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Contextual behavioral science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725261/health-risk-behavior-among-chronically-ill-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-assessment-tools
#1
REVIEW
Derrick Ssewanyana, Moses Kachama Nyongesa, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with chronic illnesses engage in health risk behaviors (HRB) which pose challenges for optimizing care and management of their ill health. Frequent monitoring of HRB is recommended, however little is known about which are the most useful tools to detect HRB among chronically ill adolescents. AIMS: This systematic review was conducted to address important knowledge gaps on the assessment of HRB among chronically ill adolescents. Its specific aims were to: identify HRB assessment tools, the geographical location of the studies, their means of administration, the psychometric properties of the tools and the commonest forms of HRB assessed among adolescents living with chronic illnesses globally...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658015/a-framework-for-integrating-implicit-bias-recognition-into-health-professions-education
#2
Javeed Sukhera, Chris Watling
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers...
June 27, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573426/cultural-adaptations-conceptual-ethical-contextual-and-methodological-issues-for-working-with-ethnocultural-and-majority-world-populations
#3
Guillermo Bernal, Cristina Adames
Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models...
August 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567025/a-proposal-for-a-scientifically-informed-and-instrumentalist-account-of-free-will-and-voluntary-action
#4
Eric Racine
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of "free will," which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493809/buildings-beauty-and-the-brain-a-neuroscience-of-architectural-experience
#5
Alex Coburn, Oshin Vartanian, Anjan Chatterjee
A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture are poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture...
September 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#6
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173789/participatory-science-and-innovation-for-improved-sanitation-and-hygiene-process-and-outcome-evaluation-of-project-shine-a-school-based-intervention-in-rural-tanzania
#7
Erin Hetherington, Matthijs Eggers, Joyce Wamoyi, Jennifer Hatfield, Mange Manyama, Susan Kutz, Sheri Bastien
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene...
February 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081330/experiential-avoidance-empathy-and-anger-related-attitudesin-antisocial-personality-disorder
#8
Kaasım Fatih Yavuz, Oktay Şahin, Sevinç Ulusoy, Okan Ufuk İpek, Erhan Kurt
BACKGROUND/AIM: In prevailing opinion, a strong relation exists between lack of empathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). However, recent data fail to wholly clarify this relation, especially in consideration of empathy dimensions. In this study our aim was to address ASPD and social functionality from a contextual behavioral science viewpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted with a sample of 34 individuals with ASPD and 32 healthy individuals as the control group...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018200/a-cultural-evolution-approach-to-digital-media
#9
REVIEW
Alberto Acerbi
Digital media have today an enormous diffusion, and their influence on the behavior of a vast part of the human population can hardly be underestimated. In this review I propose that cultural evolution theory, including both a sophisticated view of human behavior and a methodological attitude to modeling and quantitative analysis, provides a useful framework to study the effects and the developments of media in the digital age. I will first give a general presentation of the cultural evolution framework, and I will then introduce this more specific research program with two illustrative topics...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993341/bridging-the-gap-between-research-and-practice-in-mental-health-service-settings-an-overview-of-developments-in-implementation-theory-and-research
#10
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Cassidy A Gutner, Kirsten Langdon, Jessica R Graham
Twenty years after Sobell's (1996) influential call to integrate advances in behavior therapy into clinical settings, significant progress has been made in implementation science. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of implementation research findings and highlight recent findings that can inform efforts to bridge the gap between research and practice in mental health service settings. Key findings are summarized, organized according to levels of influence described in two implementation frameworks: The Exploration, Planning, Implementation, and Sustainment Framework (EPIS; Aarons et al...
November 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909417/defining-contemplative-science-the-metacognitive-self-regulatory-capacity-of-the-mind-context-of-meditation-practice-and-modes-of-existential-awareness
#11
Dusana Dorjee
The term 'contemplative' is now frequently used in the fast growing field of meditation research. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the definition of contemplative science. Meditation studies commonly imply that contemplative practices such as mindfulness or compassion are the subject of contemplative science. Such approach, arguably, contributes to terminological confusions in the field, is not conducive to the development of an overarching theory in contemplative science, and overshadows its unique methodological features...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814455/mobile-devices-for-the-remote-acquisition-of-physiological-and-behavioral-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-clinical-research
#12
Zachary W Adams, Erin A McClure, Kevin M Gray, Carla Kmett Danielson, Frank A Treiber, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e...
February 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610328/big-data-and-tactical-analysis-in-elite-soccer-future-challenges-and-opportunities-for-sports-science
#13
REVIEW
Robert Rein, Daniel Memmert
Until recently tactical analysis in elite soccer were based on observational data using variables which discard most contextual information. Analyses of team tactics require however detailed data from various sources including technical skill, individual physiological performance, and team formations among others to represent the complex processes underlying team tactical behavior. Accordingly, little is known about how these different factors influence team tactical behavior in elite soccer. In parts, this has also been due to the lack of available data...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606190/the-need-for-a-more-effective-science-of-cultural-practices
#14
Anthony Biglan
Behavior analysis has produced a robust theoretical analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. Yet, thus far, the empirical yield of this work remains quite limited. With this paper, I attempt to provide specific examples of the ways to advance an experimental analysis of the contingencies involved in cultural evolution. I begin with a review of the theoretical analyses developed by behavior analysts and other contextually oriented scientists. Next, I submit that, if the goal of our science is both predicting and influencing cultural phenomena, we must produce experimental analyses of the impact of meta-contingencies on organizations' practices...
May 2016: Behavior Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504990/the-state-of-the-science-on-sensory-factors-and-their-impact-on-daily-life-for-children-a-scoping-review
#15
Winnie Dunn, Lauren Little, Evan Dean, Sara Robertson, Benjamin Evans
The objective of this study was to identify and synthesize research about how sensory factors affect daily life of children. We designed a conceptual model to guide a scoping review of research published from 2005 to October 2014 (10 years). We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and included studies about sensory perception/processing; children, adolescents/young adults; and participation. We excluded studies about animals, adults, and review articles. Our process resulted in 261 articles meeting criteria...
April 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268136/polyhydrides-of-platinum-group-metals-nonclassical-interactions-and-%C3%AF-bond-activation-reactions
#16
Miguel A Esteruelas, Ana M López, Montserrat Oliván
The preparation, structure, dynamic behavior in solution, and reactivity of polyhydride complexes of platinum group metals, described during the last three decades, are contextualized from both organometallic and coordination chemistry points of view. These compounds, which contain dihydrogen, elongated dihydrogen, compressed dihydride, and classical dihydride ligands promote the activation of B-H, C-H, Si-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, C-N, and C-F, among other σ-bonds. In this review, it is shown that, unlike other more mature areas, the chemistry of polyhydrides offers new exciting conceptual challenges and at the same time the possibility of interacting with other fields including the conversion and storage of regenerative energy, organic synthetic chemistry, drug design, and material science...
August 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236380/agent-based-modeling-of-chronic-diseases-a-narrative-review-and-future-research-directions
#17
Yan Li, Mark A Lawley, David S Siscovick, Donglan Zhang, José A Pagán
The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects...
May 26, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112595/social-values-and-biodiversity-conservation-in-a-dynamic-world
#18
Alia M Dietsch, Tara L Teel, Michael J Manfredo
To improve the effectiveness of conservation solutions that depend on public support, conservationists are increasingly relying on social science that explores the factors influencing human thought and behavior. One line of research stemming from social psychology that is often applied to conservation focuses on the role of social values (core human beliefs) in shaping attitudes and behavior at the individual level. There is growing recognition, however, that multilevel investigations are needed to better understand what shapes values and, ultimately, conservation support...
April 26, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025533/the-moderating-impact-of-distal-regularities-on-the-effect-of-stimulus-pairings
#19
Sean Hughes, Jan De Houwer, Dermot Barnes-Holmes
Throughout much of the past century psychologists have focused their attention on a seemingly simple question: How do people come to like or dislike stimuli in the environment? Evaluative Conditioning (EC) - a change in liking due to the pairing of stimuli - has been offered as one avenue through which novel preferences may be formed and existing ones altered. In the current article, we offer a new look at EC from the perspective of Contextual Behavioral Science (CBS) and, more specifically, Relational Frame Theory (RFT)...
January 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27014173/a-bridge-too-far-revisited-reframing-bruer-s-neuroeducation-argument-for-modern-science-of-learning-practitioners
#20
REVIEW
Jared C Horvath, Gregory M Donoghue
In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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