Read by QxMD icon Read

Radiotherapy clinical trial

Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Neda Khanlarkhani, Ensieh Salehi, Maryam Shabani Nashtaei, Masoud Najafi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the most common modalities for the treatment of cancer. Experimental studies have shown that inflammation plays a central role in tumor resistance and the incidence of several side effects following both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Inflammation resulting from radiotherapy and chemotherapy is responsible for adverse events such as dermatitis, mucositis, pneumonitis, fibrosis, and bone marrow toxicity. Chronic inflammation may also lead to the development of second cancer during years after treatment...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mack Roach, Jennifer Moughan, Colleen A F Lawton, Adam P Dicker, Kenneth L Zeitzer, Elizabeth M Gore, Young Kwok, Michael J Seider, I-Chow Hsu, Alan C Hartford, Eric M Horwitz, Kosj Yamoah, Christopher U Jones, Jeff M Michalski, W Robert Lee, Thomas M Pisansky, Rachel Rabinovitch, Marvin Rotman, Rodger M Pryzant, Harold E Kim, Charles R Thomas, William U Shipley, Howard M Sandler
BACKGROUND: The NRG/RTOG 9413 study showed that whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) plus neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) improved progression-free survival in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk localised prostate cancer compared with prostate only radiotherapy (PORT) plus NHT, WPRT plus adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), and PORT plus AHT. We provide a long-term update after no years of follow-up of the primary endpoint (progression-free survival) and report on the late toxicities of treatment...
October 10, 2018: Lancet Oncology
André Hennigs, Melitta Köpke, Manuel Feißt, Fabian Riedel, Mahdi Rezai, Ulrike Nitz, Mareike Moderow, Michael Golatta, Christof Sohn, Andreas Schneeweiss, Jörg Heil
PURPOSE: In the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial, patients with 1 or 2 tumour-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) gained no benefit from completion axillary lymph dissection (cALND). We examined implementation of evidence from this trial into routine clinical management. METHODS: Data were included from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer in German breast cancer units between 2008 and 2015 and analysed retrospectively from a prospective maintained database...
October 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
R Clifford, N Govindarajah, J L Parsons, S Gollins, N P West, D Vimalachandran
BACKGROUND: With the well established shift to neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer, there is increasing focus on the use of radiosensitizers to improve the efficacy and tolerability of radiotherapy. There currently exist few randomized data exploring novel radiosensitizers to improve response and it is unclear what the clinical endpoints of such trials should be. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines using preset search criteria across the PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases from 1990 to 2017...
November 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Mengying Hong, Kejun Tang, Jing Qian, Hongyu Deng, Musheng Zeng, Shu Zheng, Kefeng Ding, Yushen Du, Ren Sun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, 70% of NPC patients have locally advanced disease at the first diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone and concurrent chemoradiotherapy are important treatment approaches for NPC, but they have a limited effect on patients with locally advanced or distantly metastatic disease. 1-5 Nevertheless, the unique immune environment of the EBV-associated NPC provides rational targets for immunotherapy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ann A Lazar, Reinhard Schulte, Bruce Faddegon, Eleanor A Blakely, Mack Roach
To describe the international landscape of clinical trials in carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT), the authors reviewed the current status of 63 ongoing clinical trials (median, 47 participants) involving CIRT identified from the US trial registry and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Platform Registry. The objectives were to evaluate the potential for these trials to define the role of this modality in the treatment of specific cancer types and identify the major challenges and opportunities to advance this technology...
October 11, 2018: Cancer
Sarah Löw, Catherine H Han, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), confined to the brain, eyes, spinal cord or leptomeninges without systemic involvement. Overall prognosis, diagnosis and management of PCNSL differ from other types of NHL. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment are vital to improving clinical outcomes. PCNSL is responsive to radiation therapy, however whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) inadequately controls the disease when used alone and its delayed neurotoxicity causes neurocognitive impairment, especially in elderly patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Joanna Katarzyna Bujak, Rafał Pingwara, Michelle Hase Nelson, Kinga Majchrzak
Cancer immunotherapy is recently considered the most promising treatment for human patients with advanced tumors and could be effectively combined with conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Patients with hematological malignancies and melanoma have benefited greatly from immunotherapies such as, adoptive cell transfer therapy, experiencing durable remissions and prolonged survival. In the face of increasing enthusiasm for immunotherapy, particularly for the administration of tumor-specific T lymphocytes, the question arises whether this method could be employed to improve treatment outcomes for canine patients...
October 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Yu-Jen Liu, Ngan-Ming Tsang, Chuen Hsueh, Chi-Ju Yeh, Shir-Hwa Ueng, Tong-Hong Wang, Wen-Yu Chuang
The prognostic value of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial, with previous studies showing conflicting results. Most NPCs in endemic areas are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical significance of PD-L1 expression in EBV-positive NPC. We retrospectively analyzed PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TCs) and immune cells (ICs) by immunohistochemistry in 208 EBV-positive NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy (203 with concurrent chemotherapy)...
October 9, 2018: Cancers
Uwe Schlegel, Agnieszka Korfel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), optimal therapy remains to be established, and the role of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a matter of debate. With radiation alone, transient responses and clinical improvement are frequent, but long-term disease control is exceptional. WBRT has been considered possible consolidation therapy after high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based initial chemotherapy. This strategy has been questioned due to a high risk of delayed neurotoxicity after combined treatment...
October 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Eleonora Farina, Gabriella Macchia, Milly Buwenge, Giambattista Siepe, Alice Zamagni, Silvia Cammelli, Savino Cilla, Tigeneh Wondemagegnhu, Aynalem A Woldemariam, A F M Kamal Uddin, Mostafà Aziz Sumon, Francesco Cellini, Francesco Deodato, Alessio G Morganti
The main clinical goal for patients with advanced or metastatic thoracic cancer is palliation of tumor-related symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The aim of this phase I-II trial was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a short-course of palliative radiotherapy (RT) and to evaluate its efficacy in terms of palliative response. A phase I trial was planned with escalating dose increments. Total doses ranged from 16 to 20 Gy delivered (BID) in two consecutive days. Dose limiting toxicity was defined as any acute grade ≥ 3 toxicity based on the RTOG scale...
October 8, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Phoebe Kuo, Sina J Torabi, Dennis Kraus, Benjamin L Judson
Objective In advanced maxillary sinus cancers treated with surgery and radiotherapy, poor local control rates and the potential for organ preservation have prompted interest in the use of systemic therapy. Our objective was to present outcomes for induction compared to adjuvant chemotherapy in the maxillary sinus. Study Design Secondary database analysis. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB). Subjects and Methods In total, 218 cases of squamous cell maxillary sinus cancer treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy between 2004 and 2012 were identified from the NCDB and stratified into induction chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy cohorts...
October 9, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Ben Britton, Amanda L Baker, Luke Wolfenden, Chris Wratten, Judith Bauer, Alison K Beck, Kristen McCarter, Jane Harrowfield, Elizabeth Isenring, Colin Tang, Chris Oldmeadow, Gregory Carter
PURPOSE: Malnutrition in head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment is common and associated with poorer morbidity and mortality outcomes. This trial aimed to improve nutritional status during radiotherapy using a novel method of training dietitians to deliver psychological techniques to improve HNC patients' nutritional behaviours. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This trial used a stepped wedge randomised controlled design to assess the efficacy of Eating As Treatment (EAT). Based on Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, EAT was designed to be delivered by oncology dietitians and integrated into their clinical practice...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hiroto Matsui, Shoichi Hazama, Yoshitaro Shindo, Hiroaki Nagano
Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with high treatment resistance. Many patients are diagnosed in a very advanced state, and few patients can be curatively resected. With FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine, the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer has improved, yet many patients cannot survive longer than a year. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Cancer vaccine therapy is characterized by controlling cancer by a cancer-specific immune reaction with few adverse events...
October 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Sara Leibfarth, René M Winter, Heidi Lyng, Daniel Zips, Daniela Thorwarth
Purpose: To review the potential and challenges of integrating diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) into radiotherapy (RT). Content: Details related to image acquisition of DWI for RT purposes are discussed, along with the challenges with respect to geometric accuracy and the robustness of quantitative parameter extraction. An overview of diffusion- and perfusion-related parameters derived from mono- and bi-exponential models is provided, and their role as potential RT biomarkers is discussed...
November 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Andrea Necchi, Gregory R Pond, Marco Moschini, Elizabeth R Plimack, Gunter Niegisch, Evan Y Yu, Aristotelis Bamias, Neeraj Agarwal, Ulka Vaishampayan, Christine Theodore, Srikala S Sridhar, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Joaquim Bellmunt, Andrea Gallina, Renzo Colombo, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Matthew D Galsky
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about the pattern of relapse after perioperative chemotherapy with radical cystectomy (RC) vs. RC alone in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 1082 patients of the Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium database, treated from February 1990 to December 2013 at 27 centers in the United States, Europe, Israel, and Canada, were collected. Locoregional relapse was defined as any pelvic lymph node or soft tissue-only recurrences...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Susan L Tucker, Ting Xu, Harald Paganetti, Timo Deist, Vivek Verma, Noah Choi, Radhe Mohan, Zhongxing Liao
PURPOSE: To confirm the superiority of effective dose (Deff ) over mean lung dose (MLD) for predicting risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP), using data from patients on a randomized trial of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). METHODS: The prescribed target dose for the 203 evaluated patients was 66-74 Gy(RBE) in 33-37 fractions with concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel. Time to grade >2 RP was computed from the start of radiotherapy, with disease recurrence or death considered censoring events...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J Castelli, A Simon, C Lafond, N Perichon, B Rigaud, E Chajon, B De Bari, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, R de Crevoisier
INTRODUCTION: Large anatomical variations can be observed during the treatment course intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC), leading to potential dose variations. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) uses one or several replanning sessions to correct these variations and thus optimize the delivered dose distribution to the daily anatomy of the patient. This review, which is focused on ART in the HNC, aims to identify the various strategies of ART and to estimate the dosimetric and clinical benefits of these strategies...
October 5, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Lorenzo Tosco, Alberto Briganti, Antony Vincent D'amico, James Eastham, Mario Eisenberger, Martin Gleave, Karin Haustermans, Christopher J Logothetis, Fred Saad, Christopher Sweeney, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Karim Fizazi
CONTEXT: Systemic therapies, combined with local treatment for high-risk prostate cancer, are recommended by the international guidelines for specific subgroups of patients; however, for many of the clinical scenarios, it remains a research field. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review, and describe current evidence and perspectives about the multimodal treatment of high-risk prostate cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic review of PubMED, Embase, Cochrane Library, European Society of Medical Oncology/American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual proceedings, and clinicalTrial...
October 1, 2018: European Urology
Christiane Matuschek, Jan Haussmann, Edwin Bölke, Stephan Gripp, Patrick J Schuler, Bálint Tamaskovics, Peter Arne Gerber, Freddy-Joel Djiepmo-Njanang, Kai Kammers, Christian Plettenberg, Bahar Anooshahr, Klaus Orth, Wilfried Budach
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) reduces the risk of local-regional failure and most likely increases the survival rate. Patients at high risk for tumor recurrence may benefit from more aggressive altered fractionation schedules in order to reduce the overall time from surgery to completion of radiotherapy. Here, we reviewed the results of six randomized trials addressing the above hypothesis. METHODS: In the six trials of interest, a total of 988 patients with locally advanced HNSCC were randomly assigned to receive either accelerated or conventionally fractionated adjuvant radiotherapy...
October 4, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"