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spike development

Alexandra Schröck, Anna Henzi, Peter Bütikofer, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an alcohol biomarker formed from phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) in the presence of ethanol. A drinking study revealed individual differences in maximum PEth levels after drinking to a targeted blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.1%. This seemed to be due to different PLD activities in the tested persons. Furthermore, post-sampling formation of PEth occurred in blood samples, still containing alcohol. Therefore, a standardized in vitro test for measuring individual PEth formation rates was developed...
March 20, 2018: Alcohol
Cynthia Sommers, Barry Rosenzweig, Lida Oum, Karol Thompson, David A Keire
Protamine sulfate (PS) is an FDA approved drug used to reverse heparin-induced anticoagulation in patients. Protamine sulfate is a mixture of primarily four ∼4 kDa arginine-rich cationic polypeptide chains derived from chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon sperm. Because the presence of residual host cell salmon DNA (resDNA) in PS drug product can pose safety concerns, processing steps during PS manufacturing are designed to target the reduction of these impurities. However, given protamine's positively charged structure, isolating and measuring negatively charged residual DNA is challenging...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jiahui Guo, Liurong Fang, Xu Ye, Jiyao Chen, Shangen Xu, Xinyu Zhu, Yimin Miao, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which re-emerged in China in October 2010, has spread rapidly worldwide. Detailed analyses of the complete genomes of different PEDV strains are essential to understand the relationships among re-emerging and historic strains worldwide. Here, we analyzed the complete genomes of 409 strains from different countries, which were classified into five subgroup strains (i.e., GI-a, GI-b, GII-a, GII-b, and GII-c). Phylogenetic study of different genes in the PEDV strains revealed that the newly discovered subgroup GII-c exhibited inconsistent topologies between the spike gene and other genes...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Kaori Shigeta, Ai Fujita, Tetsuya Nakazato, Hiroaki Tao
We have developed a method for the determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in industrial wastewater by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) combined with a chelating pretreatment with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA). The PDCA unified the chemical forms of the Cr(III) species in water samples by the formation of a stable Cr(III)-PDCA complex, which was then separated by a LC column. The chromatographic mobile phase at neutral pH and the column of a mixed-bed of anion and cation exchangers successfully separated not only the chromium species without any redox conversion, but also chloride, which interfered with ICP-MS detection...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
V Stalin Raj, Nisreen M A Okba, Javier Gutierrez-Alvarez, Dubravka Drabek, Brenda van Dieren, W Widagdo, Mart M Lamers, Ivy Widjaja, Raul Fernandez-Delgado, Isabel Sola, Albert Bensaid, Marion P Koopmans, Joaquim Segalés, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Berend Jan Bosch, Luis Enjuanes, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to cause outbreaks in humans as a result of spillover events from dromedaries. In contrast to humans, MERS-CoV-exposed dromedaries develop only very mild infections and exceptionally potent virus-neutralizing antibody responses. These strong antibody responses may be caused by affinity maturation as a result of repeated exposure to the virus or by the fact that dromedaries-apart from conventional antibodies-have relatively unique, heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAbs)...
August 2018: Science Advances
Sijie Zheng, Man He, Beibei Chen, Bin Hu
A melamine-based porous organic polymer (mPMF) was synthesized as solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent for inline SPE-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet detector (UV) analysis of five phytohormones. Melamine contributed to the rich π-electron and N-containing triazine structure for mPMF, which could form π-π interaction and intermolecular hydrogen bond with COOH containing phytohormones. The synthesized mPMF adsorbent shows extremely high extraction efficiency for five target analytes (>80%) including salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bai-Qiu Xu, Chang-Quan Rao, Shu-Fen Cui, Jie Wang, Jin-Lin Wang, Li-Ping Liu
This paper describes the development of a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) method for the determination of trace water contents of organic solvents, using the characteristic m/z 18, m/z 17, and m/z 16 ions of H2 O as the qualitative ion and the m/z 18 ion as the quantifier ion. The accuracy and precision of this method were validated. An excellent linear correlation was obtained for trace water contents between 0 and 0.5217 wt%, with a correlation coefficient (R2 ) of 0...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kerstin Leopold, Aline Denzel, Andreas Gruber, Lisa Malle
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) emissions from automotive catalysts in soils and to contribute to the risk assessment of platinum group metals (PGMs) discharged from catalysts in the environment. To address this question, for the first time risk assessment code (RAC) was applied to consider the results from sequential extraction of different Pd and Pt species from soils. For this purpose, model soil samples were prepared spiking defined Pd or Pt species, respectively, at known concentrations...
August 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wei Chen, Chao Yan, Lin Cheng, Li Yao, Feng Xue, Jianguo Xu
In this paper, a novel ultrasensitive signal-on electrochemical aptasensor has been proposed for Ochratoxin A (OTA) assay based on DNA controlled layer-by-layer assembly of dual gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates. To construct the aptasensor, the 1st AuNP conjugate was prepared by simultaneous immobilization of the capture probe 2 (CP2) and bridge probe (BP) onto the AuNPs. Then, OTA aptamer was loaded onto 1st AuNPs by hybridization with CP2. The 1st AuNP conjugate can be further immobilized onto the electrode by hybridization between BP and capture probe 1 (CP1), which was pre-immobilized on Au electrode...
October 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kuan Z Huang, Hao L Tang, Yuefeng F Xie
The rapid rise of shale gas development has triggered environmental and human health concerns due to its impacts on water resources, especially on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation upon chlorination. Despite the recently reported results on bromide, the effects of non-bromide ions in production wastewater at extremely high levels are vaguely defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of production wastewater, with bromide and non-bromide species, on the formation of DBPs when production wastewater was spiked into surface waters at various percentages...
July 19, 2018: Water Research
Bei Qin, Kuan Yang
A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the determination of thrombin. It is based on signal amplification by using graphene oxide (GO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and placed on a microelectrode. The graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP-GO) was synthesized by chemical reduction and then modified with a thrombin-binding aptamer 1 (TBA1; a 29-mer) carrying a 3'-terminal thiol group. It was immobilized on the AgNP-GO by self-assembled monolayer technique to form the signaling probe (TBA1-AgNP-GO)...
August 9, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Evgeny A Idelevich, Luise M Storck, Katrin Sparbier, Oliver Drews, Markus Kostrzewa, Karsten Becker
Recently developed direct-on-target microdroplet growth assay (DOT-MGA) allows rapid universal antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Here, we investigated direct application of this method on positive blood cultures (BC) for acceleration of sepsis diagnostics. Blood samples spiked with meropenem-non-susceptible and meropenem-susceptible Enterobacterales isolates were inoculated into BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottles and incubated in the BACTEC automated system...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gabriele Grunig, Christina A Eichstaedt, Jeremias Verweyen, Nedim Durmus, Stephanie Saxer, Greta Krafsur, Kurt Stenmark, Silvia Ulrich, Ekkehard Grünig, Serhiy Pylawka
Rationale: Therapeutic exercise training has been shown to significantly improve pulmonary hypertension (PH), including 6-min walking distance and right heart function. Supplemental nightly oxygen also has therapeutic effects. A biomarker tool that could query critical gene networks would aid in understanding the molecular effects of the interventions. Methods: Paired bio-banked serum ( n = 31) or plasma ( n = 21) samples from the exercise or oxygen intervention studies, respectively, and bio-banked plasma samples ( n = 20) from high altitude induced PH in cattle were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rajshekhar R Giraddi, Chi-Yeh Chung, Richard E Heinz, Ozlen Balcioglu, Mark Novotny, Christy L Trejo, Christopher Dravis, Berhane M Hagos, Elnaz Mirzaei Mehrabad, Luo Wei Rodewald, Jae Y Hwang, Cheng Fan, Roger Lasken, Katherine E Varley, Charles M Perou, Geoffrey M Wahl, Benjamin T Spike
The mammary gland consists of cells with gene expression patterns reflecting their cellular origins, function, and spatiotemporal context. However, knowledge of developmental kinetics and mechanisms of lineage specification is lacking. We address this significant knowledge gap by generating a single-cell transcriptome atlas encompassing embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse mammary development. From these data, we map the chronology of transcriptionally and epigenetically distinct cell states and distinguish fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSCs) from their precursors and progeny...
August 7, 2018: Cell Reports
Christine Devouge-Boyer, Sarah Mouda, Olivier Gueguen, Stéphane Marcotte
A method was developed for the determination of iodine in polyamide (PA). This method is needed as PA containing iodine (such as CuI/KX (X = I or Br) heat stabilizing agent), may represent a risk of corrosion for electronic parts in the automotive industry. The method involved a microwave assisted digestion method using nitric acid followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. A dilution in 0.5% NH3 was needed prior to ICP-MS analysis to suppress memory effect. The limit of quantification was estimated to be 0...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Kaiji Wei, Jingjin Zhao, Yingfeng Qin, Shuting Li, Yong Huang, Shulin Zhao
A multiplex fluorescence signal amplification method based on microchip electrophoresis (MCE) platform was developed for the improvements in the separation and detection of microRNAs. The method used two kinds of fluorescein amidite labeled DNA signal probes to hybridize with its target microRNAs, utilizing T7 exonuclease assisting target circling realized the fluorescence signal amplification. Then, two kinds of fluorescein amidite labeled DNA segments with different size were separated and detected on the MCE-laser induced fluorescence detection platform...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Yanlin Zhang, Manuel Miró, Spas D Kolev
A novel on-line digestion method was developed based on organic mercury (Org-Hg) oxidation at ambient temperature using potassium permanganate in the presence of sulphide. The digestion of Org-Hg was instantaneous and quantitative. Consequently, a simple mercury speciation method was developed to differentiate inorganic mercury (In-Hg) and Org-Hg in water samples with a sequential injection analytical system in conjunction with atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection by using Hg2+ as the sole standard for calibration...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Karoliina T Tapani, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Nathan J Stevenson
The aim of this study was to develop methods for detecting the nonstationary periodic characteristics of neonatal electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures by adapting estimates of the correlation both in the time (spike correlation; SC) and time-frequency domain (time-frequency correlation; TFC). These measures were incorporated into a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) based on a support vector machine to detect periods of seizure and nonseizure. The performance of these nonstationary correlation measures was evaluated using EEG recordings from 79 term neonates annotated by three human experts...
June 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Simon A Hardwick, Wendy Y Chen, Ted Wong, Bindu S Kanakamedala, Ira W Deveson, Sarah E Ongley, Nadia S Santini, Esteban Marcellin, Martin A Smith, Lars K Nielsen, Catherine E Lovelock, Brett A Neilan, Tim R Mercer
The complexity of microbial communities, combined with technical biases in next-generation sequencing, pose a challenge to metagenomic analysis. Here, we develop a set of internal DNA standards, termed "sequins" (sequencing spike-ins), that together constitute a synthetic community of artificial microbial genomes. Sequins are added to environmental DNA samples prior to library preparation, and undergo concurrent sequencing with the accompanying sample. We validate the performance of sequins by comparison to mock microbial communities, and demonstrate their use in the analysis of real metagenome samples...
August 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Xian Zhang, Zuohuan Wang, Hui Xie, Renjie Sun, Tong Cao, Narayan Paudyal, Weihuan Fang, Houhui Song
A rapid and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles and screen-printed electrodes (MNPs-SPEs sensor) was developed for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal and feed samples. Different types of magnetic nanoparticles-based ELISA (MNPs-ELISA) were optimized, and the signal detection, as well as sensitivity, was enhanced by the combined use of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve of the MNPs-SPEs sensor was y = 0.3372 x + 0...
August 6, 2018: Toxins
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