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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938215/evaluation-of-bioenergy-crop-growth-and-the-impacts-of-bioenergy-crops-on-streamflow-tile-drain-flow-and-nutrient-losses-in-an-extensively-tile-drained-watershed-using-swat
#1
Tian Guo, Raj Cibin, Indrajeet Chaubey, Margaret Gitau, Jeffrey G Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, James R Kiniry, Bernard A Engel
Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, and nutrient losses under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937651/perennial-grass-and-native-wildflowers-a-synergistic-approach-to-habitat-management
#2
Shereen S Xavier, Dawn M Olson, Alisa W Coffin, Timothy C Strickland, Jason M Schmidt
Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture) and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation) on wildflower bloom and visitation by arthropods in a biofeedstocks-wildflower habitat buffer design. Twenty habitat buffer plots were established containing a subplot of Napier grass (Pennisetum perpureum Schumach) for biofeedstock, three commercial wildflower mix subplots, and a control subplot containing spontaneous weeds...
September 22, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#3
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936499/low-cost-ionic-liquid-water-mixtures-for-effective-extraction-of-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-algae
#4
Trang Q To, Kerryn Procter, Blake A Simmons, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Rob Atkin
Biomass based biofuels are already an important energy source, and will increasingly be so in the future as the need for renewable energy rises. Due to their fast multiplication rates, algae can provide a sustainable supply of biomass, and are attractive because they do not compete with food crops for habitat. Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids (30.6% and 51% total lipids) and sugars (71% and 26% total sugars)...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936234/the-effects-of-co2-and-h2-on-co-metabolism-by-pure-and-mixed-microbial-cultures
#5
Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Anca G Delgado, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Syngas fermentation, the bioconversion of CO, CO2, and H2 to biofuels and chemicals, has undergone considerable optimization for industrial applications. Even more, full-scale plants for ethanol production from syngas fermentation by pure cultures are being built worldwide. The composition of syngas depends on the feedstock gasified and the gasification conditions. However, it remains unclear how different syngas mixtures affect the metabolism of carboxidotrophs, including the ethanol/acetate ratios...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936216/genetic-tracing-of-jatropha-curcas-l-from-its-mesoamerican-origin-to-the-world
#6
Haiyan Li, Suguru Tsuchimoto, Kyuya Harada, Masanori Yamasaki, Hiroe Sakai, Naoki Wada, Atefeh Alipour, Tomohiro Sasai, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Takayuki Ando, Hisashi Tomemori, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Victor P Quintero, Alfredo Zamarripa, Primitivo Santos, Adel Hegazy, Abdalla M Ali, Kiichi Fukui
Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932265/removal-of-glucuronic-acid-from-xylan-is-a-strategy-to-improve-the-conversion-of-plant-biomass-to-sugars-for-bioenergy
#7
Jan J Lyczakowski, Krzysztof B Wicher, Oliver M Terrett, Nuno Faria-Blanc, Xiaolan Yu, David Brown, Kristian B R M Krogh, Paul Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher
BACKGROUND: Plant lignocellulosic biomass can be a source of fermentable sugars for the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The recalcitrance of this plant material is one of the major obstacles in its conversion into sugars. Biomass is primarily composed of secondary cell walls, which is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Xylan, a hemicellulose, binds to the cellulose microfibril and is hypothesised to form an interface between lignin and cellulose. Both softwood and hardwood xylan carry glucuronic acid side branches...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932264/high-level-expression-and-characterization-of-a-novel-cutinase-from-malbranchea-cinnamomea-suitable-for-butyl-butyrate-production
#8
Xiaojie Duan, Yu Liu, Xin You, Zhengqiang Jiang, Shaoxiang Yang, Shaoqing Yang
BACKGROUND: Butyl butyrate has been considered as a promising fuel source because it is a kind of natural ester which can be converted from renewable and sustainable lignocellulosic biomass. Compared with the conventional chemical methods for butyl butyrate production, the enzymatic approach has been demonstrated to be more attractive, mainly owing to the mild reaction conditions, high specificity, low energy consumption, and environmental friendliness. Cutinases play an important role in the butyl butyrate production process...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932261/determinants-of-stakeholders-attitudes-towards-biodiesel
#9
Latifah Amin, Hasrizul Hashim, Zurina Mahadi, Maznah Ibrahim, Khaidzir Ismail
BACKGROUND: Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, may play a decisive role in steering the direction of biodiesel development throughout the world...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930449/o2-reduction-in-enzymatic-biofuel-cells
#10
Nicolas Mano, Anne de Poulpiquet
Catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 to water is one of the most extensively studied electrochemical reactions due to O2 exceptional availability and high O2/H2O redox potential, which may in particular allow highly energetic reactions in fuel cells. To circumvent the use of expensive and inefficient Pt catalysts, multicopper oxidases (MCOs) have been envisioned because they provide efficient O2 reduction with almost no overpotential. MCOs have been used to elaborate enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs), a subclass of fuel cells in which enzymes replace the conventional catalysts...
September 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930430/novel-strategies-for-the-production-of-fuels-lubricants-and-chemicals-from-biomass
#11
Sankaranarayanapillai Shylesh, Amit A Gokhale, Christopher R Ho, Alexis T Bell
Growing concern with the environmental impact of CO2 emissions produced by combustion of fuels derived from fossil-based carbon resources has stimulated the search for renewable sources of carbon. Much of this focus has been on the development of methods for producing transportation fuels, the major source of CO2 emissions today, and to a lesser extent on the production of lubricants and chemicals. First-generation biofuels such as bioethanol, produced by the fermentation of sugar cane- or corn-based sugars, and biodiesel, produced by the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with alcohols to form a mixture of long-chain fatty esters, can be blended with traditional fuels in limited amounts and also arise in food versus fuel debates...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929631/accelerated-wound-healing-on-skin-by-electrical-stimulation-with-a-bioelectric-plaster
#12
Hiroyuki Kai, Takeshi Yamauchi, Yudai Ogawa, Ayaka Tsubota, Takahiro Magome, Takeo Miyake, Kenshi Yamasaki, Matsuhiko Nishizawa
Wound healing on skin involves cell migration and proliferation in response to endogenous electric current. External electrical stimulation by electrical equipment is used to promote these biological processes for the treatment of chronic wounds and ulcers. Miniaturization of the electrical stimulation device for wound healing on skin will make this technology more widely available. Using flexible enzymatic electrodes and stretchable hydrogel, a stretchable bioelectric plaster is fabricated with a built-in enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) that fits to skin and generates ionic current along the surface of the skin by enzymatic electrochemical reactions for more than 12 h...
September 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924452/greenhouse-gas-performance-of-biochemical-biodiesel-production-from-straw-soil-organic-carbon-changes-and-time-dependent-climate-impact
#13
Hanna Karlsson, Serina Ahlgren, Mats Sandgren, Volkmar Passoth, Ola Wallberg, Per-Anders Hansson
BACKGROUND: Use of bio-based diesel is increasing in Europe. It is currently produced from oilseed crops, but can also be generated from lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. However, removing straw affects soil organic carbon (SOC), with potential consequences for the climate impact of the biofuel. This study assessed the climate impacts and energy balance of biodiesel production from straw using oleaginous yeast, with subsequent biogas production from the residues, with particular emphasis on SOC changes over time...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921217/effect-of-lower-and-higher-alcohol-fuel-synergies-in-biofuel-blends-and-exhaust-treatment-system-on-emissions-from-ci-engine
#14
Thiyagarajan Subramanian, Edwin Geo Varuvel, Leenus Jesu Martin, Nagalingam Beddhannan
The present study deals with performance, emission and combustion studies in a single cylinder CI engine with lower and higher alcohol fuel synergies with biofuel blends and exhaust treatment system. Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME), widely available biofuel in India, and orange oil (ORG), a low carbon biofuel, were taken for this study, and equal volume blend was prepared for testing. Methanol (M) and n-pentanol (P) was taken as lower and higher alcohol and blended 20% by volume with KOME-ORG blend. Activated carbon-based exhaust treatment indigenous system was designed and tested with KOME-ORG + M20 and KOME-ORG + P20 blend...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920015/working-with-bacteria-and-putting-bacteria-to-work-the-biopolitics-of-synthetic-biology-for-energy-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
Carmen McLeod, Brigitte Nerlich, Alison Mohr
The UK government has made significant investment into so called 'fourth-generation' biofuel technologies. These biofuels are based on engineering the metabolic pathways of bacteria in order to create products compatible with existing infrastructure. Bacteria play an important role in what is promoted as a potentially new biological industrial revolution, which could address some of the negative environmental legacies of the last. This article presents results from ethnographic research with synthetic biologists who are challenged with balancing the curiosity-driven and intrinsically fulfilling scientific task of working with bacteria, alongside the policy-driven task of putting bacteria to work for extrinsic economic gains...
August 2017: Energy Research & Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918933/structural-proteomics-topology-and-relative-accessibility-of-plant-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins
#16
Pascale Jolivet, Laure Aymé, Alexandre Giuliani, Frank Wien, Thierry Chardot, Yann Gohon
Lipid droplets are the major stock of lipids in oleaginous plant seeds. Despite their economic importance for oil production and biotechnological issues (biofuels, lubricants and plasticizers), numerous questions about their formation, structure and regulation are still unresolved. To determine water accessible domains of protein coating at lipid droplets surface, a structural proteomic approach has been performed. This technique relies on the millisecond timescale production of hydroxyl radicals by the radiolysis of water using Synchrotron X-ray white beam...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917917/characterization-of-structural-cell-wall-polysaccharides-in-cattail-typha-latifolia-evaluation-as-potential-biofuel-feedstock
#17
Diego Rebaque, Romina Martínez-Rubio, Silvia Fornalé, Penélope García-Angulo, Ana Alonso-Simón, Jesús M Álvarez, David Caparros-Ruiz, José L Acebes, Antonio Encina
Second generation bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is attracting attention as an alternative energy source. In this study, a detailed knowledge of the composition and structure of common cattail (Typha latifolia L.) cell wall polysaccharides, obtained from stem or leaves, has been conducted using a wide set of techniques to evaluate this species as a potential bioethanol feedstock. Our results showed that common cattail cellulose content was high for plants in the order Poales and was accompanied by a small amount of cross-linked polysaccharides...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916825/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-cosmopolitan-dinoflagellate-amphidinium-carterae-to-identify-enzymes-with-biotechnological-potential
#18
Chiara Lauritano, Daniele De Luca, Alberto Ferrarini, Carla Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Francesco Esposito, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are phytoplanktonic organisms found in both freshwater and marine habitats. They are often studied because related to harmful algal blooms but they are also known to produce bioactive compounds for the treatment of human pathologies. The aim of this study was to sequence the full transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae in both nitrogen-starved and -replete culturing conditions (1) to evaluate the response to nitrogen starvation at the transcriptional level, (2) to look for possible polyketide synthases (PKSs) in the studied clone (genes that may be involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds), (3) if present, to evaluate if nutrient starvation can influence PKS expression, (4) to look for other possible enzymes of biotechnological interest and (5) to test strain cytotoxicity on human cell lines...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916814/expression-of-brown-midrib-in-a-spontaneous-sorghum-mutant-is-linked-to-a-5-utr-deletion-in-lignin-biosynthesis-gene-sbcad2
#19
Huang Li, Yinghua Huang
Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Studying bmr mutants has considerably expanded our understanding of the molecular basis underlying lignin biosynthesis and perturbation in grasses. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, identified and cloned a novel cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase allele (SbCAD2) that has an 8-bp deletion in its 5'-untranslated region (UTR), conferring the spontaneous brown midrib trait and lignin reduction in the sorghum germplasm line PI 595743...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913759/biofuel-consumption-biodiversity-and-the-environmental-kuznets-curve-trivariate-analysis-in-a-panel-of-biofuel-consuming-countries
#20
Khalid Zaman
This study examined the relationship between biofuel consumption, forest biodiversity, and a set of national scale indicators of per capita income, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness, and population density with a panel data of 12 biofuels consuming countries for a period of 2000 to 2013. The study used Global Environmental Facility (GEF) biodiversity benefits index and forest biodiversity index in an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) framework. The results confirmed an inverted U-shaped relationship between GEF biodiversity index and per capita income, while there is flat/no relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth, and between forest biodiversity and economic growth models...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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