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Stab wounds

Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Caroline R McKeown, Hollis T Cline
Traumatic brain injuries introduce functional and structural circuit deficits that must be repaired for an organism to regain function. We developed an injury model in which Xenopus laevis tadpoles are given a penetrating stab wound that damages the optic tectal circuit and impairs visuomotor behavior. In tadpoles, as in other systems, injury induces neurogenesis. The newly generated neurons are thought to integrate into the existing circuit, however, whether they integrate via the same mechanisms that govern normal neuronal maturation during development is not understood...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Samir Kashyap, Gohar Majeed, Shokry Lawandy
Background: Brown-Sequard syndrome (BSS) is a well-known entity that is most commonly caused by a penetrating injury to the spinal cord (e.g., stab wound or gunshot wound). It is characterized by an ipsilateral weakness (damage to corticospinal tracts) and contralateral loss of pain and temperature two levels below the lesion (damage to lateral spinothalamic tracts). Although, rarely non-penetrating injuries, tumors, disc herniations, infections, autoimmune diseases, and epidural hematomas (non-penetrating trauma and spontaneous) have contributed to BSS syndromes, there are only four cases of BSS in the literature attributed to traumatic spinal epidural hematomas...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Matěj Uvíra, Klára Marecová, Marek Dokoupil, Igor Dvořáček, Petr Handlos
Animal inflicted fatal or near fatal injuries are well described in the forensic literature, with the most frequently described cases involving dogs, large cats and bears. To our knowledge, a deer inflicted fatality has not been described in the forensic literature previously. This article reports a case of a 64-year-old male, who was found lying in a pool of blood near an enclosure for stags and hinds at the end of October. There were mechanical defects on his jacket and trousers, which appeared to be torn or penetrated, as well as multiple lacerations and stab wounds in different parts of his body...
November 27, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
David Thompson, Sherif M Soliman, Mohammad Bader, Abraham Cherian
BACKGROUND: Shanfield first described a simple ureteric implantation technique involving a U-stitch anchoring the spatulated end of the transplant ureter to the interior of the intact bladder through a small stab wound. We present an extrapolation of this principle to Mitrofanoff channels and native ureteric reimplantations and further extend it to a laparoscopic approach in some. METHODS: A retrospective case-note reviewing the Shanfield ureteric reimplantation in fifteen children between October 2014 and May 2017 was performed...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Farris Serio, Quinn Fujii, Keval Shah, Andrew McCague
Objective: To determine if there was any decrease in measures of injury severity or outcome with obese patients (body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2) as compared to non-obese patients (body mass index less than 30 kg/m2). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the trauma database maintained by Natividad Medical Center's Level 2-Trauma program. From July 1st, 2014 to July 1st, 2017 there were 371 cases of penetrating trauma in adults between the ages of 18-80 years old...
October 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Wook Ho Kang, Hyung Kyu Yang, Han Jeong Chang, Yong Taek Ko, Byung Eun Yoo, Cheong Ho Lim, Jae Kwan Hwang, Young Chan Lee, Hyeon Keun Shin, Hae Jung Son
BACKGROUND: Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) is a sphincter-preserving operation for anal fistulas. Although it has advantages in preserving continence after surgery, it is difficult to perform owing to the narrow field of view. We performed a modified surgical procedure based on the LIFT to overcome these drawbacks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who were scheduled to undergo high ligation of the anal fistula tract by the lateral approach for the treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulas were prospectively studied...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Yu V Nazarov, V D Isakov, V M Karavaev
Forensic medical experts are not infrequently faced in their practical work with the question of the possibility of inflicting body injuries by the victim to himself (herself). In such cases, the law-enforcement authorities are in the first place interested not in the possibility of such self-inflicted injuries but rather in the correspondence between the character of the injuries and the circumstances of the event that needs to be objectively established in the course of the forensic medical expertise. The cases of multiple severe self-inflicted injuries in which all the witnesses were one way or another involved in the accident as the participants of the fight with the victim, attract especially close attention and require careful examination...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Antônio Oliveira de Araújo, Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luiz Carlos de Lima, Jéssica de Oliveira Correia, Pedro Henrique Gomes, Emanoel Nascimento Costa, Luciana Macedo Level Salomão, Cleinaldo Nascimento Costa
OBJECTIVE: to determine the frequency of fatal cardiac trauma in the city of Manaus, Brazil, between November 2015 and October 2016, and to clarify the mechanisms of trauma and death, previous hospital treatment, as well as the injuries associated with cardiac trauma. METHODS: retrospective, observational, and cross-sectional study, which reviewed the necropsy reports of individuals whose cause of death was cardiac injury. RESULTS: the cardiac trauma rate was of 5...
October 4, 2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Kss Dayananda, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G V Oosthuizen, G L Laing, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating thoracic trauma is common and costly. Injuries are frequently and selectively amenable to non-operative management. Our selective approach to penetrating thoracic trauma is reviewed and the effectiveness of our clinical algorithms confirmed. Additionally, a basic cost analysis was undertaken to evaluate the financial impact of a selective nonoperative management approach to penetrating thoracic trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Services electronic regional trauma registry hybrid electronic medical records were reviewed, highlighted all penetrating thoracic traumas...
October 5, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
K Karimi Yarandi, Sina Jelodar, Mahmoud Reza Khalatbari, Saleh Rasras, Reza Bahrami Ilkhchi, Abbas Amirjamshidi
Background and Objectives: Stabbing the head is a rare event. It may occur following an assault or self-inflicted injury. We intend to report our experience with four such cases and review narratively the relevant literature. A treatment algorithm will be delivered. Materials and Methods: We have reviewed four of our cases; three were stabbed to the orbit and one to the head. Results: Enucleation was performed in one case. Vision could be preserved in the other two and brain abscess developed in the other cases due to a retained piece of knife...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Dairui Dai, Silke Meyer, Lars Christian Kaltheuner, Frank Plani
A 25-year-old man presented to the trauma department following a penetrating stab wound to his left infraorbital margin with retained knife blade causing superoposterior displacement of the globe. Plain skull X-ray revealed an extensive retained blade with subsequent CT imaging revealing the tip of the blade had reached the right styloid process with no neurovascular compromise. Initial concern was primarily for the left eye leading to ophthalmology being the first specialty requested to review the patient...
September 23, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka, Yutaka Matsui, Toshimitsu Uede
OBJECTIVES: Osteopontin (OPN) is an inflammatory cytokine inducer involved in cell proliferation and migration in inflammatory diseases or tumors. To investigate the function of OPN in astrocyte activation during brain injury, we compared OPN-deficient (OPN/KO) with wild-type (WT) mouse brains after stab wound injury and primary culture of astrocytes. METHODS: Primary cultures of astrocytes were prepared from either WT or OPN/KO postnatal mouse brains. Activation efficiency of astrocytes in primary culture was accessed using Western blotting by examining the protein levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tenascin-C (TN-C), which are markers for reactive astrocytes, following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation...
December 2018: Neurological Research
Vincent M DeMario, Robert A Sikorski, David T Efron, Mara A Serbanescu, Rica M Buchanan, Eric J Wang, Mereze Visagie, Eric A Gehrie, Mariuxi C Manukyan, Kathy Noll, K H Ken Lee, Paul M Ness, Steven M Frank
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion can be lifesaving for patients with hemorrhage; however, transfusion requirements for victims of gun violence are poorly understood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In an urban, Level 1 trauma center, 23,422 trauma patients were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study. Patients with gunshot wounds (GSWs) (n = 2,672; 11.4% of trauma patients) were compared to those with non-GSW traumatic injuries from 2005 to 2017, to assess blood utilization...
October 2018: Transfusion
Kevin Bain, Vadim Meytes, Grace C Chang, Michael F Timoney
INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) is an increasingly used modality when approaching penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT). Trauma surgeons can utilize this minimally invasive technique to quickly assess for injury in hemodynamically stable patients. DL with a confirmed injury can be repaired through therapeutic laparoscopy (TL) or conversion to exploratory laparotomy (EL). This study analyzes the use of laparoscopy as a first-line therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with PAT...
September 12, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
G N Ayane, M Walsh, D Prozesky, K Kadimo
We describe a patient in whom a stab wound to the right supraclavicular fossa led to a subclavian artery false aneurysm and an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) between the right subclavian artery and the right internal jugular vein. The diagnosis was made clinically and with computerised tomographic angiography (CTA). Open vascular repair was successful. We postulate that this presentation was the result of the knife being inserted then partly withdrawn and reinserted at a different angle. This pattern of injury has been reported previously following central venous line insertion, but rarely following a stab injury...
August 2018: Trauma Case Reports
Tomer Erlich, Noam D Kitrey
The kidneys are the most vulnerable genitourinary organ in trauma, as they are involved in up to 3.25% of trauma patients. The most common mechanism for renal injury is blunt trauma (predominantly by motor vehicle accidents and falls), while penetrating trauma (mainly caused by firearms and stab wound) comprise the rest. High-velocity weapons impose specifically problematic damage because of the high energy and collateral effect. The mainstay of renal trauma diagnosis is based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), which is indicated in all stable patients with gross hematuria and in patients presenting with microscopic hematuria and hypotension...
October 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
William M Brigode, Michael Masteller, Rishi Chaudhuri, Ryan Sullivan, Amir Vafa
This study was performed to assess our institution's experience with stab injuries to the posterior mediastinal box. We examine the value of performing CT of the chest and esophagram in conjunction with a chest X-ray (CXR) over performing CXR(s) alone in evaluating this group of patients. We performed a retrospective study covering a 10-year period consisting of patients with stab wounds to the posterior mediastinal box. Age, gender, and injury severity score as demographic data points were collected. CXR, CT, and esophagram results; identified injuries; and subsequent interventions were analyzed...
August 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Oleh Yevhenovych Matsevych, Modise Zacharia Koto, Moses Balabyeki, Lehlogonolo David Mashego, Colleen Aldous
Background: Selective non-operative management (NOM) and diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) are well-accepted approaches in the management of stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT). The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of early DL in stable asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with PAT as opposed to NOM, a standard of care in this scenario. The secondary aim was to suggest possible indications for DL. Methods: Patients managed with DL or NOM over a 12-month period were included in this study...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Rosario Barranco, Andrea Molinelli, Francesco Ventura
Fatalities due to stabbings are usually caused by large blood vessels or organs injuries resulting in hemorrhagic shock. Vagal inhibition from a stab to the neck is an undeniably exceptional event, infrequently described in the literature. In our case report, we describe one such fatality.The body of a deceased 38-year-old man was found near a public garden. According to a bystander, the victim had been assaulted by 2 individuals, sustaining a stab wound to the neck with a broken glass bottle. At the autopsy, there was a large, inverted L-shaped cut wound in the left cervical region, measuring approximately 4...
December 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Leigh Hlavaty, LokMan Sung
Instruments that create stab wounds are required to possess tips of sufficient strength and rigidity to breach the integrity of the skin. Knives, the most common weapons used to create stab wounds, have cutting edges that cleave the skin, leaving unabraded margins. On rare occasions, blunt objects are driven with sufficient force to pierce the skin and become impaled within the body. The morphologic differences between the cutaneous injuries and wound tracks of stab wounds from sharp objects and impalement with blunt ones provide clear delineation of the two...
December 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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