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Contextual behavioral science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909417/defining-contemplative-science-the-metacognitive-self-regulatory-capacity-of-the-mind-context-of-meditation-practice-and-modes-of-existential-awareness
#1
Dusana Dorjee
The term 'contemplative' is now frequently used in the fast growing field of meditation research. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the definition of contemplative science. Meditation studies commonly imply that contemplative practices such as mindfulness or compassion are the subject of contemplative science. Such approach, arguably, contributes to terminological confusions in the field, is not conducive to the development of an overarching theory in contemplative science, and overshadows its unique methodological features...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814455/mobile-devices-for-the-remote-acquisition-of-physiological-and-behavioral-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-clinical-research
#2
Zachary W Adams, Erin A McClure, Kevin M Gray, Carla Kmett Danielson, Frank A Treiber, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610328/big-data-and-tactical-analysis-in-elite-soccer-future-challenges-and-opportunities-for-sports-science
#3
REVIEW
Robert Rein, Daniel Memmert
Until recently tactical analysis in elite soccer were based on observational data using variables which discard most contextual information. Analyses of team tactics require however detailed data from various sources including technical skill, individual physiological performance, and team formations among others to represent the complex processes underlying team tactical behavior. Accordingly, little is known about how these different factors influence team tactical behavior in elite soccer. In parts, this has also been due to the lack of available data...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606190/the-need-for-a-more-effective-science-of-cultural-practices
#4
Anthony Biglan
Behavior analysis has produced a robust theoretical analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. Yet, thus far, the empirical yield of this work remains quite limited. With this paper, I attempt to provide specific examples of the ways to advance an experimental analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. I begin with a review of the theoretical analyses developed by behavior analysts and other contextually oriented scientists. Next, I submit that, if the goal of our science is both predicting and influencing cultural phenomena, we must produce experimental analyses of the impact of meta-contingencies on organizations' practices...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504990/the-state-of-the-science-on-sensory-factors-and-their-impact-on-daily-life-for-children-a-scoping-review
#5
Winnie Dunn, Lauren Little, Evan Dean, Sara Robertson, Benjamin Evans
The objective of this study was to identify and synthesize research about how sensory factors affect daily life of children. We designed a conceptual model to guide a scoping review of research published from 2005 to October 2014 (10 years). We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and included studies about sensory perception/processing; children, adolescents/young adults; and participation. We excluded studies about animals, adults, and review articles. Our process resulted in 261 articles meeting criteria...
April 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268136/polyhydrides-of-platinum-group-metals-nonclassical-interactions-and-%C3%AF-bond-activation-reactions
#6
Miguel A Esteruelas, Ana M López, Montserrat Oliván
The preparation, structure, dynamic behavior in solution, and reactivity of polyhydride complexes of platinum group metals, described during the last three decades, are contextualized from both organometallic and coordination chemistry points of view. These compounds, which contain dihydrogen, elongated dihydrogen, compressed dihydride, and classical dihydride ligands promote the activation of B-H, C-H, Si-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, C-N, and C-F, among other σ-bonds. In this review, it is shown that, unlike other more mature areas, the chemistry of polyhydrides offers new exciting conceptual challenges and at the same time the possibility of interacting with other fields including the conversion and storage of regenerative energy, organic synthetic chemistry, drug design, and material science...
August 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236380/agent-based-modeling-of-chronic-diseases-a-narrative-review-and-future-research-directions
#7
Yan Li, Mark A Lawley, David S Siscovick, Donglan Zhang, José A Pagán
The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects...
May 26, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112595/social-values-and-biodiversity-conservation-in-a-dynamic-world
#8
Alia M Dietsch, Tara L Teel, Michael J Manfredo
To improve the effectiveness of conservation solutions that depend on public support, conservationists are increasingly relying on social science that explores the factors influencing human thought and behavior. One line of research stemming from social psychology that is often applied to conservation focuses on the role of social values (core human beliefs) in shaping attitudes and behavior at the individual level. There is growing recognition, however, that multilevel investigations are needed to better understand what shapes values and, ultimately, conservation support...
April 26, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025533/the-moderating-impact-of-distal-regularities-on-the-effect-of-stimulus-pairings
#9
Sean Hughes, Jan De Houwer, Dermot Barnes-Holmes
Throughout much of the past century psychologists have focused their attention on a seemingly simple question: How do people come to like or dislike stimuli in the environment? Evaluative Conditioning (EC) - a change in liking due to the pairing of stimuli - has been offered as one avenue through which novel preferences may be formed and existing ones altered. In the current article, we offer a new look at EC from the perspective of Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS) and, more specifically, Relational Frame Theory (RFT)...
January 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014173/a-bridge-too-far-revisited-reframing-bruer-s-neuroeducation-argument-for-modern-science-of-learning-practitioners
#10
REVIEW
Jared C Horvath, Gregory M Donoghue
In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012249/the-full-translational-spectrum-of-prevention-science-facilitating-the-transfer-of-knowledge-to-practices-and-policies-that-prevent-behavioral-health-problems
#11
EDITORIAL
Diana H Fishbein, Ty A Ridenour, Mindy Stahl, Steve Sussman
A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits...
March 2016: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26766763/youth-violence-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know
#12
Brad J Bushman, Katherine Newman, Sandra L Calvert, Geraldine Downey, Mark Dredze, Michael Gottfredson, Nina G Jablonski, Ann S Masten, Calvin Morrill, Daniel B Neill, Daniel Romer, Daniel W Webster
School shootings tear the fabric of society. In the wake of a school shooting, parents, pediatricians, policymakers, politicians, and the public search for "the" cause of the shooting. But there is no single cause. The causes of school shootings are extremely complex. After the Sandy Hook Elementary School rampage shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, we wrote a report for the National Science Foundation on what is known and not known about youth violence. This article summarizes and updates that report. After distinguishing violent behavior from aggressive behavior, we describe the prevalence of gun violence in the United States and age-related risks for violence...
January 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26717120/reciprocal-markov-modeling-of-feedback-mechanisms-between-emotion-and-dietary-choice-using-experience-sampling-data
#13
Ji Lu, Junhao Pan, Qiang Zhang, Laurette Dubé, Edward H Ip
With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in the experience-sampling method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal the relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet, & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants' food consumption and momentary emotions 6 times per day in 10 days...
2015: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693170/the-promise-of-third-wave-behavioral-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders
#14
Angela L Stotts, Thomas F Northrup
Substance use disorders are common and frequently complex, with overlapping medical, legal, social and psychiatric problems. Innovative treatment models to address the full range of problems in new ways using common principles are needed. Third wave behavior therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) comprise novel approaches and methods that have great potential to address complex substance abuse cases. These treatment models derive from contextual and behavioral science and have a common emphasis on developing empirical, principle-driven methods for approaching unwanted or distressing psychological and physical experiences common to substance use and other disorders...
April 1, 2015: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562123/housing-status-medical-care-and-health-outcomes-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Angela A Aidala, Michael G Wilson, Virginia Shubert, David Gogolishvili, Jason Globerman, Sergio Rueda, Anne K Bozack, Maria Caban, Sean B Rourke
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking "upstream" economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group...
January 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356654/effectiveness-of-work-activities-of-daily-living-education-and-sleep-interventions-for-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Lindy L Weaver
OBJECTIVE: To examine interventions addressing work, activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), education, and sleep for people with autism spectrum disorder. METHOD: A total of 23 studies were identified, and 9 work-, 11 ADL/IADL-, and 3 education-related interventions were examined. No sleep studies were identified. RESULTS: Use of mobile and tablet technologies for vocational skills was supported...
September 2015: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26353207/data-fusion-by-matrix-factorization
#17
Marinka Žitnik, Blaž Zupan
For most problems in science and engineering we can obtain data sets that describe the observed system from various perspectives and record the behavior of its individual components. Heterogeneous data sets can be collectively mined by data fusion. Fusion can focus on a specific target relation and exploit directly associated data together with contextual data and data about system's constraints. In the paper we describe a data fusion approach with penalized matrix tri-factorization (DFMF) that simultaneously factorizes data matrices to reveal hidden associations...
January 2015: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26290892/teaching-evidence-assimilation-for-collaborative-health-care-teach-2009-2014-building-evidence-based-capacity-within-health-care-provider-organizations
#18
Peter C Wyer, Craig A Umscheid, Stewart Wright, Suzana A Silva, Eddy Lang
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines, prediction tools, and computerized decision support (CDS) are underutilized outside of research contexts, and conventional teaching of evidence-based practice (EBP) skills fails to change practitioner behavior. Overcoming these challenges requires traversing practice, policy, and implementation domains. In this article, we describe a program's conceptual design, the results of institutional participation, and the program's evolution. Next steps include integration of instruction in principles of CDS...
2015: EGEMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243132/building-a-bonfire-that-remains-stoked-sustainment-of-a-contingency-management-intervention-developed-through-collaborative-design
#19
Bryan Hartzler
BACKGROUND: Community dissemination of empirically-supported behavior therapies is fostered by collaborative design, a joint process pooling expertise of purveyors and treatment personnel to contextualize a therapy for sustainable use. The adaptability of contingency management renders it an exemplary therapy to model this collaborative design process. METHODS: At conclusion of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial conducted at an opiate treatment program, a group elicitation interview was conducted with the setting's five managerial staff to cull qualitative impressions of a collaboratively-designed contingency management intervention after 90 days of provisional implementation in the setting...
2015: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26234950/student-engagement-a-principle-based-concept-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Jean S Bernard
A principle-based concept analysis of student engagement was used to examine the state of the science across disciplines. Four major perspectives of philosophy of science guided analysis and provided a framework for study of interrelationships and integration of conceptual components which then resulted in formulation of a theoretical definition. Findings revealed student engagement as a dynamic reiterative process marked by positive behavioral, cognitive, and affective elements exhibited in pursuit of deep learning...
2015: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
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