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Neuronal Cells

Priyal Barai, Nisith Raval, Sanjeev Acharya, Ankit Borisa, Hardik Bhatt, Niyati Acharya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an enervating and chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, occurring frequently in the elderly and adversely affecting intellectual capabilities and the cognitive processes. Bergenin possesses efficacious antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity along with antinociceptive effect and wound healing properties. Previous studies have shown that bergenin has in vitro bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, β-secretase (BACE-1) enzyme inhibitory activity and prevented neuronal death in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Onintza Sagredo, Javier Palazuelos, Ana Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Valentina Satta, Ismael Galve-Roperh, José Martínez-Orgado
The endocannabinoid system exerts a crucial neuromodulatory role in many brain areas that is essential for proper regulation of neuronal activity. The role of cannabinoid signalling controlling neuronal activity in the adult brain is also evident when considering its contribution to adult brain insults or neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of brain genetic or acquired encephalopathies administration of cannabinoid-based molecules has demonstrated to exert symptomatic relief and hence, they are proposed as new potential therapeutic compounds...
August 14, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ling-Ping Cen, Yu-Fen Liu, Tsz Kin Ng, Jian-Min Luo, Nico van Rooijen, Mingzhi Zhang, Chi Pui Pang, Qi Cui
Neuron survival is critical for the maintenance of central nervous system physiology upon diseases or injury. We previously demonstrated that the blockage of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase/STAT3 pathways promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration via macrophage activation; yet, the complexity of the inflammatory regulation for neural repair indicates the involvement of additional unresolved signaling pathways. Here we report the effects and underlying mechanism of casein kinase-II (CK2) inhibition on RGC survival and axonal regeneration in rats after optic nerve (ON) injury...
August 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Yoko Momose-Sato, Katsushige Sato
Facial motor neurons of the rat embryo are first generated in rhombomere 4 and then migrate in the caudo-ventral direction. This migration forms a unique axonal trajectory called the genu, a loop of facial motor axons around the abducens nucleus. It is still unclear when and how this unique structure is functionally established during ontogenesis. Using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) recording and the DiI staining method, we identified neural responses evoked by facial nerve (N.VII) stimulation and examined developmental processes of the facial motor nucleus in E12-E17 rat brainstems...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Samuel S Pappas, Jay Li, Tessa M LeWitt, Jeong-Ki Kim, Umrao R Monani, William T Dauer
Cholinergic dysfunction is strongly implicated in dystonia pathophysiology. Previously (Pappas et al., eLife 2015;4:e08352), we reported that Dlx5/6-Cre mediated forebrain deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA (Dlx-CKO) causes abnormal twisting and selective degeneration of dorsal striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChI) (1). A central question raised by that work is whether the ChI loss is cell autonomous or requires torsinA loss from neurons synaptically connected to ChIs. Here, we addressed this question by using ChAT-Cre mice to conditionally delete torsinA from cholinergic neurons ('ChAT-CKO')...
August 17, 2018: ELife
Sadahiro Nomura, Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Hirayama, Hirochika Imoto, Takao Inoue, Hiroshi Moriyama, Dai Mitsushima, Michiyasu Suzuki
This study aimed to understand the mechanism by which brain cooling terminates epileptic discharge. Cortical slices were prepared from rat brains (n = 19) and samples from patients with intractable epilepsy that had undergone temporal lobectomy (n = 7). We performed whole cell current clamp recordings at approximately physiological brain temperature (35℃) and at cooler temperatures (25℃ and 15℃). The firing threshold in human neurons was lower at 25℃ (-32.6 mV) than at 35℃ (-27.0 mV). The resting potential and spike frequency were similar at 25℃ and 35℃...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sevinci Pop, Ana-Maria Enciu, Laura G Necula, Cristiana Tanase
Glioma biology is a major focus in tumour research, primarily due to the aggressiveness and high mortality rate of its most aggressive form, glioblastoma. Progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind poor prognosis of glioblastoma, regardless of treatment approaches, has changed the classification of brain tumours after nearly 100 years of relying on anatomopathological criteria. Expanding knowledge in genetic, epigenetic and translational medicine is also beginning to contribute to further elucidating molecular dysregulation in glioma...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Joseph A Fantuzzo, Ronald P Hart, Jeffrey D Zahn, Zhiping P Pang
Neuropsychiatric disorders have traditionally been difficult to study due to the complexity of the human brain and limited availability of human tissue. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a promising avenue to further our understanding of human disease mechanisms, but traditional 2D cell cultures can only provide a limited view of the neural circuits. To better model complex brain neurocircuitry, compartmentalized culturing systems and 3D organoids have been developed. Early compartmentalized devices demonstrated how neuronal cell bodies can be isolated both physically and chemically from neurites...
August 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Leandro Bueno Bergantin
BACKGROUND: Hypertension, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are among the most prevalent medical problems around the world, costing millions of dollars to the medical health systems. Indeed, hypertension has been associated with higher risk for decline of cognition, as evidenced in patients with Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Furthermore, there is a clear relationship between hypertension and diabetes, reflecting substantial overlap in their etiology. Calcium (Ca2+) channel blockers (CCBs) have been classically prescribed for treating hypertension because of their mechanism of action due to reducing the influx of Ca2+ into the smooth muscles cells...
August 16, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Efstratios K Kosmidis, Yiannis F Contoyiannis, Costas Papatheodoropoulos, Fotios K Diakonos
Evidence that neural circuits are operating near criticality has been provided at various levels of brain organization with a presumed role in maximizing information processing and multiscale activity association. Criticality has been linked to excitation at both the single cell and network levels, as action potential generation marks an obvious phase transition from a resting to an excitable state. Using in vitro intracellular recordings, we examine irregular, small amplitude membrane potential fluctuations from CA1 pyramidal neurons of Wistar male rats...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Janine Doorduin, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Elke Bromberg, Erik F J de Vries
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most studied neurotrophins in the healthy and diseased brain. As a result, there is a large body of evidence that associates BDNF with neuronal maintenance, neuronal survival, plasticity, and neurotransmitter regulation. Patients with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders often have reduced BDNF concentrations in their blood and brain. A current hypothesis suggests that these abnormal BDNF levels might be due to the chronic inflammatory state of the brain in certain disorders, as neuroinflammation is known to affect several BDNF-related signaling pathways...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Hee-Jung Cho, Sang-Deuk Park, Na-Eun Lee, Sung-Hee Hwang, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hongik Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
Astrocytes are a unique brain cell-storing glycogen and express lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors. Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous G protein-coupled LPA receptor ligand. Accumulating evidence shows that astrocytes serve as an energy supplier to neurons through astrocytic glycogenolysis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, little is known about the relationships between LPA receptors and astrocytic glycogenolysis or about the roles of LPA receptors in hypoxia and re-oxygenation stresses...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luciana Pietranera, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Alejandro Federico De Nicola
Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to affect 35-40% of the adult population and is a main conditioning factor for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Animal models of hypertension have provided great advances concerning the pathophysiology of human hypertension, as already shown for the deoxycorticosterone-salt treated rat, the Dahl-salt sensitive rat, the Zucker obese rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHR has been widely used to study abnormalities of the brain in chronic hypertension...
August 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
J Pickford, R Apps, Z I Bashir
How the cerebellum carries out its functions is not clear, even for its established roles in motor control. In particular, little is known about how the cerebellar nuclei (CN) integrate their synaptic and neuromodulatory inputs to generate cerebellar output. CN neurons receive inhibitory inputs from Purkinje cells, excitatory inputs from mossy fibre and climbing fibre collaterals, as well as a variety of neuromodulatory inputs, including cholinergic inputs. In this study we tested how activation of acetylcholine receptors modulated firing rate, intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in the CN...
August 16, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Buch Lipi, Langhnoja Jaldeep, Pillai Prakash
Astrocytes perform several critical functions such as promoting neuronal maturation, neuronal survival, maintaining and supporting neurons and oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes participate in the formation of nodes of Ranvier. Recently, studies emphasizing on the role of astrocytes in regulating myelination by secreting pro-myelinating factors like growth factors, neurotrophins and ECM proteins, have been investigated by many researchers. Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2), an epigenetic protein, binds to CpG islands in the genome and induces multiple gene regulatory functions by conforming changes in the chromatin structure and resulting in cell-specific gene expression...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
O I Ivashkina, N S Vorobyeva, A M Gruzdeva, M A Roshchina, K A Toropova, K V Anokhin
In this study, we describe use of Cre-mediated recombination to obtain a permanent genetic labeling of the brain neuronal networks activated during a new experience in animals. This method utilizes bitransgenic Fos-Cre-eGFP mice in which a green fluorescent protein is expressed upon tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombination only in the cells where immediate early gene c-fos expression takes place due to the new experience. We used the classical fear conditioning model to show that ex vivo microscopy of the eGFP protein in Fos-Cre-eGFP mice enables mapping of the neurons of the various brain regions that undergo Cre-recombination during acquisition of a new experience...
April 2018: Acta Naturae
Arnold N Onyango
Insulin resistance (IR), a key component of the metabolic syndrome, precedes the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Its etiological pathways are not well defined, although many contributory mechanisms have been established. This article summarizes such mechanisms into the hypothesis that factors like nutrient overload, physical inactivity, hypoxia, psychological stress, and environmental pollutants induce a network of cellular stresses, stress responses, and stress response dysregulations that jointly inhibit insulin signaling in insulin target cells including endothelial cells, hepatocytes, myocytes, hypothalamic neurons, and adipocytes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Marta Lemieszewska, Antoni Polanowski, Tadeusz Wilusz, Agata Sokołowska, Aleksandra Zambrowicz, Katarzyna Mikołajewicz, Józefa Macała, Joanna Rymaszewska, Agnieszka Zabłocka
Colostrum and milk are the initial mammalian nourishment and rich reservoir of essential nutrients for newborn development. Bioactive peptides isolated from natural sources, such as colostrum, serve as endogenous regulators and can be used as alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. One example is the previously unknown NP-POL nonapeptide isolated from Colostrinin. In the present study, we investigated a method of NP-POL nonapeptide isolation using Bio-Gel P2 molecular sieve chromatography...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Binav Shrestha, Mazin Khalid, Vijay Gayam, Osama Mukhtar, Shivani Thapa, Amrendra K Mandal, Jaspreet Kaler, Mowyad Khalid, Pavani Garlapati, Shamah Iqbal, Gerald Posner
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon tumors. They are believed to be neuronal in origin and are usually found in the head and/or neck area of the body. They have also been reported in various locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, usually discovered during routine screening colonoscopy. We report a case of GCT in a 58-year-old asymptomatic African American female as a metachronous tumor of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon, which was an incidental finding in screening colonoscopy...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Zi-Ru Li, Lei Yang, Jin Zhen, Yan Zhao, Zu-Neng Lu
Nobiletin (NOB) possesses multiple pharmacological effects, but its anti-apoptotic property has acquired a great deal of attention. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis acts as the pivotal aetiology in neuronal oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury. The aim of this study focused on whether NOB exerts neuro-protective effects on OGD/R injury by repressing ERS-induced apoptosis. The PC12 neuronal cell line was subjected to 4 h OGD and 24 h reoxygenation following NOB treatment...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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