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Contextual behavioral science

Nadia Minian, Wayne K deRuiter, Mathangee Lingam, Tricia Corrin, Rosa Dragonetti, Heather Manson, Valerie H Taylor, Laurie Zawertailo, Arezoo Ebnahmady, Osnat C Melamed, Terri Rodak, Margaret Hahn, Peter Selby
BACKGROUND: Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits...
March 1, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Pauline Lubens, Tim A Bruckner
OBJECTIVE: We aim to contextualize the growing body of research on the sequelae of military service in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. We employ a social-ecological (SE) framework for the taxonomy of military health research and classify risk as arising from the individual, family, community, and the institutional levels. We intend for this review to inform enhanced health promotion efforts in military communities. DATA SOURCE: Articles reviewed were extracted from Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Christina M Danko, Kenneth H Rubin, Robert J Coplan, Danielle R Novick
Anxiety disorders are common among young children, with earlier onset typically associated with greater severity and persistence. A stable behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament and subsequent shyness and social withdrawal (SW) place children at increased risk of developing anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety. In this Future Directions article, we briefly review developmental and clinical research and theory that point to parenting and peer interactions as key moderators of both the stability of BI/SW and risk for later anxiety, and we describe existing interventions that address early BI/SW and/or anxiety disorders in young children...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Aubyn C Stahmer, Jessica Suhrheinrich, Patricia L Schetter, Elizabeth McGee Hassrick
BACKGROUND: This study examines how system-wide (i.e., region, district, and school) mechanisms such as leadership support, training requirements, structure, collaboration, and education affect the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools and how this affects the outcomes for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite growing evidence for the positive effects of EBPs for ASD, these practices are not consistently or effectively used in schools. Although special education programs are mandated to use EBPs, there are very few evidence-based methods for selecting, implementing, and sustaining EBPs...
January 8, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Eoghan Casey
This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Nathalia Pizato, Patrícia B Botelho, Vivian S S Gonçalves, Eliane S Dutra, Kênia M B de Carvalho
Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey...
December 5, 2017: Nutrients
K Rivet Amico, M Mugavero, Marie A Krousel-Wood, Hayden B Bosworth, Jessica S Merlin
Achieving and sustaining high levels of adherence to medication regimens is essential to improving health outcomes, but continues to be a challenge for a sizable proportion of patients. Decades of research suggests that medication adherence is determined by a complex constellation of factors. Social-behavioral science research has focused on creating frameworks that identify which contextual, personal, social, or drug-related factors appear to most influence adherence. Comprehensive models of adherence propose specific structural relationships between these factors that can be used to plan for, implement, and monitor programs that seek to optimize adherence...
February 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Ya-Ning Chang, Chia-Ying Lee
Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Daniela de Rossi Figueiredo, Lucilene Gama Paes, Alessandra Martins Warmling, Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira de Mello
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on valid and reliable multidimensional instruments to assess home health needs of older persons. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCE: Electronic databases, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Electronic Library Online and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information. REVIEW METHODS: All English, Portuguese and Spanish literature which included studies of reliability and validity of instruments that assessed at least two dimensions: physical, psychological, social support and functional independence, self-rated health behaviors and contextual environment and if such instruments proposed interventions after evaluation and/or monitoring changes over a period of time...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Marino Pérez-Álvarez
The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science...
October 24, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Maryam Keramat Kar, Lisa Whitehead, Catherine M Smith
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine coping strategies that people with multiple sclerosis use, and to identify factors that influence their coping pattern. METHOD: This systematic review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for synthesizing descriptive quantitative research. The following databases were searched from the inception of databases until December 2016: Ovid (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), Science Direct, Web of Science, and Scopus...
October 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Erica Hinckson, Margaret Schneider, Sandra J Winter, Emily Stone, Milo Puhan, Afroditi Stathi, Michelle M Porter, Paul A Gardiner, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Andrea Wolff, Abby C King
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity across the lifespan remains a public health issue for many developed countries. Inactivity has contributed considerably to the pervasiveness of lifestyle diseases. Government, national and local agencies and organizations have been unable to systematically, and in a coordinated way, translate behavioral research into practice that makes a difference at a population level. One approach for mobilizing multi-level efforts to improve the environment for physical activity is to engage in a process of citizen science...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Derek M Griffith, Rachel C Shelton, Michelle Kegler
Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity...
October 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Kathleen M Palm Reed, Amy Y Cameron, Victoria E Ameral
There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
Sophia Jihey Chung, Anne L Ersig, Ann Marie McCarthy
Adolescents' diet and exercise are modifiable factors contributing to high rates of adolescent obesity. Diverse contextual factors, including family, social environment, and peers, affect adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors. Because peer influence increases during adolescence, peers' contributions to adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors should be examined as potential targets for intervention to reduce the prevalence of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify research examining the contribution of peers to diet and exercise of adolescents...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Paula R Pietromonaco, Nancy L Collins
Close relationships play a vital role in human health, but much remains to be learned about specific mechanisms of action and potential avenues for intervention. This article provides an evaluation of research on close relationships processes relevant to health, drawing on themes from major relationship science theories to present a broad conceptual framework for understanding the interpersonal processes and intrapersonal pathways linking relationships to health and disease outcomes. The analysis reveals that both social connection and social disconnection broadly shape biological responses and behaviors that are consequential for health...
September 2017: American Psychologist
Derrick Ssewanyana, Moses Kachama Nyongesa, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with chronic illnesses engage in health risk behaviors (HRB) which pose challenges for optimizing care and management of their ill health. Frequent monitoring of HRB is recommended, however little is known about which are the most useful tools to detect HRB among chronically ill adolescents. AIMS: This systematic review was conducted to address important knowledge gaps on the assessment of HRB among chronically ill adolescents. Its specific aims were to: identify HRB assessment tools, the geographical location of the studies, their means of administration, the psychometric properties of the tools and the commonest forms of HRB assessed among adolescents living with chronic illnesses globally...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Javeed Sukhera, Chris Watling
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers...
January 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Guillermo Bernal, Cristina Adames
Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models...
August 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Eric Racine
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of "free will," which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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