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Photoanodes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548747/transparent-ta3n5-photoanodes-for-efficient-oxygen-evolution-toward-the-development-of-tandem-cells
#1
Tomohiro Higashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Yohichi Suzuki, Yutaka Sasaki, Takashi Hisatomi, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Kazuhiko Seki, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
Photoelectrochemical water splitting is regarded as a promising approach to the production of hydrogen, and the development of efficient photoelectrodes is one aspect of realizing practical systems. In this work, transparent Ta3N5 photoanodes were fabricated on n-type GaN/sapphire substrates to promote O2 evolution in tandem with a photocathode, to realize overall water splitting. Following the incorporation of an underlying GaN layer, a photocurrent of 6.3 mA cm-2 was achieved at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode...
December 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548029/multi-modal-optimization-of-bismuth-vanadate-photoanodes-via-combinatorial-alloying-and-hydrogen-processing
#2
P F Newhouse, D Guevarra, M Umehara, D A Boyd, L Zhou, J K Cooper, J A Haber, J M Gregoire
Alloying transition metals, such as Mo, into BiVO4 has emerged as the primary mechanism for improving carrier transport in this photoanode for solar fuels production. The present work establishes the generality of improving photoelectrochemical performance through co-alloying with a transition metal electron donor and a structure-modulating rare earth. Further improvement for all such alloys is obtained by annealing the oxide materials in H2, ultimately producing photoanodes with above 3 mA cm-2 photocurrent density under AM 1...
December 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547599/three-dimensional-decoupling-co-catalyst-from-a-photoabsorbing-semiconductor-as-a-new-strategy-to-boost-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#3
He Lin, Xia Long, Yiming An, Dan Zhou, Shihe Yang
A cocatalyst is normally deposited on a photoabsorbing semiconductor (PAS) for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, but with drawbacks of limited loading, reduced light absorption, and tendency of charge recombination. To tackle these problems, a scheme of three-dimensional (3D) decoupling cocatalysts from the PAS with a pore-spanning crisscross conducting polymer host is proposed in this work. To demonstrate the concept, a facile method was developed for the in situ cogrowth of FeO x nanoparticles and conducting polymer (CP) network in various PAS with different microstructures such as a TiO2 nanorod array, WO3 nanosheet array, and planar TiO2 nanoparticle film, generating the bespoke photoanodes...
December 14, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544904/significant-influence-of-a-single-atom-change-in-auxiliary-acceptor-on-photovoltaic-properties-of-porphyrin-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#4
Haoran Zhou, Jung-Min Ji, Min Su Kim, Hwan Kyu Kim
The rational design of porphyrin sensitizers is always crucial for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), since the change of only a single atom can have a significant influence on the photovoltaic performance. We incorporated the pyridothiadiazole group, as a stronger electron-withdrawing group, into the commonly well-established skeleton of D-porphyrin-triple bond-acceptor sensitizers by a single atom change for a well-known strong electron-withdrawing benzothiadiazole (BTD) unit as an auxiliary acceptor. The impact of the pyridothiadiazole group on the optical; electrochemical; and photovoltaic properties of D⁻π⁻A porphyrin sensitizers was investigated with comparison for a benzothiadiazole-substituted SGT-020 porphyrin...
December 11, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543963/a-synergistic-heterostructured-zno-batio-3-loaded-carbon-photoanode-in-photocatalytic-fuel-cell-for-degradation-of-reactive-red-120-and-electricity-generation
#5
Yong-Por Ong, Li-Ngee Ho, Soon-An Ong, Johar Banjuraizah, Abdul Haqi Ibrahim, Sin-Li Lee, Noradiba Nordin
Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) is considered as a sustainable green technology which could degrade organic pollutant and generate electricity simultaneously. A synergistic double-sided ZnO/BaTiO3 loaded carbon plate heterojunction photoanode was fabricated in different ratios by using simple ultrasonication and mixed-annealed method. The double-sided design of photoanode allowed the lights irradiated at both sides of the photoanode. The ferroelectricity fabricated photoanode was applied in a membraneless PFC with platinum-loaded carbon as the cathode...
December 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540298/a-porous-ni-o-ni-si-photoanode-for-stable-and-efficient-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#6
Guanping Huang, Ronglei Fan, Xiaoxue Zhou, Zihao Xu, Wanyi Zhou, Wen Dong, Mingrong Shen
Excellent photoelectrochemical activity was demonstrated for an easily prepared porous Ni-O/Ni/Si photoanode with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE, a photocurrent of 39.7 mA cm-2 at 1.23 VRHE, an energy conversion efficiency of 3.2% and a stability above 100 h.
December 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537811/metal-oxide-oxy-hydroxide-overlayers-as-hole-collectors-and-oxygen-evolution-catalysts-on-water-splitting-photoanodes
#7
Forrest A L Laskowski, Michael R Nellist, Jingjing Qiu, Shannon W Boettcher
Solar-water-splitting provides a mechanism to convert and store solar energy in the form of stable chemical bonds. Water-splitting systems often include semiconductor photoanodes, such as n-Fe2O3 and n-BiVO4, which use photogenerated holes to oxidize water. These photoanodes often exhibit improved performance when coated with metal-oxide/(oxy)hydroxide overlayers that are catalytic for the water oxidation reaction. The mechanism for this improvement, however, remains a controversial topic. This is, in part, due to a lack of experimental techniques that are able to directly track the flow of photogenerated holes in such multicomponent systems...
December 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534760/a-microstructured-p-si-photocathode-outcompetes-pt-as-a-counter-electrode-to-hematite-in-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#8
Anurag Kawde, Alagappan Annamalai, Anita Sellstedt, Pieter Glatzel, Thomas Wågberg, Johannes Messinger
Herein, we communicate about an Earth-abundant semiconductor photocathode (p-Si/TiO2/NiOx) as an alternative for the rare and expensive Pt as a counter electrode for overall photoelectrochemical water splitting. The proposed photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting device mimics the "Z"-scheme observed in natural photosynthesis by combining two photoelectrodes in a parallel-illumination mode. A nearly 60% increase in the photocurrent density (Jph) for pristine α-Fe2O3 and a 77% increase in the applied bias photocurrent efficiency (ABPE) were achieved by replacing the conventionally used Pt cathode with an efficient, cost effective p-Si/TiO2/NiOx photocathode under parallel illumination...
December 11, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534720/direct-z-scheme-fashioned-photoanode-systems-consisting-of-fe-2-o-3-nanorod-arrays-and-underlying-thin-sb-2-se-3-layers-toward-enhanced-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-performance
#9
Aizhen Liao, Yong Zhou, Leixin Xiao, Chunfeng Zhang, Congping Wu, Adullah M Asiri, Min Xiao, Zhigang Zou
An elegant Z-scheme-fashioned photoanode consisting of Fe2O3 nanorod arrays and underlying thin Sb2Se3 layers was rationally constructed. The photocurrent density of the Sb2Se3-Fe2O3 Z-scheme photoanode reached 3.07 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE, three times higher than that of pristine Fe2O3 at 1.03 mA cm-2. An obvious cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset potential of about 200 mV was also observed. The transient photovoltage response demonstrates that the suitable band edges (ECB ∼ -0.4 eV and EVB ∼ 0...
December 11, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525576/charge-transfer-from-upconverting-nanocrystals-to-semiconducting-electrodes-optimizing-thermodynamic-outputs-by-electronic-energy-transfer
#10
Bing Shan, Ting-Ting Li, M Kyle Brennaman, Animesh Nayak, Lei Wu, Thomas J Meyer
Light-harvesting inorganic nanocrystals play an important role in emerging solar energy conversion and optoelectronic devices. We describe here a strategy for a new family of photoelectrodes with upconverting nanocrystal assemblies as the photosensitizer. The assemblies consist of oleic acid-capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals that coordinate directly onto a layer of surface-bound, carboxylic acid-derivatized anthracenes through displacement of the oleic acid capping ligands. Steady-state emission and transient absorption measurements show that the upconverting nanocrystal assemblies, selectively excited by green light, generate singlet excitons that enable efficient charge injection into both the conduction band of TiO2 at the photoanode and the valence band of NiO at the photocathode...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524004/preferentially-oriented-tio2-nanotube-arrays-on-non-native-substrates-and-their-improved-performance-as-electron-transporting-layer-in-halide-perovskite-solar-cells
#11
Ryan Kisslinger, Abdelrahman Mostafa Askar, Ujwal Kumar Thakur, Saralyn Riddell, Darren Dahunsi, Yun Zhang, Sheng Zeng, Ankur Goswami, Karthik Shankar
Anodically formed TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) constitute an optoelectronic platform that is being studied for use as a photoanode in photoelectrocatalytic cells, as an electron transport layer (ETL) in solar cells and photodetectors, and as an active layer for chemiresistive and microwave sensors. For optimal transport of charge carriers in these one-dimensional polycrystalline ordered structures, it is desirable to introduce a preferential texture with the grains constituting the nanotube walls aligned along the transport direction...
October 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512922/interface-engineering-of-hematite-with-nacre-like-catalytic-multilayers-for-solar-water-oxidation
#12
Yeongkyu Choi, Dasom Jeon, Yuri Choi, Dongseok Kim, Nayeong Kim, Minsu Gu, Sanghyun Bae, Taemin Lee, Hyun-Wook Lee, Byeong-Su Kim, Jungki Ryu
An efficient water oxidation photoanode based on hematite has been designed and fabricated by tailored assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and cobalt polyoxometalates (Co-POM) water oxidation catalysts into a nacre-like multilayer architecture on a hematite photoanode. The deposition of catalytic multilayers provides a high photocatalytic efficiency and photoelectrochemical stability to underlying hematite photoanodes. Compared to the bare counterpart, the catalytic multilayer electrode exhibits a significantly higher photocurrent density and large cathodic shift in onset potential (~ 369 mV) even at neutral pH conditions due to the improved charge transport and catalytic efficiency from the rational and precise assembly of GO and Co-POM...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507184/boosted-water-oxidation-activity-and-kinetics-on-bivo-4-photoanodes-with-multihigh-index-crystal-facets
#13
Minji Yang, Huichao He, Aizhen Liao, Ji Huang, Yi Tang, Jun Wang, Gaili Ke, Faqin Dong, Long Yang, Liang Bian, Yong Zhou
The crystal facet of the BiVO4 photoanode has potential influence on its charge-transfer and separation properties as well as water oxidation kinetics. In the present work, a BiVO4 polyhedral film with exposed {121}, {132}, {211}, and {251} high-index facets was synthesized by a facile Bi2 O3 template-induced method and investigated as a photoanode for water oxidation. In comparison with the normal BiVO4 film with a {121} monohigh-index facet, the BiVO4 film with multihigh-index crystal facets shows higher activity and faster kinetics for photoelectrochemical water oxidation...
December 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499570/progress-on-ternary-oxide-based-photoanodes-for-use-in-photoelectrochemical-cells-for-solar-water-splitting
#14
REVIEW
Dong Ki Lee, Dongho Lee, Margaret A Lumley, Kyoung-Shin Choi
Solar water splitting using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) has emerged as one of the most promising routes to produce hydrogen as a clean and renewable fuel source. Among various semiconductors that have been considered as photoelectrodes for use in PECs, oxide-based photoanodes are particularly attractive because of their stability in aqueous media in addition to inexpensive and facile processing compared to other types of semiconductors. However, they typically suffer from poor charge carrier separation and transport...
November 30, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486493/hierarchical-ta-doped-tio%C3%A2-nanorod-arrays-with-improved-charge-separation-for-photoelectrochemical-water-oxidation-under-fto-side-illumination
#15
Shiman He, Yuying Meng, Yangfei Cao, Senchuan Huang, Jingling Yang, Shengfu Tong, Mingmei Wu
TiO₂ is one of the most attractive semiconductors for use as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. However, the large-scale application of TiO₂ photoanodes is restricted due to a short hole diffusion length and low electron mobility, which can be addressed by metal doping and surface decorating. In this paper we report the successful synthesis of hierarchical Ta doped TiO₂ nanorod arrays, with nanoparticles on the top (Ta:TiO₂), on F-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a hydrothermal method, and its application as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation...
November 28, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484456/plasmonic-hot-carrier-driven-oxygen-evolution-reaction-on-au-nanoparticles-tio-2-nanotube-arrays
#16
Song Yi Moon, Hee Chan Song, Eun Heui Gwag, Ievgen I Nedrygailov, Changhwan Lee, Jeong Jin Kim, Won Hui Doh, Jeong Young Park
The use of hot carriers generated from the decay of localized surface plasmon resonance in noble metal nanoparticles is a promising concept for photocatalysis. Here, we report the enhancement of photocatalytic activity by the flow of hot electrons on TiO2 nanotube arrays decorated with 5-30 nm Au nanoparticles as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water splitting. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is correlated to the size of the Au nanoparticles, where higher oxygen evolution was observed on the smaller nanoparticles...
November 28, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480694/highly-self-diffused-sn-doping-in-%C3%AE-fe-2-o-3-nanorod-photoanodes-initiated-from-%C3%AE-feooh-nanorod-fto-by-hydrogen-treatment-for-solar-water-oxidation
#17
Haiqing Ma, Mahadeo A Mahadik, Jin Woo Park, Manish Kumar, Hee Suk Chung, Weon Sik Chae, Gi Won Kong, Hyun Hwi Lee, Sun Hee Choi, Jum Suk Jang
In this study, we present an advanced strategy of low-temperature hydrogen annealing combined with high- temperature quenching in air for activating α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes to boost the photoelectrochemical performance. We report that various low-temperature annealing conditions (340, 360, 380, and 400 °C) under hydrogen gas flow convert β-FeOOH into magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as introduce Sn4+ diffusion from FTO substrates to its surface. Furthermore, high-temperature quenching (800 °C) resulted in the phase change of magnetite (Fe3O4) into hematite (α-Fe2O3) and self Sn4+ doping into the hematite lattice...
November 27, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460938/integration-of-fe-x-s-electrocatalysts-and-simultaneously-generated-interfacial-oxygen-vacancies-to-synergistically-boost-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-of-fe-2-o-3-photoanodes
#18
Aizhen Liao, Ruotian Chen, Fengtao Fan, Leixin Xiao, Huichao He, Chunfeng Zhang, Adullah M Asiri, Yong Zhou, Can Li, Zhigang Zou
Integration of FexS electrocatalysts and simultaneously generated interfacial oxygen vacancies (VO) was designed to promote the water splitting performance of Fe2O3 photoanodes, in which a synergistic effect remarkably reduces the carrier recombination, increases the number of active sites, and facilitates the photogenerated holes to participate in water oxidation.
November 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417505/understanding-the-roles-of-oxygen-vacancy-in-hematite-based-photoelectrochemical-process
#19
Lianzhou Wang, Zhiliang Wang, Xin Mao, Peng Chen, Mu Xiao, Sabiha Akter Monny, Songcan Wang, Muxina Konarova, Aijun Du
Oxygen vacancy (VO) engineering is an effective method to tune the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance, but the influence of Vo on photoelectrode is not well understood. Using hematite as a prototype, here we report that VO functions in a more complicate way in PEC process than previously reported. By comprehensive analysis of the key charge transfer and surface reaction steps in PEC process on hematite photoanode, we clarify that VO can facilitate surface electrocatalytic process but meanwhile leads to severe interfacial recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte (S-E) interface, in addition to the well-reported bulk conductivity improvement...
November 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397219/angstrom-thick-zno-passivation-layer-to-improve-the-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-performance-of-a-tio-2-nanowire-photoanode-the-role-of-deposition-temperature
#20
Amir Ghobadi, Turkan Gamze Ulusoy Ghobadi, Ferdi Karadas, Ekmel Ozbay
In this paper, we demonstrate that angstrom thick single atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO passivation can significantly improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity of hydrothermally grown TiO2 NWs. It is found that this ultrathin ZnO coating can passivate the TiO2 surface defect states without hampering the carrier's transfer dynamics. Moreover, a substantial improvement can be acquired by changing the deposition temperature of the ZnO layer (80 °C, and 250 °C) and named as 80 °C TiO2 -ZnO, and 250 °C TiO2 -ZnO...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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