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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145843/development-of-a-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-toolbox-for-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Jiao Liu, Yu Wang, Yujiao Lu, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C...
November 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143082/spatial-separation-of-photosynthesis-and-ethanol-production-by-cell-type-specific-metabolic-engineering-of-filamentous-cyanobacteria
#2
Shigeki Ehira, Takuto Takeuchi, Akiyoshi Higo
Cyanobacteria, which perform oxygenic photosynthesis, have drawn attention as hosts for the direct production of biofuels and commodity chemicals from CO2 and H2O using light energy. Although cyanobacteria capable of producing diverse chemicals have been generated by metabolic engineering, anaerobic non-photosynthetic culture conditions are often necessary for their production. In this study, we conducted cell type-specific metabolic engineering of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, which forms a terminally differentiated cell called a heterocyst with a semi-regular spacing of 10-15 cells...
November 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142826/microbial-synthesis-of-a-branched-chain-ester-platform-from-organic-waste-carboxylates
#3
Donovan S Layton, Cong T Trinh
Processing of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes produces a plethora of chemicals such as short, linear carboxylic acids, known as carboxylates, derived from anaerobic digestion. While these carboxylates have low values and are inhibitory to microbes during fermentation, they can be biologically upgraded to high-value products. In this study, we expanded our general framework for biological upgrading of carboxylates to branched-chain esters by using three highly active alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) for alcohol and acyl CoA condensation and modulating the alcohol moiety from ethanol to isobutanol in the modular chassis cell...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142591/a-novel-highly-efficient-%C3%AE-glucosidase-with-a-cellulose-binding-domain-characterization-and-properties-of-native-and-recombinant-proteins
#4
J A Méndez-Líter, J Gil-Muñoz, M Nieto-Domínguez, J Barriuso, L I de Eugenio, M J Martínez
Background: Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is an alternative for fossil fuels as a renewable feedstock for the production of second-generation biofuels and other chemicals. The discovery of novel, highly efficient β-glucosidases remains as one of the major bottlenecks for cellulose degradation. In this context, the ascomycete Talaromyces amestolkiae, isolated from cereal samples, has been studied as a promising source for these enzymes. Results: BGL-2 is the major β-glucosidase secreted by this fungus in the presence of cellulosic inductors...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142395/biological-effect-of-cynara-cardunculus-on-kidney-status-of-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#5
Abdullah Glil Alkushi
Context: Cynara cardunculus or artichoke thistle belongs to the sunflower family and has a variety of cultivable forms. Historically, it was cultivated as a vegetable, but more recently, it is being used in cheese and biofuel preparation. Artichoke leaf extracts are also known for its medicinal purposes, particularly in reducing the elevated cholesterol levels in blood. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is also associated with other complications such as impaired renal function and diabetes mellitus...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140641/agricultural-worker-injury-comparative-risk-assessment-methodology-assessing-corn-and-biofuel-switchgrass-production-systems
#6
Charles V Schwab, Gretchen A Mosher, Saxon J Ryan
Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140539/cross-regulation-among-arabinose-xylose-and-rhamnose-utilization-systems-in-e-coli
#7
Debika Choudhury, Supreet Saini
Bacteria frequently encounter multiple sugars in their natural surroundings. While the dynamics of utilization of glucose containing sugar mixtures have been well investigated, there are few reports addressing regulation of utilization of glucose-free mixtures particularly pentoses. These sugars comprise a considerable fraction in hemicellulose which can be converted by suitable biocatalysts to biofuels and other value-added products. Hence understanding of transcriptional cross-regulation among different pentose sugar utilization systems is essential for successful development of industrial strains...
November 15, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140073/3-dimensional-enzyme-biohydrogel-electrode-for-improved-bioelectrocatalysis
#8
Ananta Ghimire, Ajith Pattammattel, Charles Maher, Rajeswari Kasi, Challa V Kumar
Higher loading of enzymes on electrode and efficient electron transfer from the enzyme to the electrode are urgently needed to enhance the current density of biofuel cells. The two-dimensional nature of electrode surface limits the enzyme loading on the surface and unfavorable interaction with electrode surfaces cause inactivation of the enzyme. Benign biohydrogels are designed here to address enzyme degradation and the three-dimensional nature of the biohydrogel enhanced the enzyme density per unit area. A general strategy is demonstrated here using a redox active enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) embedded in bovine serum albumin (BSA) biohydrogel on flexible carbon cloth (CC) electrodes...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136896/hollow-mesoporous-cuco2o4-microspheres-derived-from-metal-organic-framework-a-novel-functional-materials-for-simultaneous-h2o2-biosensing-and-glucose-biofuel-cell
#9
Shiqiang Cui, Shuqing Gu, Yaping Ding, Jiangjiang Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Zongqian Hu
Hollow mesoporous CuCo2O4 (meso-CuCo2O4) microspheres were successfully synthesized by decomposing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as the template. The as-prepared CuCo2O4 microspheres were first simultaneously used for H2O2 biosensing and glucose biofuel cell (GFC) as the enzyme mimic. The resulting of meso-CuCo2O4 displayed not only excellent catalytic performances to H2O2 including a super-fast response time (within 2s), a super-high sensitivity (654.23 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) and a super-low detection limit (3nM at S/N = 3) on the sensor, but also great values in GFC as anode material with an open circuit voltage of 0...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136536/on-the-bright-side-of-a-forest-pest-the-metabolic-potential-of-bark-beetles-bacterial-associates
#10
Anna Fabryová, Martin Kostovčík, Alexandra Díez-Méndez, Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez, Lorena Celador-Lera, Zaki Saati-Santamaría, Hana Sechovcová, Esther Menéndez, Miroslav Kolařik, Paula García-Fraile
Bark beetles reproduce and overwinter under the bark of trees, and are associated with bacteria that may influence the fitness of their hosts. As regard the aim of this study was to test the metabolic potential of bacterial strains, isolated from the bark beetle species Cryphalus piceae, Ips typographus and Pityophthorus pityophthorus and collected in the Czech Republic from fir, spruce and pine trees, respectively, to degrade plant cell compounds. The bacterial strains were identified as belonging to the genera Curtobacterium, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Staphylococcus, and Yersinia...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135232/confocal-raman-microscopy-for-the-determination-of-protein-and-quaternary-ammonium-ion-loadings-in-biocatalytic-membranes-for-electrochemical-energy-conversion-and-storage
#11
Rong Cai, Sofiene Abdellaoui, Jay P Kitt, Cullen Irvine, Joel Harris, Shelley D Minteer, Carol Korzeniewski
The need to immobilize active enzyme, while ensuring high rates of substrate turnover and electronic charge transfer with an electrode, is a centrally important challenge in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal Raman microscopy as a tool for quantitation and molecular-scale structural characterization of ionomers and proteins within biocatalytic membranes to aid in the development of energy efficient biofuel cells. A set of recently available short side chain Aquivion ionomers spanning a range of equivalent weight (EW) suitable for enzyme immobilization was investigated...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129823/autonomous-control-of-metabolic-state-by-a-quorum-sensing-qs-mediated-regulator-for-bisabolene-production-in-engineered-e-coli
#12
Eun-Mi Kim, Han Min Woo, Tian Tian, Suzan Yilmaz, Pouya Javidpour, Jay D Keasling, Taek Soon Lee
Inducible gene expression systems are widely used in microbial host strains for protein and commodity chemical production because of their extensive characterization and ease of use. However, some of these systems have disadvantages such as leaky expression, lack of dynamic control, and the prohibitively high costs of inducers associated with large-scale production. Quorum sensing (QS) systems in bacteria control gene expression in response to population density, and the LuxI/R system from Vibrio fischeri is a well-studied example...
November 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127883/metabolic-engineering-of-yeast-for-lignocellulosic-biofuel-production
#13
REVIEW
Yong-Su Jin, Jamie Hd Cate
Production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass remains an unsolved challenge in industrial biotechnology. Efforts to use yeast for conversion face the question of which host organism to use, counterbalancing the ease of genetic manipulation with the promise of robust industrial phenotypes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the premier host for metabolic engineering of biofuel pathways, due to its many genetic, systems and synthetic biology tools. Numerous engineering strategies for expanding substrate ranges and diversifying products of S...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127854/comparative-modeling-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-white-brown-and-soft-rot-fungal-laccases-using-lignin-model-compounds-for-understanding-the-structural-and-functional-properties-of-laccases
#14
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Richard Barber, Wensheng Qin
Extrinsic catalytic properties of laccase enable it to oxidize a wide range of aromatic (phenolic and non-phenolic) compounds which makes it commercially an important enzyme. In this study, we have extensively compared and analyzed the physico-chemical, structural and functional properties of white, brown and soft rot fungal laccases using standard protein analysis software. We have computationally predicted the three-dimensional comparative models of these laccases and later performed the molecular docking studies using the lignin model compounds...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127292/thermostability-improvement-of-a-talaromyces-leycettanus-xylanase-by-rational-protein-engineering
#15
Xiaoyu Wang, Rui Ma, Xiangming Xie, Weina Liu, Tao Tu, Fei Zheng, Shuai You, Jianzhong Ge, Huifang Xie, Bin Yao, Huiying Luo
Thermophilic xylanases with high catalytic efficiency are of great interest in the biofuel, food and feed industries. This study identified a GH11 xylanase gene, Tlxyn11B, in Talaromyces leycettanus JCM12802. Recombinant TlXyn11B produced in Pichia pastoris is distinguished by high specific activity (8259 ± 32 U/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate) and excellent pH stability (from 1.0 to 10.5). The beechwood xylan hydrolysates consisted mainly of xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose, thus TlXyn11B could be used for the production of prebiotic xylooligosaccharide...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125564/carbon-based-nanomaterials-in-biomass-based-fuel-fed-fuel-cells
#16
REVIEW
Le Quynh Hoa, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Eiichi Tamiya
Environmental and sustainable economical concerns are generating a growing interest in biofuels predominantly produced from biomass. It would be ideal if an energy conversion device could directly extract energy from a sustainable energy resource such as biomass. Unfortunately, up to now, such a direct conversion device produces insufficient power to meet the demand of practical applications. To realize the future of biofuel-fed fuel cells as a green energy conversion device, efforts have been devoted to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials with tunable electronic and surface characteristics to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts and/or as supporting matrix for metal-based electrocatalysts...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124645/environmental-impacts-the-of-production-and-use-of-biodiesel
#17
Snežana Živković, Milan Veljković
Biodiesel as renewable, environmental friendly, less toxic, and biodegradable is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels and is produced mainly from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is expected, globally, that the use of renewable biofuels, in general, will increase rapidly in the near future. The growing biodiesel production and usage have encouraged assessment of its impact on the environment. The present paper reviews various aspects of biodiesel production using commercial processing technology and biodiesel use through evaluation and analysis of the studies concerning environmental impacts of biodiesel...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124016/chemically-synthesized-biofuels-from-agricultural-waste-optimization-operating-parameters-with-surface-response-methodology-ccd
#18
Tesfay Berhe, Omprakash Sahu
Bioethanol is one of the most important alternative renewable energy sources that substitute the fossil fuels. Sugarcane bagasse has a content of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which make it suitable as fermentation substrate when hydrolyzed. The objective of work is ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by the fermentation process. Eight laboratory experiments were conducted to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse. By using Design Expert, it was formulated the dilute acid hydrolysis step to investigate the effects of hydrolysis parameters on a yield of ethanol and optimum condition...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123531/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-derived-circulating-cells-release-il-18-and-il-33-under-ultrafine-particulate-matter-exposure-in-a-caspase-1-8-independent-manner
#19
Gianluigi De Falco, Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Ada Popolo, Michela Pecoraro, Mario Commodo, Patrizia Minutolo, Mariano Sirignano, Andrea D'Anna, Rita P Aquino, Aldo Pinto, Antonio Molino, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered the fourth-leading causes of death worldwide; COPD is caused by inhalation of noxious indoor and outdoor particles, especially cigarette smoke that represents the first risk factor for this respiratory disorder. To mimic the effects of particulate matter on COPD, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and treated them with combustion-generated ultrafine particles (UFPs) obtained from two different fuel mixtures, namely, pure ethylene and a mixture of ethylene and dimethylfuran (the latter mimicking the combustion of biofuels)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121935/bioconversion-of-distillers-grains-hydrolysates-to-advanced-biofuels-by-an-escherichia-coli-co-culture
#20
Fang Liu, Weihua Wu, Mary B Tran-Gyamfi, James D Jaryenneh, Xun Zhuang, Ryan W Davis
BACKGROUND: First generation bioethanol production utilizes the starch fraction of maize, which accounts for approximately 60% of the ash-free dry weight of the grain. Scale-up of this technology for fuels applications has resulted in a massive supply of distillers' grains with solubles (DGS) coproduct, which is rich in cellulosic polysaccharides and protein. It was surmised that DGS would be rapidly adopted for animal feed applications, however, this has not been observed based on inconsistency of the product stream and other logistics-related risks, especially toxigenic contaminants...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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