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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540823/mycobacterium-africanum-lineage-6-shows-slower-sputum-smear-conversion-on-tuberculosis-treatment-than-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-4-in-bamako-mali
#1
Bassirou Diarra, Mahamadou Kone, Antieme Combo Georges Togo, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, Aissata Boubakar Cisse, Amadou Somboro, Boureima Degoga, Mohamed Tolofoudie, Bourahima Kone, Moumine Sanogo, Bocar Baya, Ousmane Kodio, Mamoudou Maiga, Michael Belson, Susan Orsega, Meryam Krit, Sounkalo Dao, Ibrahim Izétiegouma Maiga, Robert L Murphy, Leen Rigouts, Seydou Doumbia, Souleymane Diallo, Bouke Catherine de Jong
OBJECTIVE: Ancestral M. tuberculosis complex lineages such as M. africanum are underrepresented among retreatment patients and those with drug resistance. To test the hypothesis that they respond faster to TB treatment, we determined the rate of smear conversion of new pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bamako, Mali by the main MTBc lineages. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2017, we conducted a prospective cohort study of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bamako...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539658/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv1473-is-a-novel-macrolides-abc-efflux-pump-regulated-by-whib7
#2
Wei Duan, Xue Li, Yan Ge, Zhaoxiao Yu, Ping Li, Jiang Li, Lianhua Qin, Jianping Xie
AIM: To characterize a novel macrolide ATP binding cassette efflux pump encoding gene Rv1473 which might be involved in antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Mycobacterium smegmatis was used as a surrogate model for pathogenic mycobacteria, drug susceptibility assays and ethidium bromide accumulation assay were harnessed to verify drug resistance. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the transcription levels of WhiB7 and Ms3140 upon exposure to macrolides...
December 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538997/tuberculosis-elimination-in-oman-winning-the-war-on-the-disease
#3
Salah T Al Awaidy
In 2014, the World Health Assembly adopted the new End TB Strategy that targets ending tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. This article describes the progress made to eliminate TB in Oman. Data from officials and other sources provided the information to assess the situation in Oman. In the period 1981-1992, TB notifications decreased by 11% per year. Between 1992 and 2016, the rates declined more slowly at 4.6% per year, i.e. from 16 to 7.8 per 100 000. During 2010-2016, 2352 TB cases (80% males and 60% Omani nationals) were reported...
October 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538978/models-for-predicting-time-to-sputum-conversion-among-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-lagos-south-west-nigeria
#4
Oluwatosin J Akinsola, Oyindamola B Yusuf, Olusoji Mayowa Ige, Patrick E Okonji
Background: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. These factors allow the development and subsequent transmission of resistant strains of the pathogen. However, due to the chronic nature of MDR-TB, cure models allow us to investigate the covariates that are associated with the long-term effects of time-to-sputum conversion among multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538219/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-strain-infection-in-macaques-results-in-high-bacilli-burdens-in-airways-driving-broad-innate-adaptive-immune-responses
#5
Enzhuo Yang, Rui Yang, Ming Guo, Dan Huang, Wandang Wang, Zhuoran Zhang, Crystal Chen, Feifei Wang, Wenzhe Ho, Ling Shen, Heping Xiao, Zheng W Chen, Hongbo Shen
Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmission contributes to MDR-TB, it remains unknown whether infection with MDR strains resembles infection with drug-sensitive (DS) TB strains, manipulating limited or broad immune responses. To address these questions, macaques were infected with MDR strain V791 and a drug-sensitive Erdman strain of TB. MDR bacilli burdens in the airway were significantly higher than those of the Erdman control after pulmonary exposure...
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538179/orbit-a-new-paradigm-for-genetic-engineering-of-mycobacterial-chromosomes
#6
Kenan C Murphy, Samantha J Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E Baer, Christopher M Sassetti
Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker...
December 11, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537944/use-of-predicted-vital-status-to-improve-survival-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-cohorts
#7
Meredith B Brooks, Salmaan Keshavjee, Irina Gelmanova, Nataliya A Zemlyanaya, Carole D Mitnick, Justin Manjourides
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cohorts often lack long-term survival data, and are summarized instead by initial treatment outcomes. When using Cox proportional hazards models to analyze these cohorts, this leads to censoring subjects at the time of the initial treatment outcome, instead of them providing full survival data. This may violate the non-informative censoring assumption of the model and may produce biased effect estimates. To address this problem, we develop a tool to predict vital status at the end of a cohort period using the initial treatment outcome and assess its ability to reduce bias in treatment effect estimates...
December 11, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537531/allicin-enhances-antimicrobial-activity-of-macrophages-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Mona Singh, Ashima Bhaskar, Santosh Kumar, Parveen Sobia, Luc Van Kaer, Gobardhan Das
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M.tb variants. Multiple and extremely drug-resistant (MDR and XDR) variants of TB are now widespread throughout the globe, and totally drug-resistant (TDR) strains have appeared...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534412/line-probe-assay-and-molecular-typing-reveal-a-potential-drug-resistant-clone-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-ethiopia
#9
Shiferaw Bekele, Yohannes Derese, Elena Hailu, Adane Mihret, Kifle Dagne, Lawrence Yamuah, Tsegaye Hailu, Samuel Ayele, Demissew Beyene, Stefan Berg, Abraham Aseffa
Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern of increasing significance. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading worldwide. It is important to monitor trends of antimycobacterial resistance. This is particularly true for high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia where disproportionally less drug sensitivity data are reported from. Methods: The prevalence of drug resistance was assessed with the line probe assay GenoType MTBDR plus in a set of 161  M...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534124/lipocalin-2-functions-as-inhibitor-of-innate-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Sara Louise Dahl, Joshua S Woodworth, Christian Johann Lerche, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Pia Rude Nielsen, Claus Moser, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Niels Borregaard, Jack Bernard Cowland
Lipocalin-2 is a constituent of the neutrophil secondary granules and is expressed de novo by macrophages and epithelium in response to inflammation. Lipocalin-2 acts in a bacteriostatic fashion by binding iron-loaded siderophores required for bacterial growth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) produces siderophores that can be bound by lipocalin-2. The impact of lipocalin-2 in the innate immune response toward extracellular bacteria has been established whereas the effect on intracellular bacteria, such as M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532747/mtra-response-regulator-controls-cell-division-and-cell-wall-metabolism-and-affects-susceptibility-of-mycobacteria-to-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs
#11
Purushotham Gorla, Renata Plocinska, Krishna Sarva, Akash T Satsangi, Emmanuel Pandeeti, Robert Donnelly, Jaroslaw Dziadek, Malini Rajagopalan, Murty V Madiraju
The biological processes regulated by the essential response regulator MtrA and the growth conditions promoting its activation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , a slow grower and pathogen, are largely unknown. Here, using a gain-of-function mutant, MtrAY 102C , which functions in the absence of the cognate MtrB sensor kinase, we show that the MtrA regulon includes several genes involved in the processes of cell division and cell wall metabolism. The expression of selected MtrA targets and intracellular MtrA levels were compromised under replication arrest induced by genetic manipulation and under stress conditions caused by toxic radicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531033/associated-factors-with-unsuccessful-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-among-tuberculosis-hiv-coinfected-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Adeboye Azeez, James Ndege, Ruffin Mutambayi
Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV endemic has substantially contributed to the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence. The joint effect of the HIV and TB pestilences has confronted the feeble systems of healthcare in resource-limited countries. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the pathological attributes, outcomes of TB treatment, and the contributing factors of unsuccessful results among TB/HIV patients. A retrospective cohort study of all confirmed adult TB/HIV coinfected hospitalized patients with drug-resistant TB reported for the treatment in two different hospitals from 2010 to 2016 in Eastern Cape, South Africa...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531032/-mycobacterium-habana-tmc-5135-as-a-vaccine-candidate-against-tuberculosis-in-vitro-studies
#13
Jany Vald S MartInez, Iliana Vald S Hernández, Miguel Echemendía, Hermis Rodriguez, Arianna Yglesias, Alexis Díaz
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the biggest problems of global health, at present. Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin is the only vaccine available against this disease. It protects only against the severe forms of TB in the childhood, which is a challenge in the search of new vaccine candidates. Taking into account the protective history of Mycobacterium "habana" against experimental TB, we proposed to provide the elements that support the use of M. "habana" TMC 5135 as a vaccine candidate against TB by infection studies in murine macrophages cell cultures...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531028/profile-of-drug-resistant-conferring-mutations-among-new-and-previously-treated-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-from-aligarh-region-of-northern-india
#14
Shariq Ahmed, Indu Shukla, Nazish Fatima, Sumit K Varshney, Mohammad Shameem, Uzma Tayyaba
Background: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among new and previously treated cases is increasing worldwide as well as in India. Rapid detection of MDR-TB allows the establishment of an effective treatment regimen; minimizes the risk of further resistance, and limits the spread of drug-resistant strains. Early diagnosis of MDR-TB is the need of the hour in high-TB burden countries like India, and GenotypeMTBDRplus is quite sensitive and specific in determining the molecular resistance in drugs such as rifampicin and isoniazid...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531027/crystal-violet-decolorization-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-a-multicenter-study
#15
Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Gumral Alakbarova, Luqman Satti, Nadia Tayyab, Gohar Zaman, Nora Morcillo, Belen Imperiale, Ingrid Wainmayer, Norberto Simboli
Background: Effective control of tuberculosis is achieved by early diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing for initiation of appropriate treatment. The performance of crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) was compared in a multicenter study. Methods: Seventy-two M. tuberculosis isolates were tested in two phases by CVDA. Results: In Phase I, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and agreement for INH were 100%, respectively...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531026/meta-narrative-review-of-molecular-methods-for-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Peter M Mbelele, Sagal Y Mohamed, Elingarami Sauli, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Kennedy K Addo, Scott K Heysell, Stellah G Mpagama
Early and accurate diagnosis and rigorous clinical and microbiological monitoring of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment can curb morbidity and mortality. While others are still under evaluation, the World Health Organization has recommended few novel molecular methods for MDR-TB diagnosis only. We present current molecular methods for diagnosis and monitoring of MDR-TB treatment in TB-endemic settings. A systematic meta-narrative review was conducted according to the RAMESES recommendations...
October 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530711/discovery-of-16-demethylrifamycins-by-removing-predominant-polyketide-biosynthetic-pathway-in-micromonospora-sp-tp-a0468
#17
Qiang Zhou, Guang-Cai Luo, Huizhan Zhang, Gong-Li Tang
A number of strategies have been developed to mine novel natural products based on biosynthetic gene clusters and there has been dozens of successful cases facilitated by the development of genomic sequencing. During our study on biosynthesis of the antitumor polyketide kosinostatin (KST), we found that the genome of Micromonospora sp. TP-A0468, the producer of KST, contains other potential polyketide gene clusters, with no encoded products detected. Deletion of kst cluster led to abolishment of KST and the enrichment of several new compounds which were isolated and characterized as 16-demethylrifamycins ( 3 - 6 )...
December 7, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529931/molecular-modelling-and-competitive-inhibition-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-multidrug-resistance-efflux-pump
#18
Joāo Luís Rheingantz Scaini, Alex Dias Camargo, Vinicius Rosa Seus, Andrea von Groll, Adriano Velasque Werhli, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva, Karina Dos Santos Machado
Tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and the emergency of multidrug and extensive drug resistance cases is an utmost issue on the control of the disease. Despite the efforts on the development of new antibiotics, eventually there will be strains resistant to them as well. Efflux plays an important role in the evolution of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tap is an important efflux pump associated with tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid, rifampicine and ofloxacin and with multidrug resistance...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528069/evaluation-of-the-culture-enhanced-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis
#19
Latifa Noussair, Frédéric Bert, Véronique Leflon-Guibout, Roselyne Métivier, Chantal Chauvet, Catherine Napol, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a new tool for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis. METHODS: A total of 374 smear-negative clinical specimens from patients with suspected tuberculosis were evaluated using a new procedure consisting of a preliminary step of culture in broth bottles followed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtb) and rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (XMTB-RIF). RESULTS: A total of 30 Mtb strains were isolated, all susceptible to rifampicin...
December 6, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526251/pulmonary-delivery-of-isoniazid-in-nanogel-loaded-chitosan-hybrid-microparticles-for-inhalation
#20
Samia M Omar, Nabila A Maziad, Nourhan M El-Tantawy
PURPOSE: Inhalable pulmonary delivery of isoniazid (INH) may improve the efficacy and reduce drug-resistant problem. METHOD: INH-loaded chitosan microparticles (Cs-Mps-1-3) were prepared as inhalable carrier for the previously prepared INH-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyitaconic acid nanoparticles (NPs) using spray-drying technique. Here, Cs-Mps-1-3 are composed of Cs: INH-loaded NPs: Free INH at w/w ratios (1:1:0), (1: 0:1), and (1:1:1), respectively. Subsequently, the prepared Cs-Mps-1-3 characterizations were studied...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
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