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Dual energy computed tomography

Bernhard Wilhelm Ullrich, Philipp Schenk, Ulrich J Spiegl, Thomas Mendel, Gunther Olaf Hofmann
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Hounsfield units (HUs), as an alternative bone mineral density measurement to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography, which lead to additional radiation exposure for patients, has an effect on the maintenance of reduction in bisegmental Cobb angle (CA) and cage subsidence in patients who receive bisegmental spine stabilization after traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures...
October 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Wei-Qiang Yan, Yong-Kang Xin, Yong Jing, Gang-Feng Li, Shu-Mei Wang, Wei-Cheng Rong, Gang Xiao, Xue-Bin Lei, Bo Li, Yu-Chuan Hu, Guang-Bin Cui
The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of iodine quantification with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in differentiating thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with pathologically confirmed low-risk thymoma (n = 16), high-risk thymoma (n = 15), thymic carcinoma (n = 14), and thymic lymphoma (n = 12) underwent chest contrast-enhanced DECT scan were enrolled in this study. Tumor DECT parameters including iodine-related Hounsfield unit (IHU), iodine concentration (IC), mixed HU (MHU), and iodine ratio in dual phase, slope of energy spectral HU curve (λ), and virtual noncontrast (VNC) were compared for differences among 4 groups by one-way analysis of variance...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
V Lee, R Blew, M Hetherington-Rauth, D Blew, J-P Galons, T Hagio, J Bea, T Lohman, S Going
Objectives: Accumulation of visceral fat (VF) in children increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and measurement of VF in children using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expensive. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may provide a low-cost alternative. This study aims to determine if DXA VF estimates can accurately estimate VF in young girls, determine if adding anthropometry would improve the estimate and determine if other DXA fat measures, with and without anthropometry, could be used to estimate VF in young girls...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Yoo Jin Hong, Jin Hur, Kyunghwa Han, Dong Jin Im, Young Joo Suh, Hye-Jeong Lee, Young Jin Kim, Byoung Wook Choi
It is critical to distinguish between cardiac tumors and thrombi because they require different treatment strategies. Although accurate differentiation of these cardiac masses can be challenging, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are promising tools to improve their diagnosis. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of a volume-based quantification strategy using dual-energy CT to differentiate between cardiac tumors and thrombi. We prospectively enrolled 41 patients who had a cardiac mass...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kentaro Miki, Akito Saito, Takeo Nakashima, Yuji Murakami, Tomoki Kimura, Ikuno Nishibuchi, Yasushi Nagata
PURPOSE: In volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), field configurations such as couch or arc angles are defined manually or using a template. A field configuration is reselected through trial-and-error in the case of undesirable resultant planning. To efficiently plan for desirable quality, configurations should be assessed before dose calculation. Design of experiments (DoE) is an optimization technique that efficiently reveals the influence of inputs on outputs. We developed an original tool using DoE to determine the field configuration selection and evaluated the efficacy of this workflow for clinical practice...
October 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Yu Wang, Xuerong Deng, Yufeng Xu, Lanlan Ji, Zhuoli Zhang
The aim of our study was to compare the performance of ultrasonography (US) and dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in detecting the crystal deposition at lower extremity joints in patients with gout. The correlation of imaging findings with microscopic findings was further assessed whenever aspiration is available.We recruited consecutive patients who were presented with arthritis of lower extremity from January 2012 to December 2014. All the patients underwent DECT and US scan of bilateral knees, ankles, and feet...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pierre Leyendecker, Vanina Faucher, Aissam Labani, Vincent Noblet, François Lefebvre, Paul Magotteaux, Mickaël Ohana, Catherine Roy
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the radiation dose exposure, image quality, and diagnostic performance of enhanced 100-kVp abdominopelvic single-energy CT protocol with tin filter (TF). METHODS: Ninety-three consecutive patients referred for a single-phase enhanced abdominopelvic CT were prospectively included after informed consent. They underwent in addition to a standard protocol (SP) an acquisition with TF. Both examinations were performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system (DSCT), in single energy, using automatic tube current modulation, identical pitch, and identical level of iterative reconstruction...
October 15, 2018: European Radiology
S Narayanasamy, S Krishna, A K Prasad Shanbhogue, T A Flood, N Sadoughi, P Sathiadoss, N Schieda
This article presents an updated review of cystic renal mass imaging. Most cystic renal masses encountered incidentally are benign and can be diagnosed confidently on imaging and require no follow-up. Hyperattenuating masses discovered at unenhanced or single-phase enhanced computed tomography (CT) measuring between 20-70 HU are indeterminate and can be further investigated first by using ultrasound and, then with multi-phase CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); as the majority represent haemorrhagic/proteinaceous cysts (HPCs)...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Todd C Soesbe, Matthew A Lewis, Khaled Nasr, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Robert E Lenkinski
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast...
October 9, 2018: Academic Radiology
Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masafumi Maseda, Masahiro Nakahashi, Hirokatsu Sawada, Koji Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Miyakata
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery in elderly patients is markedly influenced by osteoporosis causing additional vertebral fracture and loosening of pedicle screws (PS). This study aimed to investigate the association between mean bone density represented in Hounsfield units (HU) on spinal computed tomography (CT) and revision surgery for PJK or postoperative additional vertebral fracture following ASD surgery in elderly patients...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Kei Takase
Recent introduction of multidetector-row computed tomography(MDCT) with more than 64 scanners enabled high-speed scanning in wide range of the body. Electrocardiogram (ECG) gated scanning and 4-dimensional imaging provides precise evaluation of cardiac and vascular diseases. Fine vascular structures such as the artery of Adamkiewicz can be visualized due to improved spatial and temporal resolution of CT and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Interventional radiology also plays important roles in combination with surgical treatment...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Camila Nao Kato, Núbia Tavares, Sâmila G Barra, Tânia Mp Amaral, Lucas G Abreu, Cláudia B Brasileiro, Ricardo A Mesquita
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of the mandibular cortical index (MCI) obtained by digital panoramic radiography (DPR) and by panoramic reconstruction (PR) of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with three different slice thicknesses for the screening of low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Two trained oral and maxillofacial radiologists assessed the MCI based on the morphology of the mandibular bone cortex (classified as C1, C2 or C3)...
October 11, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
E Biver, J Pepe, A de Sire, T Chevalley, S Ferrari
An exploratory study in elderly women and men from the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that low-frequency quantitative ultrasound measurement at the radius captures aBMD, bone size, and cortical tissue mineral density and might be used for screening purposes prior to DXA to evaluate fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The contribution of distal radius bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical microstructure to fracture risk has recently been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether low-frequency quantitative ultrasound measurement at the distal radius may capture the peripheral determinants of bone fragility assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)...
October 10, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Sara Bayat, Herbert S B Baraf, Juergen Rech
In this systematic literature review, we update imaging modalities in gout, with a focus on newer technologies, particularly Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) have been used to evaluate different stages and clinical manifestations of gout and hyperuricaemia. We compare and contrast these modalities across the spectrum of this disease and of clinical scenarios and objectives (1)...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Juergen Braun, Xenofon Baraliakos, Bjoern Buehring, Uta Kiltz, Martin Fruth
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a chronic rheumatic disease characterised by inflammatory back pain and several other disease manifestations and comorbidities. The 2009 ASAS classification criteria differentiate between the classical ankylosing spondylitis or radiographic axSpA and non-radiographic axSpA based on the presence or absence of definite radiographic changes in the sacroiliac joints. Importantly, back pain in patients with axSpA may well have reasons other than axial inflammation or new bone formation...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Dale L Robinson, Hongyuan Jiang, Qichun Song, Christopher Yates, Peter Vee Sin Lee, John D Wark
Fracture risk assessment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) frequently fails to diagnose osteoporosis amongst individuals who later experience fragility fractures. Hence, more reliable techniques that improve the prediction of fracture risk are needed. In this study, we evaluated a finite element (FE) modelling framework based on clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) imaging of the tibial epiphysis and diaphysis to predict the stiffness at these locations in compression, shear, torsion and bending...
October 6, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Thanh D Hoang, Ami G Jani, Vinh Q Mai, Francois O Tuamokumo, Mohamed K M Shakir
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between various biochemical parameters in patients with PHPT with positive and negative technetium-99 sestamibi parathyroid scans SPECT/CT (Tc scan). METHOD: Retrospective analysis. Development of a logistic probability model. There were 218 patients with PHPT evaluated. Main outcome measures were serum total calcium, ionized calcium, intact PTH, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, phosphate, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, 24-hour urine calcium levels and parathyroid adenoma weight...
October 5, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Taylor Moen, Andrea Ferrero, Cynthia McCollough
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that quantitative relationships exist between stone fragility at lithotripsy and morphological features extracted from computed tomography (CT) scans. The goal of this study was to determine if variations in scanner model, patient size, radiation dose, or reconstruction parameters impact the accuracy of the prediction of renal stone fragility in an in vitro model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven kidney stones were scanned using routine single and dual energy stone protocols, mimicking average, and large patient habitus...
October 1, 2018: Academic Radiology
Claudia Gagnon, Anne L Schafer
Bariatric surgery results in long-term weight loss and improvement or resolution in obesity-related comorbidities. However, mounting evidence indicates that it adversely affects bone health. This review summarizes clinical research findings about the impact of bariatric surgery on skeletal outcomes. The literature is the largest and strongest for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure, as RYGB was the most commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide until it was very recently overtaken by the sleeve gastrectomy (SG)...
May 2018: JBMR plus
Daisuke Sueta, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Takeshi Nakaura, Seitaro Oda, Koichi Kaikita, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Kenichi Tsujita
Because the prognosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) will be often poor, early diagnosis and assessing severity at the first visit is important. A 76-year-old man with suspected venous thromboembolism and a contrast deficit in the pulmonary artery (PA) was revealed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging by dual-layer spectral-detector CT (IQon Spectral CT® , Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). The lung perfusion image showed decreased perfusion in the culprit lesion. The dual-energy analysis of the virtual monoenergetic imaging showed clear visualization of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiology Cases
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