included analysis of participant feedback gathered in a focus group, process measures (i...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235432/impact-of-informal-caregiving-on-cognitive-function-and-well-being-in-canada
#18
Sasha Mallya, Alexandra J Fiocco
BACKGROUND: With a rise in the aging population and a consequential rise in persons diagnosed with dementia comes an increase in the number of informal caregivers who are caring for a loved one. The objective of the proposed study was to assess the neurocognitive and psychological effects of caring for a person with dementia or a related neurodegenerative disease in a sample of Canadian informal caregivers. METHODS: Fifty-seven informal caregivers of a person with dementia or a related neurodegenerative disease (mean age = 66...
December 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228806/a-pilot-online-mindfulness-intervention-to-decrease-caregiver-burden-and-improve-psychological-well-being
#19
Rifky Tkatch, Dawn Bazarko, Shirley Musich, Lizi Wu, Stephanie MacLeod, Karen Keown, Kevin Hawkins, Ellen Wicker
Interventions to reduce caregiver burden are of great interest as the number of informal family caregivers continues to grow. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an online mindfulness meditation intervention for community-dwelling older adult caregivers and to evaluate its impact on quality of life, caregiver burden, and psychological well-being. A total of 40 caregivers were recruited from 2 community center support groups to participate in an 8-week online mindfulness intervention. Pre and post surveys were administered...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218400/-emotional-robots-in-a-nursing-context-empirical-analysis-of-the-present-use-and-the-effects-of-paro-and-pleo
#20
REVIEW
Stefanie Baisch, Thorsten Kolling, Saskia Rühl, Barbara Klein, Johannes Pantel, Frank Oswald, Monika Knopf
BACKGROUND: It has been questioned by researchers in robotics as well in the general public to what extent companion-type robots can support the elderly with the fulfillment of their psychological and social needs. Although these robots have already been used in care settings in Germany, research has referred little to this practical experience in order to analyze their impact and benefit. To start to close this gap, the current article reports on the current use of companion-type robots in care settings, on the effects reported by professional caregivers as well as on the role of psychosocial needs in the acceptance and use of companion-type robots by the elderly...
December 7, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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