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Dynamic elastance

Chet C Xu, Ang Gao, Song Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the left-right vocal fold symmetry in rheological and histological properties using a rabbit model. The other objective was to develop statistical models for the comparison of rheological properties between paired vocal folds. METHODS: Viscoelastic shear properties of six pairs of vocal fold lamina propria specimens were measured over a frequency range of 1 to 250 Hz by a linear, controlled-strain, simple-shear rheometer...
August 10, 2018: Laryngoscope
Prashanth Ravi, Jamie Wright, Panos S Shiakolas, Tré R Welch
Bioresorbable materials have been frequently used to three-dimensional (3D) print biomedical structures. In this study, we developed a technique to 3D print poly(glycerol sebacate fumarate) gadodiamide (Rylar)-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) samples and investigated their mechanical and thermal properties as a function of (PS) and ultraviolet intensity (UVI). The Young's modulus (E), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), failure strain (ɛF ), and glass transition temperature (Tg ) showed strong correlation with PS and UVI...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Marco Edoardo Rosti, Arash Alizad Banaei, Luca Brandt, Andrea Mazzino
We study the dynamics of a flexible fiber freely moving in a three-dimensional fully developed turbulent field and present a phenomenological theory to describe the interaction between the fiber elasticity and the turbulent flow. This theory leads to the identification of two distinct regimes of flapping, which we validate against direct numerical simulations fully resolving the fiber dynamics. The main result of our analysis is the identification of a flapping regime where the fiber, despite its elasticity, is slaved to the turbulent fluctuations...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Scott Waitukaitis, Kirsten Harth, Martin van Hecke
The Leidenfrost effect occurs when a liquid or stiff sublimable solid near a hot surface creates enough vapor beneath it to lift itself up and float. In contrast, vaporizable soft solids, e.g., hydrogels, have been shown to exhibit persistent bouncing-the elastic Leidenfrost effect. By carefully lowering hydrogel spheres towards a hot surface, we discover that they are also capable of floating. The bounce-to-float transition is controlled by the approach velocity and temperature, analogously to the "dynamic Leidenfrost effect...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Siou-Luan He, Hsu-Liang Hsieh, Guang-Yuh Jauh
Successful pollen tube elongation is critical for double fertilization, but the biological functions of pollen tube genes and the regulatory machinery underlying this crucial process are largely unknown. A previous translatomic study revealed two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SAUR (SMALL AUXIN UP RNA) genes, SAUR62 and SAUR75, whose expression is upregulated by pollination. Here, we found that both SAUR62 and SAUR75 mainly localized to pollen tube nuclei. The siliques of homozygous saur62 (saur62/-), saur75 (saur75/-), and the SAUR62/75 RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown line had many aborted seeds...
August 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
Pi Guo, Qin Zhang, Yuliang Chen, Jianpeng Xiao, Jianfeng He, Yonghui Zhang, Li Wang, Tao Liu, Wenjun Ma
BACKGROUND: China experienced an unprecedented outbreak of dengue in 2014, and the number of dengue cases reached the highest level over the past 25 years. There is a significant delay in the release of official case count data, and our ability to timely track the timing and magnitude of local outbreaks of dengue remains limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed an ensemble penalized regression algorithm (EPRA) for initializing near-real time forecasts of the dengue epidemic trajectory by integrating different penalties (LASSO, Ridge, Elastic Net, SCAD and MCP) with the techniques of iteratively sampling and model averaging...
August 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anh Duc Phan, Kenneth S Schweizer
We analyze multiple new issues concerning activated relaxation in glassy hard sphere fluids and molecular and polymer liquids based on the Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation (ECNLE) theory. By invoking a high temperature reference state, a near universality of the apparent dynamic localization length scale is predicted for liquids of widely varying fragility, a result that is relevant to recent simulation studies and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. In contrast, in the same format strongly non-universal behavior is found for the activation barrier that controls long time relaxation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jianyang Wu, Qiao Shi, Zhisen Zhang, Hong-Hui Wu, Chao Wang, Fulong Ning, Senbo Xiao, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Entwining-induced robust natural biosystems show superior mechanical performances over their counterparts. However, the role played by topological entwinement in the mechanical properties of artificial nanohelixes remains unknown. Here, the tensile characteristics of nano-entwined carbon nanocoil (ECNC) metamaterials are explored by atomistic simulations. The simulation results show that ECNCs exhibit heterogeneous pre-stress distribution along the spiral surfaces. The predicted stretching stress-strain responses correlate with the topological nano-entwining and dimensionality...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Manon Benedito, Stefano Giordano
Several experimental methods are usually applied for stretching single molecules and provide valuable insights about the static and dynamic responses induced by externally applied forces. This analysis is even more important for macromolecules exhibiting conformational transitions, thereby corresponding to folding/unfolding processes. With the aim of introducing the statistical mechanics of such phenomena, we apply here the spin variables approach based on a set of discrete quantities able to identify the folded or unfolded state of the chain units...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
C Stock, J A Rodriguez-Rivera, K Schmalzl, F Demmel, D K Singh, F Ronning, J D Thompson, E D Bauer
CeCo(In_{0.990}Hg_{0.010})_{5} is a charge doped variant of the d-wave CoCoIn_{5} superconductor with coexistent antiferromagnetic and superconducting transitions occurring at T_{N}=3.4 and T_{c}=1.4  K, respectively. We use neutron diffraction and spectroscopy to show that the magnetic resonant fluctuations present in the parent superconducting phase are replaced by collinear c-axis magnetic order with three-dimensional Ising critical fluctuations. No low-energy transverse spin fluctuations are observable in this doping-induced antiferromagnetic phase and the dynamic resonant spectral weight predominately shifts to the elastic channel...
July 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Federica Mura, Grzegorz Gradziuk, Chase P Broedersz
Measuring and quantifying nonequilibrium dynamics in active biological systems is a major challenge because of their intrinsic stochastic nature and the limited number of variables accessible in any real experiment. We investigate what nonequilibrium information can be extracted from noninvasive measurements using a stochastic model of soft elastic networks with a heterogeneous distribution of activities, representing enzymatic force generation. In particular, we use this model to study how the nonequilibrium activity, detected by tracking two probes in the network, scales as a function of the distance between the probes...
July 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Seo, P Roulleau, P Roche, D C Glattli, M Sanquer, X Jehl, L Hutin, S Barraud, F D Parmentier
Quantum shot noise probes the dynamics of charge transfers through a quantum conductor, reflecting whether quasiparticles flow across the conductor in a steady stream, or in syncopated bursts. We have performed high-sensitivity shot noise measurements in a quantum dot obtained in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The quality of our device allows us to precisely associate the different transport regimes and their statistics with the internal state of the quantum dot. In particular, we report on large current fluctuations in the inelastic cotunneling regime, corresponding to different highly correlated, non-Markovian charge transfer processes...
July 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Zhi Wang, Xiangjun Gong, Jinhong Xie, Zhenbo Xu, Guangming Liu, Guangzhao Zhang
Biocides can effectively kill bacteria. However, whether the dead bacterial cells left on the surface influence the later growth of biofilm is unknown. In this study, we have cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilm on their dead siblings and have investigated their evolution by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy (MF-AFM). The time dependence of the biofilm thickness indicates that the deposited dead siblings can slow down the growth of PAO1 biofilm. The biofilm growing on dead bacteria layers is softer in comparison with those upon alive siblings, as reflected by the static elastic modulus (E) and dynamic stiffness (kd) scaled to the disturbing frequency (f) as , where kd,0 is the scaling factor and γ is the power-law exponent...
August 7, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Li-Xin Guo, Wei Fan
This study aimed to determine the effect of variations in material properties of the intervertebral disc on dynamic response of the human lumbar spine to vertical vibration using a finite element model of the lumbar L1-S1 motion segment. The present material sensitivity study was conducted by varying elastic moduli for annulus ground substance (AGS), annulus fibers (AF), and nucleus pulposus (NP) in the disc. Transient dynamic analysis was performed initially on the model with basic material property under a sinusoidal vertical vibration load...
August 6, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Auezhan Amanov, Rakhmatjon Umarov, Tileubay Amanov
This work comparatively investigated the strength (hardness, yield strength, dynamic elastic modulus, and surface residual stress), fretting failure, and corrosion resistance of the as-received and treated Ni-based superalloy Alloy 718. The goal of the current research is to improve the hardness, fretting wear, and corrosion resistances of Alloy 718 through the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) process with the aim of extending the lifespan of aircraft and nuclear components made of Alloy 718...
August 6, 2018: Materials
Jun Hu, Tetsuhide Shimizu, Ming Yang
Conventional high power ultrasonic vibration has been widely used to improve manufacturing processes like surface treatment and metal forming. Ultrasonic vibration affects material properties, leading to a flow stress reduction, which is called ultrasonic volume effect. The volume effect contains multi-mechanisms such as stress superposition due to oscillatory stress, acoustic softening by easier dislocation motion and dynamic impact leading to extra surface plastic deformation. However, most researches ignored the stress superposition for the convenience of measurement, and few studies considered ultrasonic dynamic impact since the relatively low ultrasonic energy in macro scale...
November 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yosuke Ishii, Koichi Hiraoka, Tadaharu Adachi
Recently, a perturbation approach was adopted for the non-collinear mixing of plate waves in an isotropic elastic plate with quadratic nonlinearity by Ishii, Biwa, and Adachi [J. Sound Vib. 419, 390-404 (2018)] and a resonance condition was derived theoretically, namely, that a significant scattered plate wave is generated when its frequency and wavevector coincide with the sum/difference of those of its primary waves. However, that analysis assumed monochromatic plane waves that interacted everywhere in the plate...
July 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Alexander Savin, Yuri S Kivshar, Mario Ignacio Molina
We study the electron transport in a deformable lattice modeled in the semiclassical
 approximation as a discrete nonlinear elastic chain where acoustic phonons are in thermal equilibrium
 at temperature $T$. We reveal that an effective {\em dynamic disorder} induced in the system due
 to thermalized phonons is not strong enough to produce Anderson localization. However,
 for weak nonlinearity we observe a transition between ballistic (low $T$) and diffusive (high $T$) regimes,
 while for strong nonlinearity the transition occurs between the localized soliton
 (low $T$) and diffusive (high $T$) regimes...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Huawen Yan, Weigong Zhang, Dong Wang
Automobile proving ground is important for the research of vehicles which are used for vehicle dynamics, durability testing, braking testing, etc. However, the road in automobile proving grounds will inevitably be damaged with the extension of the service life. In most previous research, equipment similar to a laser profilometer was used to detect the quality of the road, the principle of which is to reflect the quality of the road by measuring the roughness of the pavement. This method ignores the elastic deformation of the road itself when the vehicle is traveling and it is difficult to compensate for the error...
August 1, 2018: Sensors
Laoan Brito Oliveira Rodrigues, Cristiane Martins Veloso, Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo, Luciano Brito Rodrigues, Luis A Minim, Rafael A S Costa
The aim of this work was to study the effect of adding whey protein concentrate and sucrose on the rheological and textural properties of the gels obtained from arrowroot ( Maranta arundinacea ) starches. It was found that the starches evaluated presented low levels of protein, ash, lipids and acidity. Arrowroot starch of the common and round root varieties presented 17.80 and 35.96% of amylose content, respectively. The swelling power of the starch from common variety was higher than that of the round root but the solubility index was lower...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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