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Marwa Ferchichi, Raja Jouini, Imen Ayari, Wafa Koubaa, Aschraf Chadli-Debbiche, Ehsen BenBrahim
Background: Ampullary carcinomas are rare and dominated by adenocarcinomas. They account for only 0.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Ampullary adenocarcinoma (AAC) with pancreaticobiliary (PB) histology has a worse outcome than that with intestinal (IT) histology. The mixed subtype contains the two epitheliums. This subclassification remains a challenge for pathologists and induces a reasonable level of disagreement. Genetic features of these subtypes are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reclassify AAC cases then to evaluate differences in prognostic, pathological and molecular parameters including mutational status of three oncogenes between these subtypes...
October 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Frida Svensson, Tiange Lang, Malin E V Johansson, Gunnar C Hansson
The DNA sequence of the two human mucin genes MUC2 and MUC6 have not been completely resolved due to the repetitive nature of their central exon coding for Proline, Threonine and Serine rich sequences. The exact nucleotide sequence of these exons has remained unknown for a long time due to limitations in traditional sequencing techniques. These are still very poorly covered in new whole genome sequencing projects with the corresponding protein sequences partly missing. We used a BAC clone containing both these genes and third generation sequencing technology, SMRT sequencing, to obtain the full-length contiguous MUC2 and MUC6 tandem repeat sequences...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Filipa Marcelo, Nitin Supekar, Francisco Corzana, Joost C van der Horst, Ilona M Vuist, David Live, Geert-Jan P H Boons, David F Smith, Sandra J van Vliet
The human macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL) is a C-type lectin characterized by a unique specificity for terminal N -acetylgalactosamine residues present in the tumor-associated Tn antigen (αGalNAc-Ser/Thr) and its sialylated form, the sialyl-Tn antigen. However, human MGL has multiple splice variants, and whether these variants have distinct ligand-binding properties is unknown. Here, using glycan microarrays, we compared the binding properties of the short MGL 6C (MGLshort ) and the long MGL 6B (MGLlong ) splice variants, as well as of a histidine-to-threonine mutant (MGLshort H259T)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hao Zhang, Yueping Chen, Yue Li, Tao Zhang, Zhixiong Ying, Weipeng Su, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary l-threonine supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal immune function, mucin synthesis, and goblet cell differentiation in weanling piglets with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). METHODS: Eighteen litters of newborn piglets were selected at birth, with one normal birthweight (NBW) and two IUGR piglets in each litter. At weaning, the NBW piglet and one of the IUGR piglets were assigned to groups fed a basal diet (i...
August 22, 2018: Nutrition
Aralia Leon-Coria, Manish Kumar, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
Amebiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), a potentially fatal disease occurring mainly in developing countries. How Eh interacts with innate host factors in the gut is poorly understood. Eh resides and feed in/on the outer colonic mucus layer and thus share an ecological niche with indigenous microbiota. As gut microbiota regulates innate immune responses, in this study we characterized the cooperative roles that microbiota and the mucus layer play in Eh-induced pro-inflammatory responses in the colon...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Gerard Cantero-Recasens, Cristian M Butnaru, Nathalie Brouwers, Sandra Mitrovic, Miguel A Valverde, Vivek Malhotra
Regulated mucin secretion is essential for the formation of the mucus layer that protects the underlying epithelial cells from foreign particles. Alterations in the quantity or quality of secreted mucins are therefore detrimental to airway and colon physiology. Based on various biochemical assays in several human cell lines, we report here that Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger 2 (NCX2) works in conjunction with transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 (TRPM4), and perhaps TRPM5, Na+ channels to control Ca2+ -mediated secretion of both mucin 2 (MUC2) and MUC5AC from HT29-18N2 colonic cancer cells...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Takashi Murakami, Yoichi Akazawa, Noboru Yatagai, Takafumi Hiromoto, Noriko Sasahara, Tsuyoshi Saito, Naoto Sakamoto, Akihito Nagahara, Takashi Yao
BACKGROUND: Colorectal sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are considered early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway. Recent studies have shown associations of SSA/Ps with lost MLH1 expression, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations. However, the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with early neoplastic progression have not yet been fully elucidated, owing to the rarity of cases of SSA/P with advanced histology such as cytologic dysplasia or invasive carcinoma...
November 20, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Yunyun Li, Xiaoxi Lu, Haiqin Wu, Mi Xia, Qihang Hou, Weiwei Hu, Tiejun Li, Li Wu, Qinghua Yu
To explore the effects of reducing the Cp levels on intestinal barrier function, low Cp (LP) and NRC standard Cp (NP) diets were fed to pigs from 45 to 160 days, and in vitro experiments were performed using monolayers of IPEC-J2 cells. The number of goblet cells, expression of proteins related to cell junction, amino acid transport, glucose transport, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), dextran permeability, and IL-6 secretion level were detected in pigs. The results demonstrated that a moderate reduction of Cp levels did not affect intestinal morphology, as demonstrated by a normal villi height, crypt depth and normal numbers of goblet cells...
November 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Marta Ferrandis Vila, Michaela P Trudeau, Yuan-Tai Hung, Zhikai Zeng, Pedro E Urriola, Gerald C Shurson, Milena Saqui-Salces
Due to their complex chemical and physical properties, the effects and mechanisms of action of natural sources of dietary fiber on the intestine are unclear. Pigs are commonly fed high-fiber diets to reduce production costs and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes have been used to increase fiber digestibility. We evaluated the expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), presence of goblet cells, and ileal immune profile of pigs housed individually for 28 days and fed either a low fiber diet based on corn-soybean meal (CSB, n = 9), or two high fiber diets formulated adding 40% corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, n = 9) or 30% wheat middlings (WM, n = 9) to CSB-based diet...
2018: PloS One
Richard You Wu, Bo Li, Yuhki Koike, Pekka Määttänen, Hiromu Miyake, Marissa Cadete, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Steven R Botts, Carol Lee, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Eva Landberg, Agostino Pierro, Philip M Sherman
SCOPE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and death in preterm infants, occurring more often in formula-fed than breastfed infants. Studies in both rats and humans show that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) lower the incidence of NEC, but the mechanism underlying such protection is currently unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here by extracting HMOs from pooled human breastmilk, we investigated the impact of HMOs on the intestinal mucin levels in a murine model of NEC...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Chin-Hee Song, Nayoung Kim, Sung Hwa Sohn, Sun Min Lee, Ryoung Hee Nam, Hee Young Na, Dong Ho Lee, Young-Joon Surh
Background/Aims: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis. This dysfunction is caused by increased permeability and the loss of tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol treatment reduces colonic permeability, tight junction disruption, and inflammation in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colon cancer mouse model. Methods: The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated in ICR male mice 4 weeks after AOM/DSS treatment...
November 15, 2018: Gut and Liver
Yu I Osmanov, Zh A Gaibov, E A Kogan, S G Radenska-Lopovok, Kh Z Tursunov
Urothelial carcinoma is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant tumors of the bladder and upper urinary tract, which ranks seventh in the pattern of cancer. Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis is less common; but has a more aggressive clinical course and a worse prognosis than that of the bladder. This is due to the clinical and morphological features of this form of cancer, which, unlike bladder cancer, have not been studied enough. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the morphological and immunophenotypic parameters of urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and bladder...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
A L B Moreira Filho, P R Ferket, R D Malheiros, C J B Oliveira, P C Aristimunha, D E Wilsmann, P E N Givisiez
The effects of in ovo feeding with threonine (Thr) on intestinal morphology, ileal gene expression and performance of broiler chicken between 1 and 21 d of age (d) were assessed. On day 17.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly allotted to 5 treatments of Thr injection in the amniotic fluid (0; 1.75; 3.5; 5.25; 7%, corresponding to 17.5; 35; 52.5 and 70 mg Thr/mL). After hatch, chicks were given a commercial corn-soybean diet up to 21 d. Daily feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), and food conversion ratio (FCR) were measured from 1 to 7, 14, and 21 d of age...
October 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Ho Pan Sham, Mark Bazett, Momir Bosiljcic, Hyungjun Yang, Beryl Luk, Hong T Law, Vijay Morampudi, Hong B Yu, Jim Pankovich, Simon Sutcliffe, Brian Bressler, John K Marshall, Richard N Fedorak, Jenny Chen, Michelle Jones, Hal Gunn, Shirin Kalyan, Bruce A Vallance
Background: Current ulcerative colitis (UC) treatments are focused on symptom management primarily via immune suppression. Despite the current arsenal of immunosuppressant treatments, the majority of patients with UC still experience disease progression. Importantly, aggressive long-term inhibition of immune function comes with consequent risk, such as serious infections and malignancy. There is thus a recognized need for new, safe and effective treatment strategies for people living with UC that work upstream of managing the symptoms of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Satoshi Kondo, Shota Mizuno, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The primary component in gut mucus is mucin 2 (MUC2) secreted by goblet cells. Fluctuations in MUC2 expression are considered a useful indicator for evaluating mucosal damage and protective effect of various agents using animal studies. However, there are few in vitro studies evaluating mucosal damage using MUC2 as the indicator. Hence, we attempted to establish a novel in vitro model with MUC2 as the indicator for evaluating drug-induced mucosal damage and protective effect using enterocytes derived from human iPS cells...
December 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Anna Astashchanka, Thomas M Shroka, Britta M Jacobsen
PURPOSE: Tumors that secrete large volumes of mucus are chemotherapy resistant, however, mechanisms underlying this resistance are unknown. One protein highly expressed in mucin secreting breast cancers is the secreted mucin, Mucin 2 (MUC2). While MUC2 is expressed in some breast cancers it is absent in normal breast tissue, implicating it in breast cancer. However, the effects of MUC2 on breast cancer are largely unknown. This study examined the role of MUC2 in modulating breast cancer proliferation, response to chemotherapy and metastasis...
October 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Aldona Kasprzak, Elżbieta Siodła, Małgorzata Andrzejewska, Jacek Szmeja, Agnieszka Seraszek-Jaros, Szczepan Cofta, Witold Szaflarski
AIM: To determine tissue expression (mRNA, protein) of two types of mucins [mucin 1 (MUC1) and mucin 2 (MUC2)] in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Expression of membrane-bound mucin (MUC1) and secretory mucin (MUC2) in CRC (mRNA, protein) were analyzed in tissue material including fragments of tumors obtained from CRC patients ( n = 34), and fragments of normal colorectal tissue from the same patients (control). The analysis was conducted using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (transcripts), immunohistochemistry (IHC) (apomucins), and the modern approach for morphometric analysis of IHC reaction (HSV filter software)...
September 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Milosz Wiktorowicz, Damian Mlynarski, Radoslaw Pach, Romana Tomaszewska, Jan Kulig, Piotr Richter, Marek Sierzega
BACKGROUND: Aberrantly expressed mucin glycoproteins (MUC) play important roles in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), yet their use as a diagnostic aid in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the rationale and feasibility of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression profiling by RT-PCR for diagnostic applications in cytology. METHODS: Mucin expression was examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in specimens resected from patients with pancreatic (n = 101), ampullary (n = 23), and common bile duct (n = 10) cancers and 33 with chronic pancreatitis...
September 25, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Eduardo R Cobo, Ravi Holani, France Moreau, Kiminori Nakamura, Tokiyoshi Ayabe, Jennifer R Mastroianni, Yoshihiro Eriguchi, Andre Ouellette, Kris Chadee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Infection and Immunity
Angel Fernandez-Flores, Itziar Eraña, Jesus Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Mammary Paget disease and extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) have different prognoses. Because they are indistinguishable on histopathological grounds, they must be distinguished on a topographical basis. OBJECTIVE: To study cases of Paget disease of the breast, which show similarities to EMPD. METHODS: Cases were selected by 2 different approaches: (1) those with an exceptionally good evolution and no evidence of subjacent tumor and (2) those expressing MUC5AC...
October 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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