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Radiotherapy clinical trial

Matthew C H J Morrall, Rosa Reed-Berendt, Kate Moss, Helen Stocks, Alexandra L Houston, Poppy Siddell, Susan Picton, Richard Grundy
PURPOSE: This is the first UK multi-centre case-controlled study with follow-up in excess of 10 years to report the neurocognitive, academic and psychological outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a brain tumour in early childhood. Children enrolled into the UKCCSG CNS 9204 trial, diagnosed with intracranial ependymoma when aged ≤ 36 months old, who received a primary chemotherapy strategy to defer or avoid radiotherapy, were recruited. METHODS: Outcomes of those who relapsed and subsequently received radiotherapy (n = 13) were compared to those enrolled who did not relapse (n = 16), age-matched controls-diagnosed with solid non-central nervous system (SN-CNS; n = 15) tumours or low-grade posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma (PFPA; n = 15), and normative data...
December 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Bo Yang, Tingjun Liu, Yang Qu, Hangbo Liu, Song Guo Zheng, Bin Cheng, Jianbo Sun
Head and neck cancer is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide and urgently requires novel therapy methods to change the situation of low 5-years survival rate and poor prognosis. Targeted therapy provides more precision, higher efficiency while lower adverse effects than traditional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Blockade of PD-1 pathway with antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 is such a typical targeted therapy which reconstitutes anti-tumor activity of T cell in treatments of cancers, especially those highly expressing PD-L1, including head and neck cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Jaymin Jhaveri, En Cheng, Sibo Tian, Zachary Buchwald, Mudit Chowdhary, Yuan Liu, Theresa W Gillespie, Jeffrey J Olson, Aidnag Z Diaz, Alfredo Voloschin, Bree R Eaton, Ian R Crocker, Mark W McDonald, Walter J Curran, Kirtesh R Patel
Background: To investigate the impact of proton radiotherapy (PBT) on overall survival (OS) and evaluate PBT usage trends for patients with gliomas in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I-IV glioma treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) between the years of 2004-13 were identified. Patients were stratified based on WHO Grade and photon radiotherapy (XRT) vs. PBT. Univariate (UVA) and multivariable analysis (MVA) with OS were performed by Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank tests...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Cédric Draulans, Steven Joniau, Valérie Fonteyne, Louke Delrue, Karel Decaestecker, Wouter Everaerts, Piet Dirix, Laura Van den Bergh, Wouter Crijns, Hans Vandendriessche, Lodewijk Van Wynsberge, Piet Ost, Nicolaas Lumen, Pieterjan Buelens, Karin Haustermans, Charlien Berghen, Gert De Meerleer
BACKGROUND: In patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with histopathologically proven pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis (pN1) after extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND), multimodality treatment consisting of treatment of the primary tumor and whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) offers promising results, leading to better cause-specific survival rates compared with ADT alone. However, in case more than one pelvic LN is invaded by the tumor, approximately 40% of the patients relapse biochemically and clinically...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Enid M Eslick, Mark J Stevens, Dale L Bailey
Curative-intent lung cancer radiation therapy either alone (RT) or combined with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with potential risk of serious radiation-induced lung injury. This review provides a summary of the role of SPECT ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging as an emerging adjunct to lung cancer RT planning and treatment dosimetry. Denoted "functional lung avoidance RT" it is hypothesized that preferential dosimetric avoidance of physiologically functional lung may reduce the frequency of radiation-induced lung injury...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
V R Agrawal, J Hreno, T Patil, D W Bowles
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare but extremely aggressive type of thyroid cancer. Treatment typically consists of surgery, external beam radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, available literature suggests only modest survival benefit for cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recent advances have suggested the combination of BRAF and MEK inhibition may have a profound and durable effect on patients with BRAFV600E-mutated anaplastic thyroid cancer, with a response rate of 69%. Other systemic treatments, including immunotherapies, have also shown promising but more limited results...
November 2018: Drugs of Today
Mostafa Sarvizadeh, Faezeh Ghasemi, Fatemeh Tavakoli, Sara Sadat Khatami, Ebrahim Razi, Hossein Sharifi, Nousin Moussavi Biouki, Mohsen Taghizadeh
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third most common and fourth leading cancer associated death worldwide. The occurrence of metastasis has remained as a critical challenge in CRC, so that distant metastasis (mostly to the liver) has been manifested in about 20%-25% of patients. Several screening approaches have introduced for detecting CRC in different stages particularly in early stages. The standard treatments for CRC are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in alone or combination. Immunotherapy is a set of novel approaches with the aim of remodeling the immune system battle with metastatic cancer cells, such as immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (immune checkpoint inhibitors), adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and cancer vaccine...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
David Ngan, Julie Chu, Sarat Chander, Michael Michael, Alexander G Heriot, Samuel Y Ngan, Danny Rischin, Trevor Leong
PURPOSE: Mitomycin C (MMC) plus standard 5-fluorouracil (FU) infusion in weeks 1 and 5 often contributes to radiotherapy interruptions and possibly less-than-ideal outcomes in anal cancer. This study was to evaluate alternative strategies for chemotherapy delivery that might be less toxic or more efficacious, and outcomes of patient-initiated treatment interruption for severe acute toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, nonrandomized study for patients with T1-4N0-3M0 anal squamous carcinoma...
December 9, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ewa Burchardt, Andrzej Roszak
Background: This article reviews the salient features of recent results of clinical studies. It puts a special emphasis on technical aspects, mechanisms of action together with radiotherapy and chemotherapy and points out areas for additional investigation. Aim: To present the current state of knowledge on hyperthermia (HT) and to highlight its role in the treatment of cervical cancer. Materials and methods: The literature on the clinical use of combined hyperthermia for cervical cancer was analyzed...
November 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Marcela de la Torre
Cervical cancer is a major global health problem for women. Despite the screening and vaccines available today, it continues to be the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide with 85% of cases occurring in developing countries. Standard treatments for early or locally advanced cervical cancer are surgery (S) or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to surgery or radiotherapy has been proposed and tested in clinical trials and has been included in clinical practice in some countries...
November 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
María E Rodriguez-Ruiz, I Rodriguez, Olwen Leaman, Fernando López Campos, Angel Montero, Antonio J Conde, J J Aristu, Pedro Lara, Manuel Calvo Felipe, Ignacio Melero
Radiotherapy of cancer has been traditionally considered as a local therapy without noticeable effects outside the irradiated fields. However, ionizing radiation exerts multiple biological effects on both malignant and stromal cells that account for a complex spectrum of mechanisms beyond simple termination of cancer cells. In the era of immunotherapy, interest in radiation-induced inflammation and cell death has considerably risen, since these mechanisms lead to profound changes in the systemic immune response against cancer antigens...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T Ajithkumar, R Taylor, R D Kortmann
Paediatric low-grade (World Health Organization grade I-II) gliomas (LGGs) represent a spectrum of primary central nervous system tumours. Local tumour control is the cornerstone in the general management of childhood gliomas. Surgery is the primary treatment of choice in the majority. Non-surgical treatments are recommended for progressive or symptomatic inoperable disease. Although chemotherapy is increasingly used as first non-surgical treatment, radiotherapy remains standard as salvage treatment or as primary treatment in selected cases in which surrounding normal tissue can be optimally preserved...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
A Vanhanen, H Syrén, M Kapanen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the localization accuracy of electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems RayPilot (Micropos Medical AB) and Calypso (Varian Medical Systems) in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The accuracy was assessed by comparing couch shifts obtained with the EM methods to the couch shifts determined by simultaneous fiducial marker (FM) based orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging. Agreement between the methods was compared using Bland-Altman analysis. Interfractional positional stability of the FMs, RayPilot transmitters and Calypso transponders was investigated...
December 2018: Physica Medica: PM
James J Dignam, Daniel A Hamstra, Herbert Lepor, David Grignon, Harmar Brereton, Adam Currey, Seth Rosenthal, Kenneth L Zeitzer, Varagur M Venkatesan, Eric M Horwitz, Thomas M Pisansky, Howard M Sandler
BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer, end points that reliably portend prognosis and treatment benefit (surrogate end points) can accelerate therapy development. Although surrogate end point candidates have been evaluated in the context of radiotherapy and short-term androgen deprivation (AD), potential surrogates under long-term (24 month) AD, a proven therapy in high-risk localized disease, have not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the NRG/RTOG 9202 randomized trial (N = 1,520) of short-term AD (4 months) versus long-term AD (LTAD; 28 months), the time interval free of biochemical failure (IBF) was evaluated in relation to clinical end points of prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and overall survival (OS)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Luis Humberto De Loera Rodríguez, Genaro Gabriel Ortiz, Paloma Rivero Moragrega, Irma Ernestina Velázquez Brizuela, Juan Francisco Santoscoy Gutiérrez, Ana Rosa Rincón Sánchez, Claudia Lisette Charles Niño, José Antonio Cruz Serrano, Alfredo De Jesús Celis de la Rosa, Fermín Paul Pacheco Moisés, María Del Refugio Medrano González
BACKGROUND: patients with cervical cancer (CC) receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy have several gastrointestinal adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of dietary symbiotic supplementation on fecal calprotectin (FCP), bacterial DNA levels, and gastrointestinal adverse effects in patients with CC. METHODS: clinical, controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients consumed symbiotics or placebo three times a day for seven weeks...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mudit Chowdhary, Andrew Song, Nicholas G Zaorsky, Wenyin Shi
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a rare group of malignancies characterized by the proliferation of CD4+ T-cells, of which mycosis fungoides (MF) is the predominant subtype. The neoplastic lymphocytes of MF are extremely radiosensitive and even low doses of radiation can produce excellent responses. As such, radiotherapy (RT) is considered to be the most efficacious single agent treatment option for MF. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special RT technique that allows for homogenous irradiation of the entire skin...
September 17, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Jeremy M C Brown, Gerard G Hanna, Nathanael Lampe, Balder Villagomez-Bernabe, James R Nicol, Jonathan A Coulter, Fred J Currell
A novel treatment planning framework, the Relative Biological Effective Dose (RBED), for high Z nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced photon radiotherapy is developed and tested in silico for the medical exemplar of neoadjuvant (preoperative) breast cancer MV photon radiotherapy. Two different treatment scenarios, conventional and high Z NP enhanced, were explored with a custom Geant4 application that was developed to emulate the administration of a single 2 Gy fraction as part of a 50 Gy radiotherapy treatment plan. It was illustrated that there was less than a 1% difference in the dose deposition throughout the standard and high Z NP-doped adult female phantom...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Alexander Jöhl, Marta Bogowicz, Stefanie Ehrbar, Matthias Guckenberger, Stephan Klöck, Mirko Meboldt, Oliver Riesterer, Melanie Zeilinger, Marianne Schmid Daners, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
INTRODUCTION: In precision radiotherapy, the intrafractional motion can cause a considerable uncertainty of the location of the tumor to be treated. An established approach is the expansion of the target volume to account for the motion. An alternative approach is couch tracking, in which the patient is continually moved to compensate the intrafractional motion. However, couch tracking itself might induce uncertainty of the patient's body position, because it is not perfectly fixed to the couch...
November 23, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sonja Adebahr, Marlene Hechtner, Nele Schräder, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Klaus Kaier, Viola Duncker- Rohr, Eleni Gkika, Felix Momm, Jan Gärtner, Gerhild Becker, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Ursula Nestle
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life (QoL) of comorbid patients with pulmonary malignancies is a key issue in considering stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) indication. This study investigates the early impact of SBRT on QoL. METHODS: 100 patients with pulmonary lesions were treated with SBRT from 02/2011 to 11/2014 within the prospective, monocenter, phase II STRIPE trial. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the QLQ-LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to evaluate QoL before and 2, 7 weeks after SBRT, then 3-monthly for 2 years...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Jacqueline Dinnes, Naomi Chuchu, Susan E Bayliss, Yemisi Takwoingi, Clare Davenport, Rubeta N Matin, Colette O'Sullivan, Derek Roskell, Jonathan J Deeks, Hywel C Williams
BACKGROUND: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management, reduce morbidity and improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised to the skin but has potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, while cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma have a much higher potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. Exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive test that uses the Tzanck smear technique to identify disease by examining the structure of cells obtained from scraped samples...
December 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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