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Stab wounds

Hamza Abdur Rahim Khan, Jaleed Ahmed Gilani, Muhammad Bin Pervez, Shiraz Hashmi, Sulaiman Hasan
Penetrating cardiac trauma is a medical emergency that commonly affects young men throughout the world. A retrospective review of the records of all patients presenting with cardiac injury was done from January 2000 to December 2015 at our institute. There were 10 cases of such trauma, all of whom were males, 17 to 48 years of age. The most common mechanism of injury was gunshot wounds followed by stab wounds. The Mean Revised Trauma Score was 7.23±0.855. Only 2 out of the total 10 patients died (20% mortality)...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Francesco Simonit, Fabio Bassan, Carlo Scorretti, Lorenzo Desinan
Complex suicides are rare and consist in the use of more than one method to induce death, representing a challenging investigation for forensic pathologists. According to the several combinations reported in literature, they have been classified into "typical" (where two common suicide methods are associated) and "atypical" (where more than two methods, or infrequent combinations of suicide methods are involved). In the case discussed here, an elderly man suffering of depression was found dead inside the tool shed of his house with a knife embedded in the abdomen and two plastic bags fastened around the neck using a twine...
August 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Gabriella F Pogorzelski, Taline Aal Silva, Thamara Piazza, Tomás M Lacerda, Fernando Ac Spencer Netto, Amaury Cesar Jorge, Péricles Ad Duarte
Background: Trauma is a major cause of hospital admissions and is associated with manifold complications and high mortality rates. However, data on intensive care unit (ICU) admissions are scarce in developing and low-income countries, where its incidence has been increasing. Objectives: To analyze epidemiological and clinical factors and outcomes in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of a public teaching hospital in a developing country as well as to identify risk factors for complications in the ICU...
2018: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Jan Oliver Voss, Nadine Thieme, Christian Doll, Stefan Hartwig, Nicolai Adolphs, Max Heiland, Jan-Dirk Raguse
Penetrating foreign bodies of different origins in the head and neck are rare and potentially dangerous injuries, which might pose problems for their detection, primary care, and final treatment. Depending on the severity of the underlying trauma, some injuries present a higher risk for the presence of foreign bodies. Minor wounds, including common lacerations, are likely to be contaminated with loose gravel debris or dental fragments, and need to be distinguished from severe wounds caused by impalement, shootings, stabbings, and explosions...
September 2018: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
Klára Marecová, Matěj Uvíra, Marek Dokoupil, Petr Handlos
Sharp force injuries are uncommon in routine forensic practice. While the majority of these cases are homicides or suicides, a significant minority of accidental deaths means that a careful investigation of the circumstances of the death is necessary. We present the case of a young man who presented with stab and cut injuries due to a duralumin rod embedded in his chest. Examination of the body revealed that death was due to penetration of the thoracic aorta by a duralumin rod. Careful investigation of the circumstances surrounding the death was able to confim a case of accidental death due to falling from a ladder onto tomato seedlings that were supported by duralumin rods...
August 3, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Heejung Chun, Heeyoung An, Jiwoon Lim, Junsung Woo, Jaekwang Lee, Hoon Ryu, C Justin Lee
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and they make close contacts with neurons and blood vessels. They respond dynamically to various environmental stimuli and change their morphological and functional properties. Both physiological and pathological stimuli can induce versatile changes in astrocytes, as this phenomenon is referred to as 'astrocytic plasticity'. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of astrocytic plasticity in response to various stimuli remain elusive, except for the presence of hypertrophy, a conspicuous structural change which is frequently observed in activated or reactive astrocytes...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Claire J Sully, G Stewart Walker, Neil E I Langlois
The forensic investigation of a deceased person retrieved following a fire includes measuring carboxyhemoglobin. A carboxyhemoglobin saturation above 10% is considered indicative of respiration during a fire, implying the person had been alive. This relies on the assumption that carbon monoxide will not diffuse into blood used for toxicological analysis. This project investigated the potential for carbon monoxide to passively diffuse into a body and if carboxyhemoglobin levels could become elevated post-mortem...
July 4, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Kei Hashimoto, Mari Nakashima, Ayana Hamano, Mari Gotoh, Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi, Yasunori Miyamoto
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by physical damage to the brain and it induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammation. To diminish the sequelae of TBI, it is important to decrease haemorrhage and alleviate inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of 2-carba-cyclic phosphatidic acid (2ccPA) on the repair mechanisms after a stab wound injury as a murine TBI model. The administration of 2ccPA suppressed serum immunoglobulin extravasation after the injury. To elucidate the effects of 2ccPA on inflammation resulting from TBI, we analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines...
June 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Igor Jeroukhimov, Itay Wiser, Yehuda Hershkovitz, Zahar Shapira, Kobi Peleg, Ricardo Alfici, Adi Givon, Boris Kessel
BACKGROUND: Management of stable patients with abdominal stab wound remains controversial, particularly for those with no clear indications for explorative laparotomy. We evaluated the risk of intra-abdominal injury in stab wound victims concomitantly stabbed in other anatomical body areas. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with abdominal stab wounds recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry from January 1st, 1997, to December 31st, 2013...
June 27, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
V Y Kong, R Weale, J M Blodgett, J Buitendag, G V Oosthuizen, J L Bruce, G L Laing, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of injury associated with anterior abdominal stab wounds (SWs) is well established. The literature in the specific setting of isolated omental evisceration is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our experience of 244 consecutive patients with established indications for laparotomy over an eight year period at a major trauma centre in South Africa. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients (93% male, mean age: 27 years), 224 (92) underwent immediate laparotomy (IL)...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Francisco Ismael Villarreal-García, Pedro Martin Reyes-Fernández, Oscar Armando Martínez-Gutiérrez, Víctor Manuel Peña-Martínez, Rodolfo Morales-Ávalos
Introduction: Stab-wound injuries to the spinal cord are rare and currently, do not have a well-established management in the literature despite its strong association with neurological injury. Case presentation: We report a case of a patient with a stab-wound injury with a knife in the lumbar region, who underwent direct removal in the operating room without surgical exploration. Upon admission, the patient had no neurological deficit. The X-rays and CT scan before removal showed the involvement of >50% of the intramedullary canal at L2...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Pietro Cacialli, Antonio Palladino, Carla Lucini
Several mammalian animal models of traumatic brain injury have been used, mostly rodents. However, reparative mechanisms in mammalian brain are very limited, and newly formed neurons do not survive for long time. The brain of adult zebrafish, a teleost fish widely used as vertebrate model, possesses high regenerative properties after injury due to the presence of numerous stem cells niches. The ventricular lining of the zebrafish dorsal telencephalon is the most studied neuronal stem cell niche because its dorso-lateral zone is considered the equivalent to the hippocampus of mammals which contains one of the two constitutive neurogenic niches of mammals...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Reid Sakamoto, Kazuhide Matsushima, Amory de Roulet, Kristine Beetham, Aaron Strumwasser, Damon Clark, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Nonoperative management (NOM) of penetrating solid organ injuries (SOI) has not been well described in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology, injury patterns, and factors associated with trial and failure of NOM. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank for the period of 2007-2014. The study population included patients ≤18 y with penetrating injury to the liver, spleen, or kidney...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Shokei Matsumoto, Kei Hayashida, Shintaro Furugori, Masayuki Shimizu, Kazuhiko Sekine, Mitsuhide Kitano
INTRODUCTION: Because Japan has high suicide rates and low violent crime rates, it is likely that most abdominal stab wounds (ASWs) in Japan are self-inflicted. Although physical examination is one of the most important factors in surgical decision making, such evaluations can be difficult in patients with self-inflicted ASWs due to patient agitation and uncooperative behavior. Therefore, the self-inflicted nature of an injury may strongly affect clinical practice, particularly in Japan, but its influence remains uncertain...
June 2, 2018: Injury
Alexander Becker, Kobi Peleg, Joseph Dubose, Yaakov Daskal, Adi Givon, Boris Kessel
BACKGROUND: Penetrating stab wounds in children are relatively rare and no clear recommendations for the optimal evaluation have been devised. An acceptable traditional approach to the patient with an abdominal stab wound who does not require urgent surgery is selective nonoperative management and serial exams. The use of routine computed tomography remains an actively utilized investigation for these patients at many institutions. PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the approach to pediatric stab wound victims should be distinctly different than that of adult counterparts in order to minimize radiation exposure...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ross Weale, Victor Kong, Vassil Manchev, Wanda Bekker, George Oosthuizen, Petra Brysiewicz, Grant Laing, John Bruce, Damian Clarke
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal vascular injury (IAVI) is uncommon but continues to be associated with high mortality rates despite technological advances in the past decades. In light of these ongoing developments, we reviewed our contemporary experience with IAVI in an attempt to clarify and refine our management strategies and the outcome of these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2014 at a major trauma centre in South Africa who were found to have an IAVI during laparotomy for trauma...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Holly Carpenter, Katherine-Helen Hurndall, Ajay K Asokan, Roland Fernandes
A 19-year-old man with a stab injury to the lower back presented with no focal neurology or haemodynamic instability. He complained of a headache that was improved by lying flat and underwent imaging to look for damage to local structures. He was found to have air in his intraspinal space. Initially this case was managed conservatively; however, 2 weeks after discharge, he presented with cerebrospinal fluid leak from his wound. This was managed with neurosurgical intervention and watertight closure of fascia...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Marta López Porras, Rafael Jiménez Merchán, Juan Carlos Girón Arjona, Miguel Congregado Loscertales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Cirugía Española
Hong Xiang Lee, Matthew Hauser, Shivangi Jog, Peter Bautz, Christopher Dobbins
BACKGROUND: This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on our hospital, a Level 1 trauma centre, where stable patients with single abdominal stab wounds are considered for non-operative (conservative) management if they fulfil the criteria with the aid of computed tomography. The aim is to review our current approach in managing these patients. METHODS: Patients' data were obtained from January 2005 to June 2016. All injuries classed as assault or self-harm by sharp object in Injury Severity Score body region 4 were included...
June 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Steven D Hobbs
This case study presents the inadvertent catheterization of a traumatic hemopneumothorax. A 22-year-old man sustained multiple stab wounds, including the left chest with a resultant hemopneumothorax. Upon arrival at a Level 1 trauma center, an ipsilateral subclavian central catheter was placed, blood was freely aspirated, and because of the patient's critical status, immediately utilized for resuscitation prior to line verification by radiography. A short time later, the catheter was felt to be malpositioned, most likely in the left intrathoracic space, and removed...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
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