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Olivia Jones, Igor Schindler, Henning Holle
Itch, a complex unpleasant sensation causing the desire to scratch, results from the activity of a network of brain regions. However, the specific functional contributions of individual regions within this network remains poorly understood. We investigated whether contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2) and ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are critically involved in the cortical processing of acute itch. Continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) was applied to either S1, S2 or IFG, followed by itch induction using a histamine prick...
October 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Huiqian Yu, Dan Wang, Qingzhong Li
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the somatosensory dysfunction of the auricle and periotic skin in patients undergoing otitis media surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Symptoms of periotic somatosensory function after surgery were investigated in 100 patients (42 males, 58 females, mean age 41.39 years) who underwent otitis media surgery. Questionnaires on periotic somatosensory disturbance were answered after surgery at least over 1 year postoperatively...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Karmel Webb, Pradhib Venkatesan
Introduction: Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) has rarely been associated with tuberculosis and has been previously reported after Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination, but we report an association of GBS with intra-vesical BCG instillations followed by the clinical picture of disseminated BCGosis. Case presentation: A 68-year-old man with bladder carcinoma had a transurethral tumour resection followed by repeated BCG instillations. Catheterization for his eighth dose was traumatic, causing frank haematuria...
August 2018: JMM Case Reports
Alex T Piet, Ahmed El Hady, Carlos D Brody
Decision making in dynamic environments requires discounting old evidence that may no longer inform the current state of the world. Previous work found that humans discount old evidence in a dynamic environment, but do not discount at the optimal rate. Here we investigated whether rats can optimally discount evidence in a dynamic environment by adapting the timescale over which they accumulate evidence. Using discrete evidence pulses, we exactly compute the optimal inference process. We show that the optimal timescale for evidence discounting depends on both the stimulus statistics and noise in sensory processing...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Lorian E Schweikert, Robert R Fitak, Eleanor M Caves, Tracey T Sutton, Sönke Johnsen
A major goal of sensory ecology is to identify factors that underlie sensory-trait variation. One open question centers on why fishes show the greatest diversity among vertebrates in their capacity to detect color (i.e., spectral sensitivity). Over the past several decades, λ max values (photoreceptor class peak sensitivity) and chromacy (photoreceptor class number) have been cataloged for hundreds of fish species, yet the ecological basis of this diversity and the functional significance of high chromacy levels (e...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mubarak Ali, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Saima Nasir, Ivana Duznovic, Christof M Niemeyer, Wolfgang Ensinger
Solid-state nanofluidic pores have been attracting considerable attention of scientific community because of their structural and chemical resemblance with biological ion channels for mimicking biological processes in living systems. Compared to ion channels, synthetic nanopores exhibit high stability, control over pore dimensions (size and geometry) and their surface chemical properties can be tuned on demand. Therefore, they are considered perfect candidates to design and develop nanofluidic sensory devices by introducing a variety of functional moieties on the inner pore surface...
December 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sandip Koley, Meir Rozenbaum, Mike Fainzilber, Marco Terenzio
Neurons need to overcome long distances in order to function in a mature mammal, for example motor neurons and sensory neurons project axons up to a meter long in humans. To this end, a sophisticated network of long-range signaling mechanisms enables communication between neuronal processes and somata. These mechanisms are activated during axonal injury and have essential roles both for sensing the injury and regulating subsequent regeneration. Here we survey the role of one such mechanism, axonal translation, which contributes to both retrograde injury signaling and as a source of proteins for regenerating axons...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Sonia Bonacci, Rosina Paonessa, Paola Costanzo, Raffaele Salerno, Jessica Maiuolo, Monica Nardi, Antonio Procopio, Oliverio Manuela
The biological activities of oleuropein (Ole) and its metabolites have been extensively documented and show a spectrum of highly interesting bioactivities, which demonstrates the potential of oleuropein for inclusion in food and beverages. In the present work, acetylated oleuropein (OleAc), a safe, biologically active semi-synthetic stable derivative of oleuropein, has been proposed as a facile alternative to make oleuropein more bioavailable and suitable for addition to fatty foods. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been proposed as a model of perishable food to evaluate the potential application of OleAc for the preparation of functional food and the impact of its formulation factors on the fragile nutritive components of EVOO...
October 15, 2018: Food & Function
Robert Jertberg, Carmel A Levitan, Aleksandra Sherman
Binocular rivalry occurs when two percepts, each presented to a single eye, compete for perceptual dominance. Across two experiments, we investigated whether emotional music influenced perceptual dominance of an emotionally congruent face. In the first experiment, participants heard music (happy, threatening, none) while viewing a positive or negative emotional face pitted against a neutral face or emotional faces pitted against each other. Several key findings emerged. As expected, emotional faces significantly dominated over neutral faces, irrespective of music...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Haoyu Chen, Xueling Ning, Lingwei Wang, Jiongjiong Yang
One influential theory on object knowledge is feature-based model, which proposes that the object knowledge is organized by different feature types, such as sensory/perceptual and motor/functional ones. Previous studies have shown that prior knowledge enhances the processes of acquiring and remembering relevant information. However, whether the effect of prior knowledge is applied to different types of conceptual information over time remains unclear. In this study, we addressed this question by testing memory of different types of object features at various retention intervals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
A Zhigalov, E Heinilä, T Parviainen, L Parkkonen, A Hyvärinen
Neurofeedback requires a direct translation of neuronal brain activity to sensory input given to the user or subject. However, decoding certain states, e.g., mindfulness or wandering thoughts, from ongoing brain activity remains an unresolved problem. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to acquire brain activity during mindfulness meditation and thought-inducing tasks mimicking wandering thoughts. We used a novel real-time feature extraction to decode the mindfulness, i.e., to discriminate it from the thought-inducing tasks...
October 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Jackson J Scheib, Joanna M Pozzuto, Christine A Byrd-Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Deafferentation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb allows investigation of neuroplasticity in a particularly dynamic brain region of a popular model animal known for its regenerative abilities. Current methods to remove sensory input to the zebrafish olfactory bulb differ in the extent of deafferentation and potential for recovery. NEW METHOD: We present a novel method of olfactory bulb deafferentation using continuous wax plug insertions into the nasal cavity of zebrafish...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Anne Järve, Mihail Todiras, Xiaoming Lian, Rafael Filippelli-Silva, Fatimunnisa Qadri, Renan P Martin, Maik Gollasch, Michael Bader
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a syndrome caused by loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic activity and amplified vascular reflex upon sensory stimuli below injury level, is a major health problem in high-level spinal cord injury (SCI). After supraspinal sympathetic control of the vasculature below the lesion is lost, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is thought to be involved in AD by regulating blood pressure and vascular reactivity. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of different RAS receptors during AD following SCI...
October 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
James Lin, Kwang-Tsao Shao, David G Smith
The congrid eel genus Macrocephenchelys in Taiwan is reviewed. Three species are recognized. Macrocephenchelys brachialis was originally described from Indonesia and is also known from Taiwan, Madagascar, and Vanuatu; it is common in Taiwan but known from few specimens elsewhere. Macrocephenchelys brevirostris was described from Taiwan, where it is common; its occurrence outside Taiwan is uncertain. Macrocephenchelys nigriventris sp. nov. is described here from 28 specimens collected in Taiwan. Macrocephenchelys brachialis is distinguished from the other two species by its more elongate body, more posterior dorsal-fin origin (behind tip of pectoral fin), shorter head (less than 10% total length), presence of a supratemporal pore, absence of fleshy papillae dorsally on the head, absence of sensory pits on the abdomen, and more than 170 vertebrae...
July 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Avichai Tendler, Bat Chen Wolf, Vivekanand Tiwari, Uri Alon, Avihai Danon
Plants experience light intensity over several orders of magnitude. High light is stressful, and plants have several protective feedback mechanisms against this stress. Here we asked how plants respond to sudden rises at low ambient light, far below stressful levels. For this, we studied the fluorescence of excited chlorophyll a of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to step increases in light level at different background illuminations. We found a response at low-medium light with characteristics of a sensory system: fold-change detection (FCD), Weber law, and exact adaptation, in which the response depends only on relative, and not absolute, light changes...
September 26, 2018: iScience
Pim Mostert, Anke Marit Albers, Loek Brinkman, Larisa Todorova, Peter Kok, Floris P de Lange
A relatively new analysis technique, known as neural decoding or multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), has become increasingly popular for cognitive neuroimaging studies over recent years. These techniques promise to uncover the representational contents of neural signals, as well as the underlying code and the dynamic profile thereof. A field in which these techniques have led to novel insights in particular is that of visual working memory (VWM). In the present study, we subjected human volunteers to a combined VWM/imagery task while recording their neural signals using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Hyochol Ahn, Robert Suchting, Adam J Woods, Hongyu Miao, Charles Green, Raymond Y Cho, Eunyoung Choi, Roger B Fillingim
Purpose: Previous studies have indicated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode over the motor cortex and the cathode over the contralateral supraorbital region is effective in reducing clinical pain in patients with chronic pain, but these studies have not focused on experimental pain sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of tDCS on experimental pain sensitivity in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients and methods: Forty community-dwelling participants aged 50-70 years with knee OA pain were randomly assigned to receive five daily sessions of 2 mA tDCS for 20 minutes (n = 20) or sham tDCS (n = 20) using a parallel group design...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Courtney R Sparks, Angela Gorney, Kim Williams, Emily H Griffith, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez, B Duncan X Lascelles, Natasha J Olby
BACKGROUND: Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) suffer pain associated with Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia (CMSM). People suffer from a similar condition and describe numerous sensory abnormalities. Sensory changes have not been quantified in affected CKCS. OBJECTIVES: To use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to quantify thermal and mechanical thresholds in CKCS and to compare QST in dogs with and without syringomyelia (SM). ANIMALS: Forty-four CKCS...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
S J Sawiak, Y Shiba, L Oikonomidis, C P Windle, A M Santangelo, H Grydeland, G Cockcroft, E T Bullmore, A C Roberts
With increasing attention on the developmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, appropriate animal models are crucial to identifying causes and assessing potential interventions. The common marmoset is an ideal model as it has sophisticated social/emotional behavior, reaching adulthood within 2 years of birth. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in an accelerated longitudinal cohort (n = 41; aged 3-27 months; scanned 2-7 times over 2 years). Splines were used to model nonlinear trajectories of grey matter volume development in 53 cortical areas and 16 subcortical nuclei...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lisa C Carlesso, Neil A Segal, Laura Frey-Law, Yuqing Zhang, Na Lu, Michael Nevitt, Core E Lewis, Tuhina Neogi
OBJECTIVES: Why some individuals develop pain with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is not clear. We sought to identify pain susceptibility phenotypes (PSPs) and their relation to incident persistent knee pain (PKP) 2 years later. METHODS: We identified individuals free of PKP from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a longitudinal cohort of older adults with or at risk of knee OA. Latent class analysis was used to determine PSPs that may contribute to development of PKP apart from structural pathology: widespread pain, poor sleep, psychological factors and quantitative sensory tests (QST) (i...
October 11, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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