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Neuronal Cells

James C Perry, Bente Pakkenberg, Seralynne D Vann
The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. The number of glial cells was also reduced but to a lesser degree than neurons...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Rosalba Siracusa, Alessia Filippone, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder. It has been shown Toll like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice protect against MPTP toxicity, suggesting that dopaminergic cell death is TLR4-dependent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, in an in vivo model of PD, how TLR4 plays its important role in the pathogenesis of PD by using MPTP neurotoxin model (4 × 20 mg/kg, 2 hr apart, i.p). Our experiments have demonstrated that the absence of TLR4 prevented dopamine depletion, increased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter activities and reduced the number of α-synuclein-positive neurons...
December 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Clara López-Serrano, Eva Santos-Nogueira, Isaac Francos-Quijorna, Marina Coll-Miro, Jerold Chun, Rubèn López-Vales
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions by signaling through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1 -LPA6 ). In the central nervous system (CNS), LPA mediates a wide range of effects, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and contributions to pain, schizophrenia and hydrocephalus. We recently reported that LPA-LPA1 signaling mediates functional deficits and myelin loss after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
December 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Shimaa K Mohamed, Amany A E Ahmed, Engy M El Morsy, Shahira Nofal
AIMS: Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is a neurovascular disease leading to cerebral damage. It was found that postmenopausal women are liable to more dangerous effects than men at same age in stroke. The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of zeranol against cerebral ischemia reperfusion in ovariectomized rats. MAIN METHODS: 36 female wistar rats divided in to 3 groups: sham group, I/R group (where I/R was induced 7 weeks after ovariectomy), zeranol group (0...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Marija Rankovic, Markus Zweckstetter
The tubulin-associated unit (Tau) protein is an intrinsically disordered protein that plays a well-established role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization in neuronal axons at all stages of development. Identification of new interacting partners and different sub-cellular localizations of Tau in recent years led to the discovery of novel physiological functions in regulation of neuronal activity, neurogenesis, long-term depression, iron export and genomic integrity. In addition, Tau gene mutations, aberrant mRNA splicing and abnormal post-translational modifications, such as hyperphosphorylation, lead to formation of pathological, insoluble Tau aggregates that are a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies...
December 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava, Antoine Triller, Ronald Melki
Neuronal Na+ /K+ -ATPase is responsible for the maintenance of ionic gradient across plasma membrane. In doing so, in a healthy brain, Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity accounts for nearly half of total brain energy consumption. The α3-subunit containing Na+ /K+ -ATPase expression is restricted to neurons. Heterozygous mutations within α3-subunit leads to Rapid-onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood and other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Additionally, proteins such as α-synuclein, amyloid-β, and SOD1 whose aggregation is associated to neurodegenerative diseases directly bind and impair α3-Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity...
December 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Euno Choi, Seonk-Ik Kim, Jae-Kyung Won, Chun Kee Chung, Seung Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi, Seongmin Choi, Bome Han, Bokyung Ahn, I M Sun-Wha, Sung-Hye Park
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) of the cerebrum is a recently recognized rare neuronal tumor, and its pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed 7 cases of histologically typical MVNT: six were adults [mean age: 43.0years (range: 23-56)] and one was a child (10-year-old). The most common symptoms were seizures (n=4) and headache (n=2). The tumors were supratentorial (temporal=5 and frontal lobes=2) in origin as reported. Vacuolated tumor cells were robustly positive for alpha-INA and Olig2 and at least partly positive for synaptophysin and MAP2, but negative for Neu-N...
December 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Si-Yuen Lee, Julian H George, David A Nagel, Hua Ye, Gray Kueberuwa, Leonard W Seymour
Development of optogenetically controllable human neural network model in three-dimensional (3D) can provide an investigative system that is physiologically relevant or mimic to the human brain. Light-sensitive neurons were generated by transducing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitor cells (Axol) using lentiviruses and cell-type specific promoters. A mixed population of human iPSC-derived cortical neurons, astrocytes and progenitor cells was obtained (Axol-ChR2) upon neural differentiation...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Anca Leibovici, Rivka Sharon, David Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuronal growth factor that is important for the development, maintenance, and repair of the peripheral nervous system. The BDNF gene commonly carries a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met-SNP), which affects the cellular distribution and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF in neuronal cells. OBJECTIVES: To check the association between BDNF Val66Met-SNP as a predisposition that enhances the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an Israeli cohort of patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel...
December 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Hiroki Ishiguro, Kunio Miyake, Koichi Tabata, Chiaki Mochizuki, Takeshi Sakurai, Emmanuel S Onaivi
AIMS: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression patterns of neural molecules to find a common addiction pathway dependent on Nrcam function. We examined monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in the brains of Nrcam knockout mice following treatment with methamphetamine (METH) or saline (SAL) using micro-array gene expression analysis, which was replicated using TaqMan gene expression analysis...
December 13, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Alexander Fichtner, Annette Fisseler-Eckhoff, Wolfgang Kramer, Heinz Joachim Radzun, Philipp Ströbel, Felix Bremmer
Primary signet-ring stromal tumour of the testis (PSRSTT) is a very rare type of primary testicular tumour, which is not actually mentioned in the current WHO categorization of tumours of the male genital organs. In this case we report about histologically and immunohistochemically features of this rare tumour. In the present case, PSRTT was found in the orchiectomy preparation of a 69-year-old man with painless swelling of his left testicle. The tumour was well circumscribed and separated from the normal testicular tissue by a fibrous capsule...
January 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Brian S Eastwood, Bryan M Hooks, Ronald F Paletzki, Nathan J O'Connor, Jacob R Glaser, Charles R Gerfen
Advances in molecular neuroanatomical tools have expanded the ability to map in detail connections of specific neuron subtypes in the context of behaviorally driven patterns of neuronal activity. Analysis of such data across the whole mouse brain, registered to a reference atlas, aids in understanding the functional organization of brain circuits related to behavior. A process is described to image mouse brain sections labeled with standard histochemical techniques, reconstruct those images into a whole brain image volume and register those images to the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ivica Kostović, Iris Žunić Išasegi, Željka Krsnik
The objective of this paper was to collect normative data essential for analyzing the subplate (SP) role in pathogenesis of developmental disorders, characterized by abnormal circuitry, such as hypoxic-ischemic lesions, autism and schizophrenia. The main cytological features of the SP, such as low cell density, early differentiation of neurons and glia, plexiform arrangement of axons and dendrites, presence of synapses and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) distinguish this compartment from the cell-dense cortical plate (CP; towards pia) and large fiber bundles of external axonal strata of fetal white matter (towards ventricle)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Liu Hao, Zhong Lin, Zhao Chunling, Tang Xiaolei, Yang Jun, Gong Lei
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) has been considered as potent candidates for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) for which can promote the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to secret out from cells like other classical neurotrophic factors (NTFs), CDNF can locate in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), where they can function as ER stress response protein to regulate ER stress. In our previous studies, we have found two helices, α1 and α7, which can regulate the intracellular trafficking and secretion of CDNF...
December 13, 2018: Cell Biology International
Jinlian Qi, Yingping Jia, Wenhua Wang, Haibing Lu, Yuan Wang, Zhengchen Li
Sevoflurane is the most commonly used general anesthetic in pediatric patients. But preclinical studies indicate that sevoflurane could have neurotoxicity in newborn and old animals, and this raises concern regarding its safety. In this study, we explored the potential mechanisms of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. We showed that prolonged exposure to 2% sevoflurane caused a significant increase in the Bag family protein Bag2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We investigated the possible role of Bag2 upon exposure to sevoflurane by silencing Bag2 in neuronal cells...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska
This study characterizes for the first time the distribution and co-existence patterns of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the female and male guinea pig preoptic area (POA) during brain development, using immunohistochemistry and qPCR techniques. The results show that the prenatal development of the guinea pig POA takes place in elevated levels of CB and CR immunoreactivity with the peak at embryonic day 50 (E50) and generally in newborns both these proteins reach an adult-like pattern of immunoreactivity, contrary to PV which appears later, peaks at postnatal day 10 (P10), and stabilizes at P20...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Elin Kronander, Christopher Clark, Ralf Schneggenburger
Large excitatory synapses are found at specific points in the neuronal circuits of the auditory brainstem, to enable fast information transfer and the preservation of acoustic timing information. The extracellular cues and signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of these specialized synaptic connections, exemplified by the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of BMP signaling for the early development of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and MNTB, and for the initial formation of the calyx of Held synaptic connection...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Mireia Recasens, Kalpana Shrivastava, Beatriz Almolda, Berta González, Bernardo Castellano
When central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis is altered, microglial cells become rapidly activated, proliferate and release a broad range of molecules. Among the plethora of molecules involved in the regulation of microglial activation, cytokines are considered crucial. Although production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been demonstrated after different types of CNS injuries and associated with protective functions, the specific role played by IL-10 modulating microglial cells remains unclear. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of transgenic astrocyte IL-10 production on microglial activation associated with axonal anterograde degeneration...
December 11, 2018: Glia
Miguel Goulão, Biswarup Ghosh, Mark W Urban, Malya Sahu, Christina Mercogliano, Brittany A Charsar, Sreeya Komaravolu, Cole G Block, George M Smith, Megan C Wright, Angelo C Lepore
Stem/progenitor cell transplantation delivery of astrocytes is a potentially powerful strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). Axon extension into SCI lesions that occur spontaneously or in response to experimental manipulations is often observed along endogenous astrocyte "bridges," suggesting that augmenting this response via astrocyte lineage transplantation can enhance axon regrowth. Given the importance of respiratory dysfunction post-SCI, we transplanted glial-restricted precursors (GRPs)-a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors-into the C2 hemisection model and evaluated effects on diaphragm function and the growth response of descending rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) axons that innervate phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs)...
December 11, 2018: Glia
Bettina Linnartz-Gerlach, Liviu-Gabriel Bodea, Christine Klaus, Aurélien Ginolhac, Rashi Halder, Lasse Sinkkonen, Jochen Walter, Marco Colonna, Harald Neumann
The microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signals via the activatory membrane adaptor molecule TYROBP. Genetic variants or mutations of TREM2 or TYROBP have been linked to inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The typical aging process goes along with microglial changes and mild neuronal loss, but the exact contribution of TREM2 is still unclear. Aged TREM2 knock-out mice showed decreased age-related neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and the hippocampus...
December 11, 2018: Glia
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