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spike development

Amir Arastehfar, Wenjie Fang, Farnaz Daneshnia, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Wanqing Liao, Weihua Pan, Ziauddin Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Katharina Rosam, Michaela Lackner, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Ferry Hagen, Teun Boekhout
The multidrug-resistant opportunistic yeast species of Candida auris, Candida haemulonii, Candida duobushaemulonii and Candida pseudohaemulonii continue to endanger the healthcare settings around the globe. Due to the lack of a specific qPCR assay for detection of these species from clinical samples, we developed a multiplex qPCR assay. Analytical specificity and sensitivity showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity of up to ten genomes of target species with a high value of reproducibility (R2 >0.99)...
December 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
Christina Guzzo, Peng Zhang, Qingbo Liu, Alice L Kwon, Ferzan Uddin, Alexandra I Wells, Hana Schmeisser, Raffaello Cimbro, Jinghe Huang, Nicole Doria-Rose, Stephen D Schmidt, Michael A Dolan, Mark Connors, John R Mascola, Paolo Lusso
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) trimer evades antibody recognition by adopting a closed prefusion conformation. Here, we show that two conserved tyrosines (Y173, Y177) within the second variable (V2) loop of the gp120 Env glycoprotein are key regulators of the closed, antibody-protected state of the trimer by establishing intramolecular interaction with the base of the third variable (V3) loop. Mutation of Y177 and/or Y173 to phenylalanine or alanine dramatically altered the susceptibility of diverse HIV-1 strains to neutralization, increasing sensitivity to weakly and nonneutralizing antibodies directed against diverse Env regions, consistent with the adoption of an open trimer configuration...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Sungjun Kim, Jia Chen, Ying-Chen Chen, Min-Hwi Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Min-Woo Kwon, Sungmin Hwang, Muhammad Ismail, Yi Li, Xiang-Shui Miao, Yao-Feng Chang, Byung-Gook Park
We studied the pseudo-homeothermic synaptic behaviors by integrating complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible materials (hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon substrate). A wide range of temperatures, from 25 °C up to 145 °C, in neuronal dynamics was achieved owing to the homeothermic properties and the possibility of spike-induced synaptic behaviors was demonstrated, both presenting critical milestones for the use of emerging memristor-type neuromorphic computing systems in the near future...
December 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Jianxing Wang, Xiangfang Lin, Lei Su, Junfa Yin, Tong Shu, Xueji Zhang
This study reports the utilization of thiol-induced chemical etching of aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active Au nanoclusters (NCs) for the facile, sensitive, and selective detection of cysteine. The AIE-active Au NCs were formed in an acidic solution containing excess Au(i)-thiolate complexes. At an acidic pH (2.0), the emission of these Au NCs was enhanced by cysteine at a concentratioin below 1 mM. However, the emission was quenched by cysteine at a high concentration, e.g., 500 mM, via the thiol-induced etching of gold, although the process occurred very slowly...
December 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Guido Trensch, Robin Gutzen, Inga Blundell, Michael Denker, Abigail Morrison
The reproduction and replication of scientific results is an indispensable aspect of good scientific practice, enabling previous studies to be built upon and increasing our level of confidence in them. However, reproducibility and replicability are not sufficient: an incorrect result will be accurately reproduced if the same incorrect methods are used. For the field of simulations of complex neural networks, the causes of incorrect results vary from insufficient model implementations and data analysis methods, deficiencies in workmanship (e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Fazel Abdolahpur Monikh, Latifeh Chupani, Eliška Zusková, Ruud Peters, Marie Vancová, Martina G Vijver, Petr Porcal, Willie Jgm Peijnenburg
A multistep sample preparation method was developed to separate metal-based engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) from biological samples. The method was developed using spiked zebrafish tissues and standard titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cerium dioxide (CeO2) ENPs. Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify the separated particles in terms of number concentration. This method demonstrated mass recoveries of more than 90% and did not strikingly alter the median particles size. High number recoveries were calculated for CeO2 ENPs (>84%)...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Susanna K P Lau, Rachel Y Y Fan, Hayes K H Luk, Longchao Zhu, Joshua Fung, Kenneth S M Li, Emily Y M Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jasper F W Chan, Raven K H Kok, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
December 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Wenxiu Zhou, Xinwen Huang, Kunde Lin
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel and sensitive method for the analysis of carbazole and polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCs) in sediment using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Briefly, 5.0 g of freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The extract was purified with Florisil solid phase extraction cartridge, filtered through 0.22 µm polytetrafluoroethylene filter using a glass syringe, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis...
December 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Teppo Salminen, Etvi Juntunen, Sheikh M Talha, Kim Pettersson
Lateral flow (LF) immunoassays are commonly used for point-of-care testing and typically incorporate visually read reporters, such as gold particles. To improve sensitivity and develop quantitative LF immunoassays, visual reporters can be replaced by fluorescent reporters detected by an instrument. In this study, we used fluorescent europium(III) chelate doped nanoparticle (Eu-np) reporters to develop a quantitative high-sensitivity LF immunoassay for free prostate specific antigen (fPSA). Furthermore, we tested different simplified formats of the assay and the effect of different modifiable parameters on the detection limit of the assay: dynamic range, assay duration and number of assay steps...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Jingsong Fan, George Thalody, Jae Kwagh, Elisabeth Burnett, Hong Shi, Geoff Lewen, Shen-Jue Chen, Paul Levesque
The purpose of these studies was to develop ex vivo tissue-based and in vitro cell-based assays using multi-electrode array (MEA) technology to predict seizure liability at the early stage of preclinical studies. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons and adult rat hippocampal slices were used in these studies. Spontaneous activity in cultured neurons and evoked field potentials in hippocampal brain slices were recorded using MEA technology. Six seizurogenic compounds bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, gabazine, 4-Aminopyridine and BMS-A increased field potential area and peak number in brain slices and spontaneous spike activity in hippocampal neurons...
December 4, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
G H Ragab, E A Bahgat
OBJECTIVES: A novel, fast and sensitive HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous bioanalytical determination of Donepezil hydrochloride (DON) and Citalopram hydrobromide (CTP) in raw materials, spiked human plasma and tablets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Elution of both drugs was achieved with very good resolution using a RP-C18 chromatographic column, samples were analyzed using Hypersil Gold (100mm×4.6mm), 5μm particle size column and an isocratic binary mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer (0...
October 24, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Sandile Simelane, Langelihle Nsikayezwe Dlamini
The fate and behaviour of WO3 and TiO2 mixture were investigated following the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 303A guidelines. The nanoparticles were found not to influence the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency which was maintained >80% hence the activated sludge process was on affected. The nanoparticles were eliminated from the wastewater with a greater percentage of 99.8% for TiO2 and 95.5% for WO3 found in the sludge. The activated sludge process also had no effect of the polymorphs of the nanoparticles as X-ray diffraction revealed presence of monoclinic WO3 and anatase TiO2 which were spiked into the influent...
February 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Carla De la Fuente Cantó, Joanne Russell, Christine A Hackett, Allan Booth, Siobhan Dancey, Timothy S George, Robbie Waugh
BACKGROUND: Exploring the natural occurring genetic variation of the wild barley genepool has become a major target of barley crop breeding programmes aiming to increase crop productivity and sustainability in global climate change scenarios. However this diversity remains unexploited and effective approaches are required to investigate the benefits that unadapted genomes could bring to crop improved resilience. In the present study, a set of Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) derived from an elite barley cultivar 'Harrington' as the recurrent parent, and a wild barley accession from the Fertile Crescent 'Caesarea 26-24', as the donor parent (Matus et al...
December 7, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Anne-Gabrielle Harrus, Jean-Charles Ceccato, Gaston Sendin, Jérôme Bourien, Jean-Luc Puel, Régis Nouvian
During development, the sensory cells of the cochlea, the inner hair cells (IHCs), fire spontaneous calcium action potentials. This activity at the pre-hearing stage allows the IHCs to autonomously excite the auditory nerve fibers and hence, represents an efficient mechanism to shape the tonotopic organization along the ascending auditory pathway. Using calcium imaging, we show that the activity in the developing cochlea consists of calcium waves that propagate across the supporting and sensory cells. Both basal and apical IHCs were characterized by similar spontaneous calcium transients interspaced with silent periods, consistent with bursts of action potentials recorded in patch-clamp...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Oliver Rhodes, Petruţ A Bogdan, Christian Brenninkmeijer, Simon Davidson, Donal Fellows, Andrew Gait, David R Lester, Mantas Mikaitis, Luis A Plana, Andrew G D Rowley, Alan B Stokes, Steve B Furber
This work presents sPyNNaker 4.0.0, the latest version of the software package for simulating PyNN-defined spiking neural networks (SNNs) on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic platform. Operations underpinning realtime SNN execution are presented, including an event-based operating system facilitating efficient time-driven neuron state updates and pipelined event-driven spike processing. Preprocessing, realtime execution, and neuron/synapse model implementations are discussed, all in the context of a simple example SNN...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Han-Lin Hsieh, Yan Tat Wong, Bijan Pesaran, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Behavior is encoded across multiple spatiotemporal scales of brain activity. Modern technology can simultaneously record various scales, from spiking of individual neurons to large neural populations measured with field activity. This capability necessitates developing multiscale modeling and decoding algorithms for spike-field activity, which is challenging because of the fundamental differences in statistical characteristics and time-scales of these signals. Spikes are binary-valued with a millisecond time-scale while fields are continuous-valued with slower time-scales...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Xiaoli Sun, Muhua Wang, Luoxing Yang, Huiping Wen, Lianggui Wang, Ting Li, Chunlan Tang, Jiajia Yang
Dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (DMIP) for imidazole fungicides was prepared for the first time using alpha-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol (DCE) as the fragment template. The imprinting selectivity of DCE-DMIP was evaluated for climbazole (CBZ), clotrimazole (CMZ) and miconazole (MNZ) by liquid chromatography, imprinting factors of 10.9, 10.8 and >10.7 were achieved, respectively. Heterogeneous binding sites were found in the DCE-DMIP, the corresponding saturation capacity and dissociation constant for the high affinity binding sites were 13...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kai Wang, Natalia Vasylieva, Debin Wan, David A Eads, Jun Yang, Tyler Tretten, Bogdan Barnych, Ji Li, Qing X Li, Shirley J Gee, Bruce D Hammock, Ting Xu
The insecticide fipronil can be metabolized to its sulfone in mammalian species. Two camel single-domain antibodies (VHHs) F1 and F6, selective to fipronil and fipronil-sulfone, respectively, were generated and used to develop enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of the two compounds in the sera of black-tailed prairie dogs and rats. The limits of detection of fipronil and fipronil-sulfone in the rodent sera by the corresponding ELISAs were 10 and 30 ng mL-1, and the linear ranges were 30-1000 and 75-2200 ng mL-1...
December 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Venkateshkumar Prabhakaran, Zhongling Lang, Anna Clotet, Josep M Poblet, Grant Edward Johnson, Julia Laskin
Understanding the molecular-level properties of electrochemically-active ions at operating electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEI) is key to the rational development of high-performance nanostructured surfaces for applications in energy technology. Herein, an electrochemical cell coupled with ion soft landing is employed to examine the effect of "atom-by-atom" metal substitution on the activity and stability of well-defined redox-active anions, PMox W12-x O40 3- (x = 0,1,2,3,6,9,12), at nanostructured ionic liquid EEI...
December 6, 2018: ACS Nano
Sile Hu, Davide Ciliberti, Andres D Grosmark, Frédéric Michon, Daoyun Ji, Hector Penagos, György Buzsáki, Matthew A Wilson, Fabian Kloosterman, Zhe Chen
Uncovering spatial representations from large-scale ensemble spike activity in specific brain circuits provides valuable feedback in closed-loop experiments. We develop a graphics processing unit (GPU)-powered population-decoding system for ultrafast reconstruction of spatial positions from rodents' unsorted spatiotemporal spiking patterns, during run behavior or sleep. In comparison with an optimized quad-core central processing unit (CPU) implementation, our approach achieves an ∼20- to 50-fold increase in speed in eight tested rat hippocampal, cortical, and thalamic ensemble recordings, with real-time decoding speed (approximately fraction of a millisecond per spike) and scalability up to thousands of channels...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
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