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Perfusion blood volume

Dominik A Steffen, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Marvin Grossmann, Michael Messerli, Moritz Schwyzer, Christoph Gräni, Cathérine Gebhard, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
BACKGROUND: A reduction in left ventricular apical tracer uptake (apical thinning) is frequently observed in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), yet its cause remains a matter of debate, particularly in perfusion emission tomography (PET). This analysis sought to determine whether apical thinning in PET-MPI is attributable to true anatomical thinning of the left ventricular apical myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 57 patients without any history or signs of apical myocardial infarction who underwent rest PET-MPI with 13N-ammonia and contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Kenney Roy Roodakker, Ali Alhuseinalkhudhur, Mohammed Al-Jaff, Maria Georganaki, Maria Zetterling, Shala G Berntsson, Torsten Danfors, Robin Strand, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Anna Dimberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Anja Smits
PURPOSE: Oligodendrogliomas are heterogeneous tumors in terms of imaging appearance, and a deeper understanding of the histopathological tumor characteristics in correlation to imaging parameters is needed. We used PET-to-MRI-to-histology co-registration with the aim of studying intra-tumoral 11 C-methionine (MET) uptake in relation to tumor perfusion and the protein expression of histological cell markers in corresponding areas. METHODS: Consecutive histological sections of four tumors covering the entire en bloc-removed tumor were immunostained with antibodies against IDH1-mutated protein (tumor cells), Ki67 (proliferating cells), and CD34 (blood vessels)...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jason S Jones, David M Small, Nozomi Nishimura
Background: Understanding the microscopic dynamics of the beating heart has been challenging due to the technical nature of imaging with micrometer resolution while the heart moves. The development of multiphoton microscopy has made in vivo , cell-resolved measurements of calcium dynamics and vascular function possible in motionless organs such as the brain. In heart, however, studies of in vivo interactions between cells and the native microenvironment are behind other organ systems. Our goal was to develop methods for intravital imaging of cardiac structural and calcium dynamics with microscopic resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jung Youn Kim, Ji Eun Park, Youngheun Jo, Woo Hyun Shim, Soo Jung Nam, Jeong Hoon Kim, Roh-Eul Yoo, Seung Hong Choi, Ho Sung Kim
Background: Pseudoprogression is a diagnostic challenge in early post-treatment glioblastoma. We therefore developed and validated a radiomics model using multiparametric MRI to differentiate pseudoprogression from early tumor progression in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: The model was developed from the enlarging contrast-enhancing portions of 61 glioblastomas within 3 months after standard treatment with 6472 radiomic features being obtained from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps...
August 11, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Michael Charles Stevens, Fraser M Callaghan, Paul Forrest, Paul G Bannon, Stuart M Grieve
Peripheral veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an established technique for short-to-medium support of patients with severe cardiac failure. However, in patients with concomitant respiratory failure, the residual native circulation will provide deoxygenated blood to the upper body, and may cause differential hypoxemia of the heart and brain. In this paper, we present a general computational framework for the identification of differential hypoxemia risk in VA-ECMO patients. A range of different VA-ECMO patient scenarios for a patient-specific geometry and vascular resistance were simulated using transient computational fluid dynamics simulations, representing a clinically relevant range of values of stroke volume and ECMO flow...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Shumpei Onishi, Yoshinori Kajiwara, Takeshi Takayasu, Manish Kolakshyapati, Minoru Ishifuro, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Yukio Takeshima, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) reflects blood flow and capillary condition, which is valuable in assessing brain tumors. We evaluated PCT parameters at tumor and peritumoral region for differentiating malignant brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed PCT in 39 patients with supratentorial malignant brain tumors (22 glioblastomas, 6 lymphomas, 11 metastases). Regions of interests were placed manually at tumor, peritumoral region and contralateral normal-appearing white matter...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nebojsa Mihajlica, Christer Betsholtz, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes
Close interactions between pericytes and brain endothelial cells are essential for keeping the blood-brain barrier (BBB) functional and to restrict the transport of various xenobiotics from blood circulation to the brain parenchyma. Profound understanding of pericyte roles at the BBB and underlying mechanisms for the regulation of BBB transport are important as a potential strategy to improve drug delivery in treatment of CNS disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate pericyte role in the rate of small-molecular drug transport across the BBB, by examining three model compounds in a pericyte-deficient state...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Annelise L Meneses, Michael C Y Nam, Tom G Bailey, Rebecca Magee, Jonathan Golledge, Ylva Hellsten, Michelle A Keske, Kim Greaves, Christopher D Askew
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. While leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole-leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion following cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between PAD patients (n=12, 69±9 years) and healthy age-matched control participants (n=12, 68±7 years). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume x flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion; and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Farhad Rikhtegar Nezami, Lambros S Athanasiou, Junedh M Amrute, Elazer R Edelman
Management of aortic dissections (AD) is still challenging, with no universally-approved guideline among possible surgical, endovascular or medical therapies. Approximately 25% of AD patients suffer post-intervention malperfusion syndrome or hemodynamic instability, with the risk of sudden death if left untreated. Part of the issue is that vascular implants may themselves induce flow disturbances that critically impact vital organs. A multilayer mesh construct might obviate the induced flow disturbances and it is this concept we investigated...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yoko Kaichi, Fuminari Tatsugami, Yuko Nakamura, Yasutaka Baba, Makoto Iida, Toru Higaki, Masao Kiguchi, So Tsushima, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Yukio Takeshima, Kaoru Kurisu, Kazuo Awai
The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) obtained with perfusion computed tomography (CT) and the electron density (ED) measured by dual-energy CT for differentiating high- from low-grade glioma (HGG, LGG).The CBV and ED were obtained in 9 LGG and 7 HGG patients. The CBV and ED of LGGs and HGGs were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for CBV, ED, and CBV plus ED. The correlation between CBV, ED, and the MIB-1 labeling index of the tumors was examined...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common arboviral infection with a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe form of infection characterized by plasma leak and hemoconcentration. Although hepatic dysfunction is common in dengue illness, massive liver necrosis is rarely reported. Lactic acidosis is a poor prognostic marker in liver failure related to dengue. Management of acute renal injury in dengue hemorrhagic fever due to prolonged shock is challenging as the fluid reabsorption during the recovery phase expands the intravascular volume and precipitates heart failure and pulmonary edema...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jana Ivanidze, Richard A Ferraro, Ashley E Giambrone, Alan Z Segal, Ajay Gupta, Pina C Sanelli
OBJECTIVE: The current understanding of the utility of blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) evaluation with extended-pass perfusion CT in the clinical setting is limited. We assessed whether BBBP parameters evaluated with perfusion CT correlate with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed of 22 patients who underwent perfusion CT on days 0-3 after SAH...
August 7, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Robert Zivadinov, Paul Polak, Ferdinand Schweser, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Deepa P Ramasamy, John G Baker, John J Leddy, Barry S Willer
BACKGROUND: Long-term consequences of playing professional football and hockey on brain function and structural neuronal integrity are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate multimodal metabolic and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences in retired professional contact sport athletes compared with noncontact sport athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one male contact sport athletes and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athletes were scanned on a 3 tesla (3T) MRI using a multimodal imaging approach...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Yuheng Chen, Wenna Duan, Parshant Sehrawat, Vaibhav Chauhan, Freddy J Alfaro, Anna Gavrieli, Xingye Qiao, Vera Novak, Weiying Dai
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with alterations in the blood-brain barrier, neuronal damage, and arterial stiffness, thus affecting cerebral metabolism and perfusion. There is a need to implement machine-learning methodologies to identify a T2DM-related perfusion pattern and possible relationship between the pattern and cognitive performance/disease severity. PURPOSE: To develop a machine-learning pipeline to investigate the method's discriminative value between T2DM patients and normal controls, the T2DM-related network pattern, and association of the pattern with cognitive performance/disease severity...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Andreas Fahlman, Katherine McHugh, Jason Allen, Aaron Barleycorn, Austin Allen, Jay Sweeney, Rae Stone, Robyn Faulkner Trainor, Guy Bedford, Michael J Moore, Frants H Jensen, Randall Wells
Diving mammals have evolved a suite of physiological adaptations to manage respiratory gases during extended breath-hold dives. To test the hypothesis that offshore bottlenose dolphins have evolved physiological adaptations to improve their ability for extended deep dives and as protection for lung barotrauma, we investigated the lung function and respiratory physiology of four wild common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) near the island of Bermuda. We measured blood hematocrit (Hct, %), resting metabolic rate (RMR, l O2 ⋅ min-1 ), tidal volume ( V T , l), respiratory frequency ( f R , breaths ⋅ min-1 ), respiratory flow (l ⋅ min-1 ), and dynamic lung compliance ( C L , l ⋅ cmH2 O-1 ) in air and in water, and compared measurements with published results from coastal, shallow-diving dolphins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Abdullah Kaplan, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Rana Ghali, Raffaele Altara, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Heart failure is associated with low cardiac output (CO) and low brain perfusion that imposes a significant risk for accelerated brain aging and Alzheimer disease development. Although clinical heart failure can emerge several years following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the impact of AMI on cerebral blood flow at early stages and up to 30 days following MI is unknown. 16 months old male mice underwent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Hemodynamic analysis were performed at baseline and at days 1, 7, and 30 post-MI...
July 30, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Adnan H Siddiqui
Mechanical thrombectomy has become the standard of care for management of most acute large-vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes. Most intracranial occlusions are located in the middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries. We present a unique case of acute occlusion of an azygous anterior cerebral artery (ACA). A 59-yr-old man with known hypertension and alcoholism presented with right hemiparesis, right facial palsy, aphasia, and dysarthria. His initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 20...
July 27, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Terje Aass, Lodve Stangeland, Christian Arvei Moen, Atle Solholm, Geir Olav Dahle, David J Chambers, Malte Urban, Knut Nesheim, Rune Haaverstad, Knut Matre, Ketil Grong
INTRODUCTION: This experimental study compares myocardial function after prolonged arrest by St. Thomas' Hospital polarizing cardioplegic solution (esmolol, adenosine, Mg2+ ) with depolarizing (hyperkalaemic) St. Thomas' Hospital No 2, both administered as cold oxygenated blood cardioplegia. METHODS: Twenty anaesthetized pigs on tepid (34°C) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomised to cardioplegic arrest for 120 min with antegrade, repeated, cold, oxygenated, polarizing (STH-POL) or depolarizing (STH-2) blood cardioplegia every 20 min...
July 30, 2018: Perfusion
Giulio Russo, Francesco Burzotta, Domenico D'Amario, Flavio Ribichini, Anna Piccoli, Lazzaro Paraggio, Leonardo Previ, Gabriele Pesarini, Italo Porto, Antonio Maria Leone, Giampaolo Niccoli, Cristina Aurigemma, Diana Verdirosi, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous ventricular-assistance by Impella (IMP) represents an emerging strategy to manage patients with reduced left-ventricular (LV) ejection-fraction (EF) undergoing percutaneous-coronary-intervention (PCI). The hemodynamic behave during IMP-protected PCI has been scarcely investigated. METHODS: We reviewed the IMP console's function and hemodynamic data (which are continuously recorded during assistance) in a consecutive series of 37 patients who underwent elective IMP-protected PCI in two high-volume centers...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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