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Sensory over

Florian Brugger, Amy Peters, Dejan Georgiev, Georg Kägi, Bettina Balint, Kailash P Bhatia, Brian L Day
BACKGROUND: Muscle vibration activates muscle spindles and when applied over posterior neck muscles during stance modulates global body orientation. This is characterised by a tonic forward sway response that is reportedly diminished or absent in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia. OBJECTIVE: To investigating the impact of the sensory trick on vibration-induced postural responses. METHODS: 20 patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia and a sensory trick, 15 patients without a trick, and 16 healthy controls were recruited...
December 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Andrew Bowers, Tim Saltuklaroglu, David Jenson, Ashley Harkrider, David Thornton
The sensorimotor dorsal stream is known to activate in both overt and covert speech production. However, overt production produces sensory consequences that are absent during covert production. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to investigate differences in dorsal stream activity between these two production conditions across the time course of utterances. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 68 channels while 23 participants overtly (Op) and covertly (Cp) produced orthographically cued bisyllabic targets...
December 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Carolyn E Jones, Tom M Navis, Peyton Teutsch, Ryan A Opel, Miranda M Lim
Sensory gating, the ability to suppress sensory information of irrelevant stimuli, is affected in several neuropsychiatric diseases, notably schizophrenia and autism. It is currently unclear how these deficits interact with other hallmark symptoms of these disorders, such as social withdrawal and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. The highly affiliative prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) may be an ideal model organism to study the neurobiology underlying social behavior. In this study, we assessed unimodal acoustic sensory gating in male and female prairie voles using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm, whereby a lower amplitude sound (prepulse) decreases the startle response to a high amplitude sound (pulse) compared to the high amplitude sound alone...
December 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Alexandra Lezkan, Knut Drewing
Although the natural haptic perception of textures includes active finger movements, it is unclear how closely perception and movements are linked. Here we investigated this question using oriented textures. Textures that are composed of periodically repeating grooves have a clear orientation defined by the grooves. The direction of finger movement relative to texture orientation determines the availability of temporal cues to the spatial period of the texture. These cues are absent during movements directed in line with texture orientation, whereas movements orthogonal to texture orientation maximize the temporal frequency of stimulation...
2018: PloS One
Lilia I Correa, Karem Cardenas, Jordi Casanova-Mollá, Josep Valls-Solé
All sensory stimuli produce transient excitability changes in various central nervous system circuits. One example is prepulse inhibition (PPI), which is the inhibition generated by a preceding weak stimulus (prepulse) over the reflex response to a subsequent suprathreshold stimulus. The PPI is a ubiquitous phenomenon, common to many different sensory modalities. However, it has not yet been studied with thermoalgesic stimuli. These stimuli take a relatively long time to reach their peak, which implies some uncertainty in the exact timing of prepulse effects with respect to stimulus onset...
December 14, 2018: Psychophysiology
Johnny T Nelson, Mitchell R Gauger, James D Whaley, Ephraim M Zinberg
INTRODUCTION: To date, no method has been described or utilized to study the distribution of symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome. We describe a technique of symptom-mapping that yields a population-based "anatomic profile" of carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: Symptoms were mapped on visual questionnaires depicting the volar hand, wrist and forearm. Thirty-four hands in 26 patients with isolated carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. RESULTS: Painful symptoms were clearly centered over the carpal tunnel and were reported much less frequently in the digits...
December 14, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Pablo A Gaspar, Rolando I Castillo, Alejandro Maturana, María J Villar, Karen Ulloa, Gabriel González, Osvaldo Ibaceta, Andrea Ortiz, Sebastián Corral, Rocío Mayol, Valeria De Angel, María B Aburto, Antígona Martínez, Cheryl M Corcoran, Hernán Silva
AIM: Early detection and intervention (EDI) is a main challenge in psychosis research. The Chilean schizophrenia (SZ) national program has universal support and treatment by law for all SZ patients, but this does not yet extend to earlier stages of illness. Therefore, we have piloted an ultra-high risk (UHR) program to demonstrate the utility and feasibility of this public health approach in Chile. METHODS: We introduce "The University of Chile High-risk Intervention Program," which is the first national EDI program for UHR youths...
December 11, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
German I Parisi, Jun Tani, Cornelius Weber, Stefan Wermter
Artificial autonomous agents and robots interacting in complex environments are required to continually acquire and fine-tune knowledge over sustained periods of time. The ability to learn from continuous streams of information is referred to as lifelong learning and represents a long-standing challenge for neural network models due to catastrophic forgetting in which novel sensory experience interferes with existing representations and leads to abrupt decreases in the performance on previously acquired knowledge...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Isaac L Kurtzer
Previous studies have demonstrated a progression of function when healthy subjects counter a sudden mechanical load. Short-latency reflexes are linked to local stretch of the particular muscle and its antagonist. Long-latency reflexes integrate stretch information from both local sources and muscles crossing remote joints appropriate for limb's mechanical interactions. Unresolved is how sensory information is processed throughout the corrective response since capabilities at some time can be produced by circuits acting at that delay and at a briefer delays...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yu Hashimoto, Hidenori Ogata, Ryo Yamasaki, Takakazu Sasaguri, Senri Ko, Kenichiro Yamashita, Zhang Xu, Takuya Matsushita, Takahisa Tateishi, Shin'ichi Akiyama, Shoichi Maruyama, Akifumi Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi Kira
Background: Several case reports have described the concurrence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and membranous nephropathy (MN). The presence of autoantibodies against podocyte antigens phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type 1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) in MN suggests an autoimmune mechanism. Some CIDP patients also harbor autoantibodies against paranodal proteins such as neurofascin 155 (NF155) and contactin-1 (CNTN1). We investigated the relationship between CIDP and MN by assaying autoantibodies against paranodal and podocyte antigens in a CIDP patient with MN, and by a literature survey on the clinical features of CIDP with MN...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Kazuhiro Noda, Tadashi Kitahara, Katsumi Doi
A growing body of research is focused on identifying and understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie tinnitus. Unfortunately, however, most current models cannot adequately explain the majority of tinnitus features. For instance, although tinnitus generally appears within minutes after entering a silent environment, most models postulate that tinnitus emerges over a much larger timescale (days). Similarly, there is a limited understanding of how the severity of tinnitus can differ in patients with a similar degree of hearing loss...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Donald Vaganée, Thomas M Kessler, Sigrid Van de Borne, Gunter De Win, Stefan de Wachter
OBJECTIVES: To assess clinical follow-up data over 24 months using the standardized tined lead implantation technique, comparing the use of the curved vs straight stylet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single tertiary center, prospective study (August 2013 - June 2015) involving 40 patients with overactive bladder and 15 with non-obstructive urinary retention refractory to first-line treatment. PRIMARY OUTCOME: successful tined lead procedure; intention to treat analysis at 12 and 24 months...
December 11, 2018: BJU International
Sung Yong Oh, Suee Lee, Seok Jae Huh, Jeeyun Lee, Seung Tae Kim, Se Hoon Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Won Ki Kang, Byung Woog Kang, Jong Gwang Kim, Hyo Jin Lee, Jung Hoon Kim, Jung Hun Kang, HoUng Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of 30-min maintenance infusions of trastuzumab in advanced gastric cancer positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted across five Korean hospitals in patients with HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma treated with first-line, 3-weekly trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. The first dose of trastuzumab (8 mg/kg) was administered as a 90-min infusion, with all subsequent maintenance infusions (6 mg/kg) given over 30 min...
December 8, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Diego Vidaurre, Nicholas E Myers, Mark Stokes, Anna C Nobre, Mark W Woolrich
In this article, we propose a method to track trial-specific neural dynamics of stimulus processing and decision making with high temporal precision. By applying this novel method to a perceptual template-matching task, we tracked representational brain states associated with the cascade of neural processing, from early sensory areas to higher order areas that are involved in integration and decision making. We address a major limitation of the traditional decoding approach: that it relies on consistent timing of these processes over trials...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Ana M Leal-Zanchet, Alessandro Damasceno Marques
Faunal inventories in ferruginous caves from an area belonging to the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado phytophysiognomy), on the eastern margin of the Serra do Espinhaço Plateau, in southeastern Brazil, have revealed the occurrence of land flatworms. Herein, a flatworm sampled in such subterranean environment is described as a new genus and species of the Neotropical subfamily Geoplaninae, Difroehlichia elenae gen. nov., sp. nov. The new genus shows rare features within Geoplaninae, namely sub-cylindrical body, poorly developed sub-epidermal musculature and a narrow creeping sole...
2018: PeerJ
Hassan G Qureshi, Annie A Butler, Graham K Kerr, Simon C Gandevia, Martin E Héroux
We have previously shown that, with the hands apart vertically, passively grasping an artificial finger induces a sense of ownership over the artificial finger and coming-together of the hands. The present study investigated this grasp illusion in the horizontal plane. Thirty healthy participants were tested in two conditions (grasp and no grasp) with their hands at different distances apart, either crossed or uncrossed. After 3 min, participants reported perceived spacing between index fingers, perceived index finger location, and, for the grasp condition, perceived ownership over the artificial finger...
December 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric J Earley, Reva E Johnson, Levi J Hargrove, Jon W Sensinger
Sensory feedback is critical in fine motor control, learning, and adaptation. However, robotic prosthetic limbs currently lack the feedback segment of the communication loop between user and device. Sensory substitution feedback can close this gap, but sometimes this improvement only persists when users cannot see their prosthesis, suggesting the provided feedback is redundant with vision. Thus, given the choice, users rely on vision over artificial feedback. To effectively augment vision, sensory feedback must provide information that vision cannot provide or provides poorly...
December 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lilliana M Sanchez, Jonathan Goss, Jennifer Wagner, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton, Benjamin J Clark
Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The neurobiological basis of memory deficits after prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is often linked to structural and functional alterations in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus. Recent evidence suggests that the medial temporal lobe plays a critical role in processing high-order sensory stimuli such as complex objects and their associated locations in space...
December 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Charles H Sullivan, Himani D Majumdar, Karen M Neilson, Sally A Moody
The specialized sensory organs of the vertebrate head are derived from thickened patches of cells in the ectoderm called cranial sensory placodes. The developmental program that generates these placodes and the genes that are expressed during the process have been studied extensively in a number of animals, yet very little is known about how these genes regulate one another. We previously found via a microarray screen that Six1, a known transcriptional regulator of cranial placode fate, up-regulates Irx1 in ectodermal explants...
December 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Kenji Ichiyama, Chen Dong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential factors of an extensively conserved post-transcriptional process to regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play a pivotal role in immunity, including controlling the differentiation of various immune cells as well as their immunological functions. The miR-183 cluster, which is comprised of miR-183, -96 and -182, is a miRNA family with sequence homology. These miRNAs are usually transcribed together as a polycistronic miRNA cluster during development and are required for maturation of sensory organs...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Letters
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