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malnutrition tuberculosis

Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Sosuke Arakawa, Yusuke Sakai, Yuto Suzuki, Kohei Fujita, Hidefumi Sato
BACKGROUND: Several reports have described the importance of immunological and nutritional factors in the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pulmonary cavitation and immunonutritional status, assessed by parameters such as neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 137 patients with culture-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis without bacterial pneumonia diagnosed at Kainan Hospital between April 2008 and March 2016...
October 24, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Janicke Visser, Milla H McLachlan, Nicola Maayan, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding may help food insecure and vulnerable people by optimising the nutritional value and adequacy of the diet, improving quality of life and improving various health parameters of disadvantaged families. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the problems supplementary feeding aims to address are entangled with poverty and deprivation, the programmes are expensive and delivery is complicated. OBJECTIVES: 1. To summarise the evidence from systematic reviews of supplementary feeding for food insecure, vulnerable and malnourished populations, including children under five years of age, school-aged children, pregnant and lactating women, people with HIV or tuberculosis (or both), and older populations...
November 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Caroline Harris, Rowena Mills, Ezgi Seager, Sarah Blackstock, Tamanda Hiwa, James Pumphrey, Josephine Langton, Neil Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Malawisuccessfully achieved Millennium Development Goal (MDG) four by decreasing the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds in 2012. Despite this progress child mortality is still high and in 2013, the leading causes of death in under-5s were malaria, acute respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. AIMS: To determine the causes of inpatient child death including microbiological aetiologies in Malawi. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive study was undertaken in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital over 12 months in 2015/2016...
November 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Toshitaka Suzuki, Tatsuo Kato, Ryoko Ohnishi, Shigeo Yasuda, Kimiyasu Sano, Yohei Shirakami, Masahito Shimizu, Nobuo Murakami
Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide. Patients with tuberculosis who also require nursing care due to aging and underlying diseases are considered to have a high mortality rate; however, there are few studies describing detailed examinations of such disease conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate differences in clinical features of elderly tuberculosis patients according to the levels of nursing and healthcare required. DESIGN: The study participants included 146 elderly (≥65 years) patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis among patients hospitalized with tuberculosis at a single center...
November 11, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Calixte Ida Penda, Else Carole Eboumbou Moukoko, Nicolas Policarpe Nolla, Nadia Olivia Abomo Evindi, Paul Koki Ndombo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Wei Cheng, Shaoyi Zhang, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) remains prevalent and a big health hazard in China. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse its clinico-pathological features. METHODS: Retrospective study of 85 consecutive ITB patients in two tertiary hospitals in East China. Relevant clinical, laboratory examination, radiological, endoscopic and histopathological features of ITB were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age was 37.3 ± 16...
October 18, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Olga Zvonareva, Willemien van Bergen, Nadezhda Kabanets, Aleksander Alliluyev, Olga Filinyuk
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem that has become a crisis fuelled by HIV and the increasing occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. What has been termed the biosocial nature of TB challenges effective control of the disease. Yet, biosocial interactions involved in the persistence of TB in diverse settings are difficult to systematically account for. The recently developed framework of syndemics provides a way to capture how complex health problems result from the interactions between diseases such as HIV and TB, and harmful social conditions such as unemployment, malnutrition and substance abuse...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Luis Felipe Higuita-Gutiérrez, Carlos Andrés Arango-Franco, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
BACKGROUND: In the world scientific literature, analytical research on tuberculosis has not been meta-analyzed. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for tuberculosis infection with drug resistance and meta-analyze the causal relationship of prior antibiotic use. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies, in five databases. An ex ante, exhaustive and reproducible protocol of search and selection was applied; with criteria of inclusion, exclusion and evaluation of methodological quality...
September 7, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Erika Cavalheiro Skupien, Tássia Kirchmann Lazzari, Sandra Eugênia Coutinho, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness is a part of the wasting syndrome associated with TB. Cytokines are candidates as the initial causative agents of the metabolic changes in TB. The objective of this study is to assess the peripheral and respiratory muscle strength in patients with TB and controls and relate these findings with leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels. METHODS: Case-control study. Hospitalized patients with pulmonary TB and controls were included. Maximal voluntary handgrip strength (HS), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) were measured...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Karolina Pilovska-Spasovska, Ljiljana Simonovska, Vladimir Mitreski
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in penitentiary institutions (prisons), and its prevalence was reported to be multiple times higher compared to that of the general population. Conditions such as overcrowding, malnutrition and limited access to medical care which often exist in prisons increase the risk of reactivation, transmission and poor prognosis of tuberculosis disease among inmates. AIM: The main objective of this study was to present the epidemiological situation of TB in the prisons from 2008 till 2017 in the Republic of Macedonia (RM)...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Lena Faust, Anne McCarthy, Yoko Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global public health concern. Due to the presence of multiple risk factors such as poor housing conditions and food insecurity in Canadian Indigenous communities, this population is at particularly high risk of TB infection. Given the challenges of screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in remote communities, a synthesis of the existing literature regarding current screening strategies among high-risk groups in low-incidence countries is warranted, in order to provide an evidence base for the optimization of paediatric LTBI screening practices in the Canadian Indigenous context...
August 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Calixte Ida Penda, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko, Daniele Kedy Koum, Joseph Fokam, Cedric Anatole Zambo Meyong, Sandrine Talla, Paul Koki Ndombo
BACKGROUND: Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of active cases finding of HIV-infected children/adolescents by provider-initiated testing and counseling in a health facility. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from January through April 2016 at 6 entry-points (inpatient, outpatient, neonatology, immunization/family planning, tuberculosis, day-care units) at the Laquintinie Hospital of Douala (LHD), Cameroon...
August 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Alfonso Vallejos-Parás, David Alejandro Cabrera-Gaytán, Rosario Padilla-Velázquez, Lumumba Arriaga-Nieto, Gabriel Valle-Alvarado, Concepción Grajales-Muñiz, Teresita Rojas-Mendoza, María Del Rosario Niebla-Fuentes
Background: Tuberculosis has long been recognized as a public health problem in large cities. The goals of the "Stop TB" strategy of the WHO specifically promote its study at the subnational level. Therefore, we aimed to describe the state of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the municipality level in Mexico. Methods: We obtained data on new cases of PTB and treatment success rates (TSRs) per municipality from each state in Mexico, reported by the Mexican Social Security Institute to the National Epidemiological Surveillance System during 2013...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Miquel Turbau Valls, Eva Gil Olivas, Teresa López García, Domingas Piedade, Agostinho Pessela, Milagros Moreno Nicasio
Introduction: There is scarce information on the profiles of patients attended in the Emergency Departments (ED) in rural Angola. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study including all the patients treated in the ED in Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz (Cubal) during 6 months (December 2014- May 2015). The epidemiological and clinical data collected were: age, sex, shift, service assignment, reason for consultation and outcome (discharge, admission, referral or death)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Elizabeth L Dunbar, Emily B Wroe, Basimenye Nhlema, Chiyembekezo Kachimanga, Ravi Gupta, Celia Taylor, Annie Michaelis, Katie Cundale, Luckson Dullie, Arnold Jumbe, Lawrence Nazimera, Ryan McBain, Richard J Lilford, Samuel Ian Watson
INTRODUCTION: This protocol concerns the implementation and evaluation of an intervention designed to realign the existing cadre of community health workers (CHWs) in Neno district, Malawi to better support the care needs of the clients they serve. The proposed intervention is a 'Household Model' where CHWs will be reassigned to households, rather than to specific patients with HIV and/or tuberculosis (TB). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised design, this study investigates whether high HIV retention rates can be replicated for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and the model's impact on TB and paediatric malnutrition case finding, as well as the uptake of family planning and antenatal care...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Stephanie Law, H Simon Schaaf, Tamara Kredo, James A Seddon, Dick Menzies, Anna Turkova, Jay Achar, Farhana Amanullah, Pennan Barry, Mercedes Becerra, Edward D Chan, Pei Chun Chan, Domnica Ioana Chiotan, Aldo Crossa, Peter C Drobac, Lee Fairlie, Dennis Falzon, Jennifer Flood, Medea Gegia, Robert M Hicks, Petros Isaakidis, S M Kadri, Beate Kampmann, Shabir A Madhi, Else Marais, Andrei Mariandyshev, Ana Méndez-Echevarría, Brittany Kathryn Moore, Parpieva Nargiza, Iveta Ozere, Nesri Padayatchi, Saleem- Ur-Rehman, Natasha Rybak, Begoña Santiago-Garcia, N Sarita Shah, Sangeeta Sharma, Tae Sun Shim, Alena Skrahina, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Martin van den Boom, Marieke J van der Werf, Tjip S van der Werf, Bhanu Williams, Elena Yablokova, Jae-Joon Yim, Jennifer Furin, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: An estimated 32,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) each year. Little is known about the optimal treatment for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To inform the pediatric aspects of the revised World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guidelines, we performed a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, describing treatment outcomes in children treated for MDR-TB...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Fasil Wagnew, Wubet Worku, Getiye Dejenu, Animut Alebel, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Mortality of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a devastating problem in Ethiopia. This study estimated the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM among children <5 y of age and its association with comorbidity. Methods: An electronic search was carried out using the database of MEDLINE/PubMed through the HINARI Programme, Google Scholar and Google for grey literature. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM and the hazard ratio (HR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity using Stata/SE version 14...
November 1, 2018: International Health
Sherry Joseph Martin, Evan Prince Sabina
Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most important infectious disease to see resurgence worldwide. In 2014, there were 9.6 million documented cases worldwide with a mortality of almost 1.5 million (Global Tuberculosis Report 2014). One of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations was the reversal of the TB epidemic, which has been achieved worldwide with an 18% lower incidence of TB globally compared to the incidence in the year 2000. Though efficient intervention has brought down the relative incidence and mortality of TB globally, the fact remains that one third of the world population has latent TB infection, and 10% of people with latent TB infection develop active TB at some point in their life (The Facts about Tuberculosis 1995)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
D Boccia, W Rudgard, S Shrestha, K Lönnroth, P Eckhoff, J Golub, M Sanchez, E Maciel, D Rasella, P Shete, D Pedrazzoli, R Houben, S Chang, D Dowdy
BACKGROUND: Tackling the social determinants of Tuberculosis (TB) through social protection is a key element of the post-2015 End TB Strategy. However, evidence informing policies are still scarce. Mathematical modelling has the potential to contribute to fill this knowledge gap, but existing models are inadequate. The S-PROTECT consortium aimed to develop an innovative mathematical modelling approach to better understand the role of social protection to improve TB care, prevention and control...
June 26, 2018: BMC Public Health
Vikas Gangadhar Rao, Jyothi Bhat, Rajiv Yadav, Ravendra Kumar Sharma, Malaisamy Muniyandi
Background: To determine the socio-economic risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Saharia tribal community in Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Methods: PTB cases detected during the year 2013-14 through a community active TB prevalence survey in the Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh were included in the study. For each case, three controls were selected randomly among the non-cases from the same village and the data on socio-economic risk factors were collected...
June 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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