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spike development

Hao Xu, Yan Han, Xiaoxia Han, Junyu Xu, Shen Lin, Ray C C Cheung
BACKGROUND: Damage to the hippocampus will result in the loss of ability to form new long-term memories and cognitive disorders. At present, there is no effective medical treatment for this issue. Hippocampal cognitive prosthesis is proposed to replace damaged regions of the hippocampus to mimic the function of original biological tissue. This prosthesis requires a spike sorter to detect and classify spikes in the recorded neural signal. NEW METHOD: A 16-channel spike sorting processor is presented in this paper, where all channels are considered as independent...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Monika Zwirek, Robbie Waugh, Sarah M McKim
Hordeum species develop a central spikelet flanked by two lateral spikelets at each inflorescence node. In 'two-rowed' spikes, the central spikelet alone is fertile and sets grain while in 'six-rowed' spikes, lateral spikelets can also produce grain. Induced loss-of-function alleles of any of five Six-rowed spike (VRS) genes (VRS1-5) cause complete to intermediate gains of lateral spikelet fertility. Current six-row cultivars contain natural defective vrs1 and vrs5 alleles. Little is known about VRS mechanism(s)...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Argyle V Bumanglag, Robert S Sloviter
OBJECTIVE: To determine when spontaneous granule cell epileptiform discharges first occur after hippocampal injury, and to identify the postinjury "latent" period as either a "silent" gestational state of epileptogenesis or a subtle epileptic state in gradual transition to a more obvious epileptic state. METHODS: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus evoked by perforant path stimulation in urethane-sedated rats produced selective and extensive hippocampal injury and a "latent" period that preceded the onset of the first clinically obvious epileptic seizures...
October 19, 2018: Epilepsia
Muhammad Umair Jahngir, Raghav Govindarajan
The association of symmetrical distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies (MAG) has been well established. Although autonomic symptoms are uncommon with anti-MAG antibody neuropathy (MAN). We are presenting an unusual case, who developed acute onset urinary retention, orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia and was found to have MAN. She was a 68-year-old lady, presented with progressive ascending numbness, weakness of her extremities and balance problems. On neurological examination, she had generalized muscle weakness, reduced perception to all modalities of sensation with marked impairment of vibration and position sense in the lower limbs...
August 6, 2018: Curēus
Yongpeng Li, Xing Fu, Meicheng Zhao, Wei Zhang, Bo Li, Diaoguo An, Junming Li, Aimin Zhang, Renyi Liu, Xigang Liu
Wheat spike development is a coordinated process of cell proliferation and differentiation with distinctive phases and architecture changes. However, the dynamic alteration of gene expression in this process remains enigmatic. Here, we characterized and dissected bread wheat spike into six developmental stages, and used genome-wide gene expression profiling, to investigate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. High gene expression correlations between any two given stages indicated that wheat early spike development is controlled by a small subset of genes...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dian-Bing Zhou, Xuan Sheng, Fang Han, Yan-Yun Hu, Lei Ding, Ya-Ling Lv, Wei Song, Ping Zheng
[60]Fullerene functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @C60 ) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and infrared spectroscopy. The Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @C60 was then applied for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea samples. The analyses were performed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Parameters affecting the extraction, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, salt concentration, pH and extraction time were investigated...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Katrine Lekang, Kenan Hadziavdic, Katrine Sandnes Skaar, Inge Jonassen, Eric M Thompson, Christofer Troedsson
There is increasing interest in finding new, more efficient methods for routine monitoring of anthropogenic effects on benthic biodiversity and ecosystems. A range of molecular methods have been developed for assessing biodiversity the last decades. Particularly interesting are microarrays targeting phylogenetic marker genes, such as the small subunit of ribosomal RNA in eukaryotes (18S rRNA). This method can detect a large number of taxonomic groups in several samples simultaneously within a relatively short time and has the potential for incorporation in automated remote sensing pipelines...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Rohit Abraham John, Natalia Yantara, Yan Fong Ng, Govind Narasimman, Edoardo Mosconi, Daniele Meggiolaro, Mohit R Kulkarni, Pradeep Kumar Gopalakrishnan, Chien A Nguyen, Filippo De Angelis, Subodh G Mhaisalkar, Arindam Basu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing is the foundation for development of efficient learning circuitry, but few devices offer the tunable conductance range necessary for mimicking spatiotemporal plasticity in biological synapses. An ionic semiconductor which couples electronic transitions with drift-diffusive ionic kinetics would enable energy-efficient analog-like switching of metastable conductance states. Here, ionic-electronic coupling in halide perovskite semiconductors is utilized to create memristive synapses with a dynamic continuous transition of conductance states...
October 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sean Austin, Denis Cuany, Julien Michaud, Bernd Diehl, Begoña Casado
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant solid component of human milk. It is likely that they are responsible for at least some of the benefits experienced by breast-fed infants. Until recently HMO were absent from infant formula, but 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and lacto-N-neoteraose (LNnT) have recently become available as ingredients. The development of formula containing these HMO and the quality control of such formula require suitable methods for the accurate determination of the HMO...
October 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ako Sasao, Michiyo Takaki, Hee-Jin Jeong, Kosei Yonemitsu, Yuki Ohtsu, Hiroshi Tsutsumi, Shota Furukawa, Hiroshi Morioka, Hiroshi Ueda, Yoko Nishitani
The misuse of psychotropic drugs intended for medical treatment represents a recent worldwide public health concern. Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluoroimmunosensor that can detect an antigen immediately without additional reagents or washing steps. Here, we describe creating Q-bodies for the detection of the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FLV) and determining optimal conditions to achieve the highest fluorescence intensity (FI). We prepared five Q-bodies with the fluorophore labeled at either the N- or C- terminus and with different linker lengths...
October 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katherine D Westmoreland, Francis M Banda, Andrew P Steenhoff, Elizabeth D Lowenthal, Erik Isaksson, Bernhard A Fassl
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate effectiveness of an educational training workshop using role-playing to teach medical students in Botswana to deliver bad news. METHOD: A 3-hour small group workshop for University of Botswana medical students rotating at the Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone was developed. The curriculum included an overview of communication basics and introduction of the validated (SPIKES) protocol for breaking bad news...
October 17, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Ayuba Markus, Afeez O Gbadamosi, Adeyinka S Yusuff, Augustine Agi, Jeffrey Oseh
In this study, a new magnetic adsorbent based on magnetite-sporopollenin/graphene oxide (Fe3 O4 -SP/GO) was successfully developed. The adsorbent was applied for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of three selected polar organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), namely, dimethoate, phenthoate, and phosphamidon, prior to gas chromatography analysis with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The Fe3 O4 -SP/GO adsorbent combines the advantages of superior adsorption capability of the modified sporopollenin (SP) with graphene oxide (GO) and magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) for easy isolation from sample solution...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David M Brown, Alison M Hixon, Lauren M Oldfield, Yun Zhang, Mark Novotny, Wei Wang, Suman R Das, Reed S Shabman, Kenneth L Tyler, Richard H Scheuermann
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. However, in the summers of 2014 and 2016, EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis/paralysis (AFM/AFP) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks. To assess the potential neurotropism of EV-D68, we utilized the neuroblastoma-derived neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y as a cell culture model to determine if differential infection is observed for different EV-D68 strains...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Tao Peng, Jianyi Wang, Sijun Zhao, Yuyang Zeng, Pimiao Zheng, Demei Liang, Ghulam Mujtaba Mari, Haiyang Jiang
A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay sensor based on highly luminescent green-emitting Au nanoclusters (AuNCs-MLFIA sensor) was successfully established for the simultaneous and quantitative determination of clenbuterol (Clen) and ractopamine (RAC) in swine urine. The antigens of Clen and RAC were dispersed on a nitrocellulose membrane as two test lines, and the Au nanoclusters were synthesized from 6-aza-2-thiothymine and l-arginine to obtain highly green luminescence and ultra-small nanoparticles (Arg/ATT/AuNCs)...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yongbo Wang, Min Yang, Yingkun Ren, Jun Fan
In the design of new fluorescent sensors, exploration of new materials with excellent properties and smart designs is of continuing interest. Herein, we designed a dual-emission ratiometric fluorescent sensor by doping ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions. The codoped ZnS QDs with two separated dopant emissions were used as ratiometric fluorescent sensors for folic acid (FA). With addition of FA, the Cu dopant emission was quenched while the Mn dopant emission was enhanced. The fluorescence intensity ratios versus the FA concentrations could be fitted to a linear regression equation ranging from 0...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wei Li, Haoyu Wang, Rong Yang, Dan Song, Feng Long, Anna Zhu
An integrated multichannel all-fiber optofluidic biosensing platform (M-AOB) has been developed for a sensitive, rapid, and simultaneous detection of up to three trace analytes. The M-AOB platform employs a 1 × 3 fiber optical switch and three single-multimode fiber optic couplers for the transmission of excitation light and fluorescence and one photodiode detector for the simultaneous detection of fluorescence signals of multiple channels based on the time-resolve effect of the fiber optical switch. This design greatly simplified the entire system structure and improved light transmission efficiency...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Xian Zhang, Zuohuan Wang, Yun Fang, Renjie Sun, Tong Cao, Narayan Paudyal, Weihuan Fang, Houhui Song
We developed and tested a prototype of an antibody microarray immunoassay for simultaneous quantitative detection of four typical mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and fumonisin B₁) in corn samples. The test kit consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane layered with immobilized monoclonal antibodies against mycotoxins. During the assay, the mycotoxin-protein conjugates were biotinylated. The signal detection was enhanced by a combination of the biotin-streptavidin system and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)...
October 15, 2018: Toxins
A K M Atique Ullah, M A Maksud, S R Khan, Shamshad B Quraishi
Twenty-four-hour (h) urinary copper content is considered as the most suitable tool for the diagnosis of Wilson's disease (WD); however, it is less accurate, time-consuming, and non-economical. Consequently, in the present study, an alternative method through measuring the morning (first) urine copper (Cu) concentration is proposed for the diagnosis of WD, which is more accurate, precise, faster, and cheaper. For this purpose, a sensitive, accurate, and precise analytical method was developed and validated in regard to Commission Decision 657/2002/EC, Council Directive 333/2007/EC, ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and EURACHEM 1998 for the determination of Cu in urine using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)...
October 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Marie-Line Joffret, Patsy M Polston, Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Maël Bessaud, Jean-Michel Heraud, Francis Delpeyroux
Human enteroviruses (EV) consist of more than 100 serotypes classified within four species for enteroviruses (EV-A to -D) and three species for rhinoviruses, which have been implicated in a variety of human illnesses. Being able to simultaneously amplify the whole genome and identify enteroviruses in samples is important for studying the viral diversity in different geographical regions and populations. It also provides knowledge about the evolution of these viruses. Therefore, we developed a rapid, sensitive method to detect and genetically classify all human enteroviruses in mixtures...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yan Man, Junan Ren, Bingru Li, Xinxin Jin, Ligang Pan
Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) is one of the major Alternaria mycotoxins present in a wide range of fruits, vegetables, grains, and their products, and possesses the properties of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive colorimetric immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was firstly developed for the detection of AME in fruit by nonaggregated gold nanoparticles (GNPs). AME-BSA-Fe3 O4 MNP conjugates and free AME molecules in samples competitively bind with monoclonal antibody (mAb)-GNP conjugates...
October 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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