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Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

Zidong Jia, Ye Zhang, Qiang Li, Zhenzhen Ye, Yuqi Liu, Changzhu Fu, Xiaohui Cang, Meng Wang, Min-Xin Guan
The tissue specificity of mitochondrial tRNA mutations remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrated the deleterious effects of tRNAThr 15927G>A mutation that contributed to pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The m.15927G>A mutation abolished the highly conserved base-pairing (28C-42G) of anticodon stem of tRNAThr. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we showed that the m.15927G>A mutation caused unstable tRNAThr structure, supported by decreased melting temperature and slower electrophoretic mobility of mutated tRNA...
December 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Fangyun Xin, Yong Tian, Congcong Gao, Bingpeng Guo, Yulong Wu, Junfang Zhao, Jing Jing, Xiaoling Zhang
The detection of mitochondrial formaldehyde (FA) is of great significance because FA is generated through a one-carbon formaldehyde cycle in mitochondria, and abnormal elevations in FA levels can damage mitochondria by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Herein, a mitochondria-targetable two-photon probe (Mito-FA-FP) has been well demonstrated. Mito-FA-FP is conjugated with hydrazine as the FA-reactive site and a pyridine derivate as the mitochondria-targetable moiety...
December 12, 2018: Analyst
Yang Yang, Gang Wang, Wenjun Wu, Shunnan Yao, Xiaoyan Han, Donghua He, Jingsong He, Gaofeng Zheng, Yi Zhao, Zhen Cai, Rui Yu
Camalexin is a phytoalexin that accumulates in various cruciferous plants upon exposure to environmental stress and plant pathogens. It was shown that camalexin has potent antitumor properties, but its underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of camalexin on human leukemic cells and normal polymorph nuclear cells. CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell viability after camalexin treatment. Apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured by flow cytometry...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jia-Yu Li, Kun Zhang, Dan Xu, Wen-Tian Zhou, Wen-Qing Fang, Yu-Ying Wan, Dan-Dan Yan, Miao-Yu Guo, Jin-Xin Tao, Wen-Chuan Zhou, Fan Yang, Li-Ping Jiang, Xiao-Jian Han
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used to provide illumination due to their low energy requirements and high brightness. However, the LED spectrum contains an intense blue light component which is phototoxic to the retina. Recently, it has been reported that blue light may directly impinge on mitochondrial function in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Mitochondria are high dynamic organelles that undergo frequent fission and fusion events. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in blue light-induced damage in retinal neuronal R28 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Houman Alimoradi, Khaled Greish, Anita Barzegar-Fallah, Lama Alshaibani, Valeria Pittalà
Purpose: Anticancer drug delivery systems are often limited by hurdles, such as off-target distribution, slow cellular internalization, limited lysosomal escape, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stable nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticle (polystyrene-maleic acid [SMA]- tert -dodecane S-nitrosothiol [tDodSNO]) with the aim of enhancing the anticancer properties of doxorubicin (Dox) and a Dox-loaded nanoparticle (SMA-Dox) carrier. Materials and methods: Effects of SMA-tDodSNO and/or in combination with Dox or SMA-Dox on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeability, tumor tissue, and tumor growth were studied using in vitro and in vivo model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jibo Han, Xiaowen Shi, Zhanxiong Zheng, Bin Zhang, Fengjie Shi, Liqin Jiang, Jianjiang Xu
Introduction: Schisandrin B (SchB), the main active constituent in Schisandra chinensis , has antioxidant activities. Endothelial dysfunction leads to various cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is a crucial pathophysiological mechanism underpinning endothelial dysfunction. Methods: We elucidated the role and underlying mechanisms of SchB in angiotensin II-induced rat aortic endothelial-cell deficits and explored targets of SchB through siRNA analysis and molecular docking...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Nadia Cummins, Andrea Tweedie, Steven Zuryn, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Jürgen Götz
Accumulation of the protein tau characterises Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, including familial forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) that carry pathogenic tau mutations. Another hallmark feature of these diseases is the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Although disease-associated tau is known to impair several aspects of mitochondrial function, it is still unclear whether it also directly impinges on mitochondrial quality control, specifically Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Using the mito-QC mitophagy reporter, we found that both human wild-type (hTau) and FTD mutant tau (hP301L) inhibited mitophagy in neuroblastoma cells, by reducing mitochondrial translocation of Parkin...
December 11, 2018: EMBO Journal
C-N Yang, S-H Kok, H-W Wang, J Z-C Chang, E H-H Lai, C-T Shun, H Yang, M-H Chen, C-Y Hong, S-K Lin
AIM: To assess the connection between mitophagy and hypoxia-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts and whether simvastatin alleviates bone resorption in apical periodontitis through modulation of mitophagy-related apoptosis. METHODOLOGY: Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated respectively by MitoSOX and JC-1 fluorescence dye signaling. Accumulation of mitophagy markers PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin in mitochondria was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy...
December 11, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Patrick Brice Defo Deeh, Pierre Watcho, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Umar Zayyanu Usman
This study evaluated the effects of the methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (GT) and selenium (Se) on cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ), apoptosis and oxidative stress through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity in CCL-97 (R2C) tumour Leydig cells. The cells were divided into nine groups and treated as follows: (a)-Control, (b)-Capsazepine (CPZ, 0.1 mM, a TRPV1 channel blocker), (c)-Capsaicin (CAP, 0.01 mM, a TRPV1 channel activator), (d)-GT (500 μg/ml), (e)-GT+CPZ, (f)-GT+CAP, (g)-Se (200 nM), (h)-Se+CPZ and (i)-Se+CAP...
December 10, 2018: Andrologia
V Krishnan Ramanujan
Cancer cells are known to display a variety of metabolic reprogramming strategies to fulfill their own growth and proliferative agenda. With the advent of high resolution imaging strategies, metabolomics techniques, and so forth, there is an increasing appreciation of critical role that tumor cell metabolism plays in the overall breast cancer (BC) growth. In this report, we demonstrate a sensitive, flow-cytometry-based assay for rapidly assessing the metabolic phenotypes in isolated suspensions of breast cancer cells...
December 11, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Ido J Bontekoe, Pieter F van der Meer, Arthur J Verhoeven, Dirk de Korte
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previously it has been shown that platelet (PLT) storage performance is consistent by donor. Differences involved metabolic activity, which might be caused by mitochondrial (dys)function, associated with age and age-related diseases like Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to test PLTs from young donors in comparison with PLTs from older donors with or without diagnosis for T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen whole blood donors <30 year were selected, and single-donor platelet concentrates (sPC) were prepared from buffy coats (BC) and plasma...
December 10, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
X Geng, Y Zhang, J Yan, C Chu, F Gao, Z Jiang, X Zhang, Y Chen, X Wei, Y Feng, H Lu, C Wang, F Zeng, W Jia
AIMS: To investigate the associations among heteroplasmy levels (i.e. the proportions of mutant and wild-type mitochondrial DNA in the same cell), mitochondrial function and clinical severity of the m.3243A>G mutation. METHODS: A total of 17 participants carrying the m.3243A>G mutation and 17 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Heteroplasmy levels of the m.3243A>G mutation in leukocytes, saliva and urine sediment were determined by pyrosequencing...
December 7, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Zhou Dai, Jonathan R Lai
The BCL-2 protein family plays central roles in the mitochondrial pathway of cell apoptosis. The BCL-2-Associated X protein (BAX), along with other proapoptotic proteins, induces cell death in response to a variety of stress stimuli. Upon receipt of killing signals, cytosolic BAX is activated and translocates to mitochondria where it causes mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and initials a series of cellular events that eventually lead to cell destruction. Despite recent progress toward understanding the structure, function, and activation mechanism of BAX, detailed information about how cytosolic BAX can be inhibited is still limited...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qi Liang, Yujing Zhang, Manfeng Huang, Yuanyuan Xiao, Fang Xiao
Although it is well reported that mitochondrial damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) are involved in heavy metal‑induced cytotoxicity, the role of mitochondrial damage in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]‑induced ERS and the correlation between the two have not been described and remain to be elucidated. The present study evaluated the ability of Cr(VI) to induce ERS in L‑02 hepatocytes, and subsequently examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑mediated mitochondrial damage in Cr(VI)‑induced ERS...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuh-Feng Tsai, Yuh-Fung Chen, Chen-Yu Hsiao, Ching-Wen Huang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Shih-Chang Tsai, Jai-Sing Yang
Gadolinium (Gd) compounds serve as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and exert certain anticancer activities. Yet, the molecular signaling underlying the antitumor effect of Gd chloride (GdCl3) on glioma remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain the apoptotic mechanisms of GdCl3 on rat glioma C6 cells. Our results demonstrated that GdCl3 significantly reduced cell viability and shrunk cell morphology of C6 cells in a concentration‑dependent manner. GdCl3 led to apoptotic C6 cell death as detected by TUNEL staining...
December 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yunqiang Zhang, Lijun Tu, Xiuhong Zhou, Bin Li
BACKGROUND Curcumin has clear anti-tumor activity in various carcinomas. It regulates various signaling pathways like Wnt/β-catenin and JAK2/STAT3, which play vital roles in cell proliferation of several carcinomas, but to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no published reports on human glioma CHME cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on human glioma CHME cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The CHME cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)...
December 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Bapurao Surnar, Uttara Basu, Bhabatosh Banik, Anis Ahmad, Brian Marples, Nagesh Kolishetti, Shanta Dhar
The success of nanoparticle-mediated delivery of antioxidant and antiinflammatory-based neuroprotectants to the brain to improve neuronal functions in neurodegenerative diseases has demonstrated lesser impact instead of achieving its full potential. We hypothesized that these failures were due to a combination of parameters, such as: ( i ) unavailability of a delivery vehicle, which can reproducibly and efficiently transport through the brain capillary endothelium; ( ii ) inefficient uptake of therapeutic nanoparticles in the neuronal cell population; and ( iii ) limited ability of a single nanoparticle to cross the two most-impermeable biological barriers, the blood-brain barrier and mitochondrial double membrane, so that a nanoparticle can travel through the brain endothelial barrier to the mitochondria of target cells where oxidative damage is localized...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tiam Feridooni, Kishore B S Pasumarthi
Mid-gestation mouse ventricles (E11.5) contain a larger number of Nkx2.5+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The proliferation rates are consistently higher in CPCs compared to myocyte population of developing ventricles. Recent studies suggested that CPCs are an ideal donor cell type for replacing damaged tissue in diseased hearts. Thus, the ability to isolate and expand CPCs from embryos or stem cell cultures could be useful for cell fate studies and regenerative therapies. Since embryonic CPCs possess fewer mitochondria compared to cardiomyocytes, we reasoned that CPCs can be fractionated using a fluorescent mitochondrial membrane potential dye (TMRM) and these cells may retain cardiomyogenic potential even in the absence of cardiomyocytes (CMs)...
November 23, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Wanbao Cao, Jinxu Qi, Kun Qian, Liang Tian, Zhen Cheng, Yihong Wang
Six gallium(III) complexes (Ga1-Ga6) with 2‑quinolinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone analogues were synthesized and characterized. These gallium(III) complexes exhibited potent anticancer activity and exceeded that of the corresponding metal free ligands. Importantly, these gallium(III) complexes have a strong selectivity for tumor cells. Through the study of cellular mechanisms, we have found that the lipophilicity of ligands is closely linked to the antitumor activity of gallium(III) complexes. Additionally, we have chosen Ga6 with the best anti-tumor activity to study the mechanism of apoptosis...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Zhongyuan Zhou, Bin Zhou, Hongmei Chen, Xuexi Tang, You Wang
The brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), is well documented to exert potential negative impacts on different marine biota. However, the responsible mechanism remains unknown. The rainbow trout gonadal cell line RTG-2 was used as a model, and the mechanism and pathway underlying BDE-47 (6, 12.5 and 25 μM)-induced apoptosis and toxicity were examined in vitro. Apoptosis occurred in the RTG-2 cells exposed to BDE-47 in a clear concentration-dependent manner. The morphology of the mitochondrial alterations was observed using transmission electron microscopy...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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