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Dual energy computed tomography

Luca Saba, Giovanni Maria Argioas, Pierleone Lucatelli, Francesco Lavra, Jasjit S Suri, Max Wintermark
PURPOSE: To investigate the variation in the quantification of the carotid degree of stenosis (DoS) with a dual energy computed tomography (CT), using different energy levels during the image reconstruction. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 53 subjects (37 males; mean age 67 ± 11 years; age range 47-83 years) studied with a multi-energy CT scanner were included. Datasets were reconstructed on a dedicated workstation and from the CT raw data multiple datasets were generated at the following monochromatic energy levels: 66, 70, 77, and 86 kilo-electronvolt (keV)...
December 15, 2018: Neuroradiology
Raviv Allon, Yahav Levy, Idit Lavi, Aviv Kramer, Menashe Barzilai, Ronit Wollstein
Because fragility fractures have an enormous impact on the practice of medicine and global health systems, effective screening is imperative. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which has limited ability to predict fractures, is being used. We evaluated the current literature for a method that may constitute a better screening method to predict fragility fractures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to evaluate screening methods to predict fragility fractures...
December 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Hasan Erdogan, Osman Temizoz, Mustafa Koplay, Bahadir Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: Formation mechanisms and treatment of the urinary stones are different, depending on their chemical structure. Therefore, determining the stone type plays a key role in planning treatment and preventive measures. Computed tomography (CT), with the use of dual-energy technology in recent years, has made it possible to do in vivo analysis of urinary stones. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of dual-energy CT (DECT) and compare its results with in vitro analysis, which is accepted as a gold standard for analysis of urinary stones...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Benjamin Beland, Mark Levental, Ashok Srinivasan, Reza Forghani
BACKGROUND: There are variations in computed tomography (CT) protocols used for evaluating sialolithiasis, with some protocols including acquisitions before and after IV contrast administration. Dual-energy CT (DECT) can be used to generate virtual unenhanced (VUE) images, potentially precluding the need for an uninfused scan. PURPOSE: In this study, we performed a survey in order to assess variations in the imaging approach for sialolithiasis and evaluated the accuracy of DECT VUE images for the detection of salivary stones...
December 12, 2018: Acta Radiologica
David Scott, Jonas Johansson, Lachlan B McMillan, Peter R Ebeling, Anna Nordstrom, Peter Nordstrom
BACKGROUND: Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: 2214 community-dwelling men and women who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative (Sweden) study at age 70 were included in this analysis. Mid-calf muscle density (mg/cm3 ) at the proximal tibia, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and architecture at the distal and proximal tibia and radius, were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography...
December 8, 2018: Bone
Jae Han Ko, Suhan Lim, Young Han Lee, Ick Hwan Yang, Jin Hwa Kam, Kwan Kyu Park
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous computed tomography (CT) and quantitative CT (QCT) in patients with osteoporotic hip fracture (OHF) by analyzing the osteoporosis detection rate and physician prescription rate in comparison with those of conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Materials and Methods: This study included consecutive patients older than 65 years who underwent internal fixation or hip arthroplasty for OHF between February and May 2015...
December 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Alain J Azzi, Ann-Sophie Lafrenière, Alex Viezel-Mathieu, Thomas M Hemmerling, Mirko Gilardino
Currently, no reliable gold standard exists for the objective outcome measurement following liposuction. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize reported methods of monitoring liposuction results by objectively measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue. A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant articles that described techniques for objectively quantifying adipose tissue following traditional liposuction. The search included published articles in three electronic databases-Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed...
July 2018: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Matthew Lempel, William H Frishman
Computed tomography is an established tool in the assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. As demonstrated by single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance, the noninvasive evaluation of coronary hemodynamics is an important step in guiding clinical management. Nevertheless, no single modality has been shown to accurately quantify coronary artery stenosis, evaluate an atherosclerotic plaque's composition for embolic risk stratification and assess myocardial perfusion...
December 7, 2018: Cardiology in Review
Michael T Yin, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Mariana Bucovsky, Ivelisse Colon, David C Ferris, Susan Olender, Sanchita Agarwal, Anjali Sharma, Cosmina Zeana, Barry Zingman, Elizabeth Shane
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture is increased among older people with HIV. We compared the effects of Low (1000 IU) vs Moderate (3000 IU) Vitamin D3 (VItD) supplementation on areal and volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD and vBMD) in African American and Hispanic postmenopausal women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We performed a 12-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with primary outcomes of change in aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and secondary outcomes of change in vBMD by quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yoshifumi Noda, Satoshi Goshima, Kazuto Kozaka, Norihide Yoneda, Nozomi Mizuno, Akiko Kato, Keita Fujimoto, Yusuke Tsuji, Toshiharu Miyoshi, Hiroshi Kawada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Yukichi Tanahashi, Masayuki Matsuo
PURPOSE: To determine the optimal window settings for monochromatic images with various energy levels in single-source dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of the abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred consecutive patients underwent contrast-enhanced DECT to screen tumor metastases and/or recurrences after surgery for malignant tumors. Two independent radiologists reviewed eight energy levels (40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 kilo-electron volts [keV]) of the portal venous phase monochromatic images...
December 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Timothe Falardeau, Pierre Belanger
Bone quality assessment for osteoporosis diagnosis is usually performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or X-ray quantitative computed tomography. Recent research demonstrated that both methods are inaccurate in diagnosing osteoporosis since they rely only on the bone mineral density. The literature on bone quantitative ultrasound suggests that ultrasonic waves are sensitive to multiple significant bone parameters such as mechanical properties, the bone volume fraction, and the micro-architecture. Typical ultrasound tomography techniques are limited to image objects with a low speed of sound contrast relative to a background medium...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Jonathan Nadjiri, Georgios Kaissis, Felix Meurer, Florian Weis, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alexandra S Straeter, Daniela Muenzel, Peter B Noël, Ernst J Rummeny, Michael Rasper
PURPOSE: Modern non-invasive evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) requires non-contrast low dose Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for determination of Calcium Scoring (CACS) and contrast-enhanced imaging for evaluation of vascular stenosis. Several methods for calculation of CACS from contrast-enhanced images have been proposed before. The main principle for that is generation of virtual non-contrast images by iodine subtraction from a contrast-enhanced spectral CT dataset. However, those techniques have some limitations: Dual-Source CT imaging can lead to increased radiation exposure, and switching of the tube voltage (rapid kVp switching) can be associated with slower rotation speed of the gantry and is thus prone to motion artefacts that are especially critical in cardiac imaging...
2018: PloS One
Lediya T Cheru, Elli A Park, Charles F Saylor, Tricia H Burdo, Kathleen V Fitch, Sara Looby, Jeffrey Weiner, Jake A Robinson, Jane Hubbard, Martin Torriani, Janet Lo
Background: Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) has been shown to be a marker of intestinal damage among people living with HIV. We hypothesized that I-FABP would be increased in chronically HIV-infected patents more than elite controllers and would relate to specific nutrient intake and body composition. Methods: In an observational study, serum I-FABP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anthropometric measurements, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-slice abdominal computed tomography were obtained to assess body composition, as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas (VAT and SAT)...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Rolf Symons, Yves De Bruecker, John Roosen, Laurent Van Camp, Tyler E Cork, Steffen Kappler, Stefan Ulzheimer, Veit Sandfort, David A Bluemke, Amir Pourmorteza
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance and clinical feasibility of 0.25 mm resolution mode of a dual-energy photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system for coronary stent imaging and to compare the results to state-of-the-art dual-energy energy-integrating detector (EID) CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coronary stents with different diameters (2.0-4.0 mm) were examined inside a coronary artery phantom consisting of plastic tubes filled with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast material diluted to approximate clinical concentrations (n = 18)...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Peijie Lv, Zhigang Zhou, Jie Liu, Yaru Chai, Huiping Zhao, Hua Guo, Daniele Marin, Jianbo Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with automatic spectral imaging protocol selection (ASIS) compared with those of low-kVp CT in abdominal multiphase CT. METHODS: Four groups of 60 patients each underwent abdominal scans with low-kVp CT (A, 80 kVp/300 mg I/kg, body mass index [BMI] ≤ 23.9 kg/m2 ; C, 100 kVp/400 mg I/kg, BMI ranging from 24 to 28.9 kg/m2 ) or DECT with ASIS, and the 40- to 60-keV virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) generated (B and D) were matched by age, gender, BMI, cross-sectional area, and contrast agent dose; 9 patients were excluded due to technical failures...
November 30, 2018: European Radiology
Simon S Martin, Franziska Trapp, Julian L Wichmann, Moritz H Albrecht, Lukas Lenga, James Durden, Christian Booz, Thomas J Vogl, Tommaso D'Angelo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-based technique using iodine quantification and fat fraction analysis for the diagnosis of early acute pancreatitis METHODS: In this retrospective study, 45 patients (35 men and 10 women; mean age, 54.9 ± 14.0 years) with early acute pancreatitis were included. Serum lipase levels and follow-up examinations served as the reference standard. A matched control group (n = 45) was assembled for evaluation of material decomposition values of normal pancreatic parenchyma...
November 28, 2018: European Radiology
Wolfgang M Thaiss, Ulrike Haberland, Sascha Kaufmann, Tobias Hepp, Maximilian Schulze, Anya C Blum, Dominik Ketelsen, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger, Alexander W Sauter
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We assessed the value of iodine concentration (IC) as a perfusion-derived response marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in comparison with volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one HCC lesions in 32 patients examined before and after TACE were analyzed retrospectively. VPCT-parameters were calculated and lesion iodine-maps were computed using subtraction of the baseline and the scan 7 seconds after aortic peak enhancement from the corresponding 80 kVp-VPCT data set...
October 25, 2018: Academic Radiology
Jeremy R Wortman, Jeffrey Y Shyu, Urvi P Fulwadhva, Aaron D Sodickson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of incidental, indeterminate renal lesions on routine contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) and the proportion of such lesions that could be exonerated by dual-energy CT (DECT) postprocessing as benign hyperdense cysts. METHODS: The reports for 2729 consecutive contrast-enhanced DECT scans in the emergency department setting were reviewed for the mention of any renal lesion. For scans with a reported lesion, images were reviewed to assess for the presence of an indeterminate lesion that could not be definitively characterized as benign...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Carles Gomà, Isabel P Almeida, Frank Verhaegen
Despite extensive research in dual-energy computed tomography (CT), single-energy CT (SECT) is still the standard imaging modality in proton therapy treatment planning and, in this context, the stoichiometric calibration method is considered to be the most accurate to establish a relationship between CT numbers and proton stopping power. This work revisits the SECT calibration for proton therapy treatment planning, with special emphasis on the stoichiometric method. Three different sets of tissue-substitutes of known elemental composition (Gammex, CIRS and Catphan) were scanned with the same scanning protocol...
November 26, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Nicola Oehler, Tim Rolvien, Tobias Schmidt, Sebastian Butscheidt, Ralf Oheim, Florian Barvencik, Haider Mussawy
In the course of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), local osteopenia in the subchondral/subcortical areas of the affected limb represents a central manifestation. Mechanistic aspects of CRPS-associated pathologies remain unclear, and knowledge about bone morphology in CRPS-affected areas is rare. The aim of this study was to assess trabecular and cortical bone microstructure in patients with CRPS of the distal tibiae. We retrospectively analysed 14 women diagnosed with unilateral CRPS type I of the lower limb whose affected and unaffected distal tibiae were examined by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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