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Sensory over

Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Interaction with the environment requires fast and reliable sensory processing. The visual system is confronted with a continuous flow of high-dimensional input (e.g. orientation, color, motion). From a theoretical point of view, it would be advantageous if critical information was processed independent of attentional load, i.e. preattentively. Here, we hypothesized that visual motion is such a critical signal and aimed for a neural signature of its preattentive encoding. Furthermore, we were interested in the neural correlates of predictability of linear motion trajectories based on the presence or absence of preceding motion...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Loren C Hoffmann, S James Zara, Evan D DeLord, Michael D Mauk
Transforming a brief sensory event into a persistent neural response represents a mechanism for linking temporally-disparate stimuli together to support learning. The cerebellum requires this type of persistent input during trace conditioning to engage associative plasticity and acquire adaptively-timed conditioned responses (CRs). An initial step toward identifying the sites and mechanisms generating and transmitting persistent signals to the cerebellum is to identify the input pathway. The medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN) are the necessary and sufficient source of auditory input to the cerebellum for delay conditioning in rodents and a possible input to forebrain sites generating persistent signals...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jian Yu, Shiqiang Shan, Yu Nie
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of various doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on ropivacaine (ROP)-induced lumbar plexus-sciatic nerve block (LSB). A total of 80 patients who underwent ankle surgery under LSB were divided into group R (applied with 30 ml 5% ROP), Dex1 (30 ml 0.5% ROP + 1 µg/kg DEX), Dex2 (30 ml 0.5% ROP + 1.5 µg/kg DEX) and Dex3 (30 ml 0.5% ROP + 2 µg/kg DEX), with 20 cases in each group. The onset time and duration of sensory and motor block, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, Ramsay score, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level and adverse reactions in the four groups were observed...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ben Godde, Patrick Bruns, Volker Wendel, Mireille Trautmann
Tactile perception results from the interplay of peripheral and central mechanisms for detection and sensation of objects and the discrimination and evaluation of their size, shapes, and surface characteristics. For different tasks, we investigated this interaction between more bottom-up stimulus-driven and rather top-down attention-related and cognitive processes in tactile perception. Moreover, we were interested in effects of age and tactile experiences on this interaction. 299 right-handed women participated in our study and were divided into five age groups: 18-25 years (N = 77), 30-45 years (N = 76), 50-65 years (N = 62), 66-75 years (N = 63) and older than 75 years (N = 21)...
August 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Kirill V Nourski, Mitchell Steinschneider, Ariane E Rhone, Hiroto Kawasaki, Matthew A Howard, Matthew I Banks
Under the predictive coding hypothesis, specific spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activation are postulated to occur during sensory processing as expectations generate feedback predictions and prediction errors generate feedforward signals. Establishing experimental evidence for this information flow within cortical hierarchy has been difficult, especially in humans, due to spatial and temporal limitations of non-invasive measures of cortical activity. This study investigated cortical responses to auditory novelty using the local/global deviant paradigm, which engages the hierarchical network underlying auditory predictive coding over short ('local deviance'; LD) and long ('global deviance'; GD) time scales...
August 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
Synchrony of brain activity over time describes the functional connectivity between brain regions but does not address the temporal component of this relationship. We propose a complementary method of analysis by introducing the width of cross-correlation curves between functional MRI (fMRI) time series as a metric of the relative duration of synchronous activity between brain regions, or "sustained connectivity". Using resting-state fMRI, cognitive, and demographics data from 1,003 subjects included in the Human Connectome Project, we find that sustained connectivity is a reproducible trait in individuals, heritable, more transient in females, and shows changes with age in early adulthood...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Arun Gundmi Maiya, Shubha Gundmi, Prabhath Matpady, Radhika Jadhav, Ramachandra Lingadakai, Manjunatha Hande, Veena G Kamath, K N Shivashankar, P Chinmayee, Animesh Hazari, Nagarathna Shastri, Rohini Hande, Mads Mundt Loftager, Sundar Kumar Veluswamy, Edward Jude
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of foot complications among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the rural part of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional observational study design was conducted in the rural area of Udupi district. In the study, accredited social health activists were trained to screen people with type 2 diabetes mellitus for diabetic foot complications at a community level. Adults over 35 years of age were screened for the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus by accredited social health activists who reside in the rural part of Udupi district...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Evan M Gordon, Charles J Lynch, Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Adrian W Gilmore, Deanna J Greene, Mario Ortega, Annie L Nguyen, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Nico U F Dosenbach, Steven M Nelson
Control over behavior is enabled by the brain's control networks, which interact with lower-level sensory motor and default networks to regulate their functions. Such interactions are facilitated by specialized "connector hub" regions that interconnect discrete networks. Previous work has treated hubs as a single category of brain regions, although their unitary nature is dubious when examined in individual brains. Here we investigated the nature of hubs by using fMRI to characterize individual-specific hub regions in two independent datasets...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Benjamin Sandkam, Brian Dalton, Felix Breden, Karen Carleton
Sensory drive predicts coevolution of mate choice signals with the sensory systems detecting those signals. Guppies are a classic model for sensory drive as mate preferences based on coloration differ across individuals and populations. A large body of work has identified variation in color vision, yet we lack a direct tie between how such variation in color vision influences variation in color preference. Here we bring together studies that have investigated guppy vision over the past 40 years to: (1) highlight our current understanding of where variation occurs in the guppy color vision pathway and (2) suggest future avenues of research into sources of visual system variation that could influence guppy color preference...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Simone E Dekker, Chad A Glenn, Thomas A Ostergard, Brian D Rothstein, Nicholas C Bambakidis
This operative video illustrates resection of a cervical ependymoma in a 40-yr-old female with numbness of upper and lower extremities and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an enhancing intramedullary intradural spinal mass at C2-3. The patient underwent a posterior cervical laminoplasty for tumor resection. This video highlights the natural history of this disease, treatment options, surgical procedure, potential risks and complications, and postoperative management of ependymomas. A posterior midline skin incision was made from the inion to the level of C4 which exposed the posterolateral elements of C1-3...
August 13, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Steven D Hicks, Richard Uhlig, Parisa Afshari, Jeremy Williams, Maria Chroneos, Cheryl Tierney-Aves, Kayla Wagner, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the "microbial-gut-brain axis." Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Wen Mai Wong, Maximilian Nagel, Andres Hernandez-Clavijo, Simone Pifferi, Anna Menini, Marc Spehr, Julian P Meeks
Sensory adaptation is a source of experience-dependent feedback that impacts responses to environmental cues. In the mammalian main olfactory system (MOS), adaptation influences sensory coding at its earliest processing stages. Sensory adaptation in the accessory olfactory system (AOS) remains incompletely explored, leaving many aspects of the phenomenon unclear. We investigated sensory adaptation in vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) using a combination of in situ Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology. Parallel studies revealed prominent short-term sensory adaptation in VSNs upon repeated stimulation with mouse urine and monomolecular bile acid ligands at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) less than 30 s...
July 2018: ENeuro
Emily Schartner, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Ali Saleh, Rafaela Vieira Silva, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Darrell R Smith, Paul Fernyhough
In peripheral nerve under hyperglycemic conditions high flux of d-glucose through the polyol pathway drives an aberrant redox state contributing to neurodegeneration in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). Sirtuins, including SIRT2, detect the redox state via the NAD+ /NADH ratio to regulate mitochondrial function via, in part, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α). In adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiological factor in dying-back neuropathy in diabetes...
August 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Cameron M Gee, Melissa A Lacroix, Christopher R West
Boosting is the induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to reflexively activate otherwise dormant thoracolumbar sympathetic circuitry to 'boost' the capacity of the cardiovascular system and enhance exercise performance. AD is a life-threatening condition unique to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by a sudden increase in sympathetic activity below the level of the SCI. Here we report on the temporal heart rate response to an episode of unintentional boosting during a validated field-based exercise performance test in an athlete with tetraplegia...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joseph T Giacino, Douglas I Katz, Nicholas D Schiff, John Whyte, Eric J Ashman, Stephen Ashwal, Richard Barbano, Flora M Hammond, Steven Laureys, Geoffrey S F Ling, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Ronald T Seel, Stuart Yablon, Thomas S D Getchius, Gary S Gronseth, Melissa J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition for the minimally conscious state (MCS) by reviewing the literature on the diagnosis, natural history, prognosis, and treatment of disorders of consciousness lasting at least 28 days. METHODS: Articles were classified per the AAN evidence-based classification system. Evidence synthesis occurred through a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation process...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Deepa Agarwal, Lim Mui, Emma Aldridge, Richard Mottram, James McKinney, Ian D Fisk
The impact of natural cheese and onion seasoning on the sensory perception and shelf life stability of potato crisps was studied. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of nitrogen (N2) gas flushing on the shelf-life stability and sensory attributes of cheese & onion seasoned potato crisps. Markers of lipid oxidation and flavour volatile compounds were evaluated in sliced, unwashed, batch fried potato crisps during accelerated storage at 45 °C for 10 weeks. Volatile flavour compounds were evaluated by headspace gas analysis using solid phase microextraction (SPME) GC-MS and correlated with sensory perception...
August 10, 2018: Food & Function
Lara Alexander, Dalene de Beer, Magdalena Muller, Marieta van der Rijst, Elizabeth Joubert
BACKGROUND: Steam treatment of shredded, fresh C. maculata (honeybush) plant material improves the aroma of this green herbal tea with a slight impact on color and phenolic content, but the effect on storage stability is not known. RESULTS: Steam-treated (60 s before drying) and untreated (control), dried plant material were stored under normal storage conditions in semi-permeable sachets at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. Reference samples of treated (steamed) and untreated (control) material were stored at 0 °C in impermeable pouches for maximum retention of quality...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tami Bar-Shalita, Anatoly Livshitz, Yulia Levin-Meltz, Debbie Rand, Lisa Deutsch, Jean-Jacques Vatine
OBJECTIVE: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a chronic pain condition, develops mainly after limb trauma and severely inhibits function. While early diagnosis is essential, factors for CRPS onset are elusive. Therefore, identifying those at risk is crucial. Sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD), affects the capacity to regulate responses to sensory input in a graded and adaptive manner and was found associated with hyperalgesia in otherwise healthy individuals, suggestive of altered pain processing...
2018: PloS One
Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Jörg Hennenlotter, Thomas Dillenburg, Patricia Toomey, J Wöllner, P Zweers, J Pannek, Karl-Erik Andersson, Bastian Amend
OBJECTIVE: To perform descriptive microscopic study of prostatectomy specimens from 19 patients which anatomically characterizes distributions of periprostatic nerves qualities and visualize them using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Serial whole-mounted sections were stained for cholinergic(nNOS), adrenergic(TH), and sensory(CGRP) nerves. Extracapsular stained nerves were counted by prostate surface sector and classified by diameter. Stain-related relative density was calculated and distribution patterns were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: BJU International
Lauren E Gascoyne, Karen J Mullinger, Siân E Robson, Jyothika Kumar, George C O'Neill, Lena Palaniyappan, Peter G Morris, Elizabeth B Liddle, Matthew J Brookes, Peter F Liddle
The healthy brain is able to maintain a stable balance between bottom-up sensory processing and top-down cognitive control. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays a substantial role in this. Disruption of this balance could contribute to symptoms occurring in psychosis, including subtle disruption of motor control and aberrant appropriation of salience to external stimuli; however the pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. On account of the role beta oscillations play in mediating cognitive control, investigation of beta oscillations is potentially informative about such mechanisms...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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