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Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

Shu-Yan Liu, Jing-Yao Song, Bin Fan, Ying Wang, Yi-Ran Pan, Lin Che, Ying-Jian Sun, Guang-Yu Li
Retinal degeneration is a major cause of severe vision loss and irreversible blindness and is characterized by progressive damage to retinal photoreceptor cells. Resveratrol (RSV) serves as an activator of the histone deacetylase, Sirt1, and has been shown to exert anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we mimicked retinal degeneration by subjecting photoreceptors (661W cells) to glucose deprivation (GD) or light exposure. Under these conditions, we investigated the mechanisms underlying GD- or light exposure-induced cell death and the protective effect of RSV...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lina Chakrabarti, Arshia Mathew, Lina Li, Soojin Han, Judith Klover, Tom Albanetti, Pamela Hawley-Nelson
Development of cell lines for biotherapeutic protein production requires screening large numbers of clones to identify and isolate high producing ones. As such, stable cell line generation is a time- and resource-intensive process. Therefore, there is an increasing need to enhance the selection efficiency of high-yielding clonal cell lines for cell line development projects by using high throughput screening of live cells for markers predictive of productivity. Single cell deposition by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a commonly performed method for cloning to generate cell lines derived from a single recombinant cell...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Qinhao Lin, Li Dong, Yaqian Xu, Guoqing Di
With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current transmission, the intensity of static electric field (SEF) under transmission lines increased, which has aroused public attention on its potential health effects. In order to examine effects of SEF exposure on liver, institute of cancer research mice were exposed to SEF with intensities of 27.5 kV/m, 34.7 kV/m and 56.3 kV/m, respectively. In each intensity of SEF exposure, a corresponding sham exposure group was used. Several indices relating to liver function (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were tested after exposure of 7, 14, 21 and 35 days...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xueyan Yang, Xiaojie Yan, Dingping Yang, Junke Zhou, Jie Song, Dingwei Yang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) apoptosis are key mechanisms of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Mitochondria are main source of intracellular ROS. In the present study, the characteristics of mitophagy and the effects of rapamycin on contrast-induced abnormalities in oxidative stress, mitochondrial injury and mitophagy, TEC apoptosis and renal function were investigated in a CI-AKI rat model. Rats were divided into control group, CI-AKI group and pretreatment groups (with rapamycin dose of 2 or 5 mg/kg)...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Qi Xiong, Qin Ru, Xiang Tian, Mei Zhou, Lin Chen, Yi Li, Chaoying Li
Methamphetamine (METH) exposure can cause severe effects to the nervous system; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity caused by METH is still unclear. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are linked in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Krill oil (KO) benefits human health via its strong antioxidant ability. Therefore, we hypothesized that KO supplementation might effectively prevent METH-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of apoptotic responses and oxidative damages...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Bruna Maria Pereira da Costa Cordeiro, Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos, Magda Rhayanny Assunção Ferreira, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa de Araújo, Alexsander Rodrigues Carvalho Junior, Alan Diego da Conceição Santos, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Alexandre Gomes da Silva, Emerson Peter da Silva Falcão, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Luís Cláudio Nascimento da Silva, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
BACKGROUND: Spondias tuberosa is a plant that produces a fruit crop with high economic relevance at Brazilian Caatinga. Its roots and leaves are used in folk medicine. METHODS: Chemical composition of a hexane extract from S. tuberosa leaves was evaluated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Antioxidant potential was investigated by DPPH and ABTS assays. Antifungal action on Candida species was evaluated determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50 ) and putative mechanisms were determined by flow cytometry analysis...
October 19, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Agnieszka Walewska, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Recently, gaseous signaling molecules, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), which were previously considered to be highly toxic, have been of increasing interest due to their beneficial effects at low concentrations. These so-called gasotransmitters affect many cellular processes, such as apoptosis, proliferation, cytoprotection, oxygen sensing, ATP synthesis, and cellular respiration. It is thought that mitochondria, specifically their respiratory complexes, constitute an important target for these gases...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jingting Mai, Wenhao Liu, YongBiao Fang, Shujuan Zhang, Qiong Qiu, Ying Yang, Xiaoqiao Wang, TuCheng Huang, HaiFeng Zhang, Yong Xie, Maohuan Lin, YangXin Chen, Jingfeng Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We examined whether the inflammation resolution mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) inhibits foam cell formation and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptotic signaling in macrophages and the role of circulating/local LXA4 biosynthesis in atherogenesis. METHODS: LXA4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dil-oxLDL and Dil-acLDL binding to and uptake by macrophages were evaluated by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and Annexin V/PI assays...
September 28, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Maria M Reif, Moritz Fischer, Kai Fredriksson, Franz Hagn, Martin Zacharias
The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane and can adopt a closed or open configuration, most likely depending on whether the N-terminal segment (NTS) occupies the pore or protrudes into the cytoplasm. In this study, we calculate the free energy of releasing the NTS from the pore using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This is complicated by the flexible nature of the NTS, in particular its disordered structure in aqueous solution compared to the pore lumen. We carried out potential of mean force calculations using enhanced sampling or conformational restraints to address the conformational sampling problem...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Junkui Wang, Zhiguo Tang, Yong Zhang, Chuan Qiu, Ling Zhu, Na Zhao, Zhongwei Liu
Featured by heart dysfunction, the diabetic cardiomyopathy is causing mortality and morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Matrine was considered as a cardioprotective agent. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of matrine on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)- induced cardiac dysfunctions. Rats and isolated primary myocytes were exposed to AGEs. Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters were used to assess the cardiac function. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL assay...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sean W Tsao, Rami Gabriel, Kunal Thaker, Baruch D Kuppermann, M Cristina Kenney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether brimonidine can prevent cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and Müller (MIO) cells after exposure to amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ42). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vitro model of geographic atrophy (GA), which is an end-stage complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), simulated with the application of Aβ42 in cell culture. RPE and MIO cells were pretreated with brimonidine for 6 hours, then exposed to 10μM Aβ42 for 24 hours...
October 15, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Neha Sharma, Lisamarie Moore, Shravanthi Chidambaram, Nicholas W Colangelo, Sonia M de Toledo, Edouard I Azzam
Neural stem cells are attracting enormous attention in regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cell lineages that constitute the central nervous system. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of their redox environment, which is essential for homeostatic cellular functions. The redox-modulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are a molecular switch in stress signal transduction and are involved in numerous brain functions. Using a selective but broad-spectrum inhibitor of JNK 1/2/3, we investigated the role of JNK in regulating the levels of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane potential, viability, proliferation and lineage alterations in human H9-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs)...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Theodosis S Theodosi, Julia C Fitzgerald, Florence Burté, Christoph Ufer, David J Boocock, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Lynn Bedford, E Ellen Billett
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and are drug targets for the treatment of neurological disorders. MAOs control the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain via oxidative deamination and contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through their catalytic by-product H2 O2 . Increased ROS levels may modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a vast array of disorders. However, the downstream effects of MAO-A mediated ROS production in a neuronal model has not been previously investigated...
October 9, 2018: Redox Biology
N Moreira, M A Torres, P E Navas-Suárez, V Gonçalves, P C F Raspantini, L E R Raspantini, A T Gotardo, A F C Andrade, H S Spinosa
Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent against nematodes and arthropods. It is mainly used in the control of parasitic infections of domestic animals, and recently has been used in humans to treat onchocerciasis, scabies, and pediculosis. In mammals, evidence has indicated that macrocyclic lactones interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. The GABAergic system is known to be involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior, and previous studies have shown that IVM impaired sexual behavior in both male and female rats...
September 27, 2018: Theriogenology
Zhao Lv, Xiaorui Song, Jiachao Xu, Zhihao Jia, Bin Yang, Yunke Jia, Limei Qiu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is well studied as the major mechanism of physiological cell death in vertebrates. In the present study, a second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein (IAP) with low pI protein (DIABLO) (designated as CgSmac) was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame of CgSmac was of 966 bp nucleotides encoding a predicted polypeptide of 321 amino acids with a conserved Smac/DIABLO domain containing a potential IAP-binding motif of VMPV...
October 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ling Xue, Yaru Chen, Xiaowen Tang, Juan Yao, Huimin Huang, Min Wang, Shixin Ye, Meng Wang, Min-Xin Guan
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with deafness and their pathophysiology remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic mechanism of deafness-associated 7505A > G variant in the mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) . The m.7505A > G variant affected the highly conserved adenine at position 11 (A11), disrupted the highly conserved A11-U24 base-pairing of DHU stem of tRNASer(UCN) and introduced a tertiary base pairing (G11-C56) with the C56 in the TΨC loop...
October 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
Haicong Chen, Zhaojun Wang, Xin Wang, Zhen Guo, Zhujin Xu, Yi Zhao, Jiashang Cai, Jun Liu
In the present study, a polysaccharide (ECP) from Enterobacter cloacae dose and time-dependently inhibited cell growth of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells via induction of apoptosis. ECP treatment was selectively toxic to U-2 OS cells whereas had no cytotoxic effect on normal human osteoblast cell line NHOst. ECP-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with collapse of mitochondrial membrane, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and-3, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), elevated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein and overexpression of p53, suggesting the involvement of the activation of p53 and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in ECP-induced apoptosis...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cong Cao, Ling Zhu, Ye Chen, Cheng-Hui Wang, Jian-Zhong ShenTu, Yun-Liang Zheng
Physalin B (PB) is one of the major constituents of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, a well-known Chinese traditional herb. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that PB exhibits significant antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in A549 human lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that PB-induced G2/M arrest through down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cell division control protein cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and up-regulation of p21...
October 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
R Hartman, P Patil, R Tisherman, C St Croix, L J Niedernhofer, P D Robbins, F Ambrosio, B Van Houten, G Sowa, N Vo
Robust cellular bioenergetics is vital in the energy-demanding process of maintaining matrix homeostasis in the intervertebral disc. Age-related decline in disc cellular bioenergetics is hypothesised to contribute to the matrix homeostatic perturbation observed in intervertebral disc degeneration. The present study aimed to measure how ageing impacted disc cell mitochondria and bioenergetics. Age-related changes measured included matrix content and cellularity in disc tissue, as well as matrix synthesis, cell proliferation and senescence markers in cell cultures derived from annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) isolated from the discs of young (6-9 months) and older (36-50 months) New Zealand White rabbits...
October 18, 2018: European Cells & Materials
S A Salmataj, Shobha U Kamath, V Ramachandra Murty, Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic creates various health problems. Ixora coccinea flower extract was investigated for its ability to protect against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in CHO cell line. MTT assay confirmed the efficacy of the extract in ameliorating arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The value (48 mM) of 24 h inhibitory concentration (IC50) of sodium arsenate for CHO cells was obtained by MTT assay. Various free radical scavenging assays like DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide scavenging assay confirmed antioxidant activity of the Ixora coccinea flower extract...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
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