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Current concepts

Kazuya Tone, Haruhiko Ogawa, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Koichi Makimura
BACKGROUND: Filamentous basidiomycetes (f-BMs) are involved in some unexplained chronic cough (UCC) cases that can be improved by the administration of antifungal agents. The disease concept was termed fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC). The current diagnostic criteria warrant environmental fungi isolation from respiratory specimens, which is hardly conceivable for such fungi. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to detect the f-BMs Bjerkandera adusta, the most common pathogen in FACC, from respiratory specimens of patients with UCC using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 19, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Tyler S Wheeler, T Michael Vallis, Nicholas B Giacomantonio, Samina R Abidi
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle changes and the adoption of healthy behaviours are well established recommendations for the management of hypertension-a risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease. Mobile health interventions offer unique advantages and novel approaches to helping individuals make and maintain such behaviour changes; however, current interventions often lack theoretical and scientific grounding. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to effectively model the knowledge, concepts and relationships relevant to the management of a chronic illness like hypertension, and to implement this knowledge model within a mobile self-management application that can be used by patients...
November 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Günter Päth, Nikolaos Perakakis, Christos S Mantzoros, Jochen Seufert
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation into insulin producing β-cells, but they raise ethical concerns and bear, like iPSC, the risk of tumours...
October 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Michelle N Messmer, Annelise G Snyder, Andrew Oberst
Our conception of programmed cell death has expanded beyond apoptosis to encompass additional forms of cell suicide, including necroptosis and pyroptosis; these cell death modalities are notable for their diverse and emerging roles in engaging the immune system. Concurrently, treatments that activate the immune system to combat cancer have achieved remarkable success in the clinic. These two scientific narratives converge to provide new perspectives on the role of programmed cell death in cancer therapy. This review focuses on our current understanding of the relationship between apoptosis and antitumor immune responses and the emerging evidence that induction of alternate death pathways such as necroptosis could improve therapeutic outcomes...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Paulius Ruzgys, Vitalij Novickij, Jurij Novickij, Saulius Šatkauskas
Current electrotransfection protocols are well-established for decades and, as a rule, employ long micro-millisecond range electric field pulses to facilitate DNA transfer while application of nanosecond range pulses is limited. The purpose of this paper is to show that the transfection using ultrashort pulses is possible by regulating the pulse repetition frequency. We have used 200 ns pulses (10-18 kV/cm) in bursts of ten with varied repetition frequency (1 Hz-1 MHz). The Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were used as a cell model...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marieke W Veldkamp, Guillaume S C Geuzebroek, Antonius Baartscheer, Arie O Verkerk, Cees A Schumacher, Gedeon G Suarez, Wouter R Berger, Simona Casini, Shirley C M van Amersfoorth, Koen T Scholman, Antoine H G Driessen, Charly N W Belterman, Antoni C G van Ginneken, Joris R de Groot, Jacques M T de Bakker, Carol Ann Remme, Bas J Boukens, Ruben Coronel
The cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls normal atrial electrical function. The cardiac ANS produces various neuropeptides, among which the neurokinins, whose actions on atrial electrophysiology are largely unknown. We here demonstrate that the neurokinin substance-P (Sub-P) activates a neurokinin-3 receptor (NK-3R) in rabbit, prolonging action potential (AP) duration through inhibition of a background potassium current. In contrast, ventricular AP duration was unaffected by NK-3R activation. NK-3R stimulation lengthened atrial repolarization in intact rabbit hearts and consequently suppressed arrhythmia duration and occurrence in a rabbit isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation (AF)...
October 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Haruhisa Suga, Mitsuhiro Arai, Emi Fukasawa, Keiichi Motohashi, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Hideaki Tateishi, Shin-Ichi Fuji, Masafumi Shimizu, Koji Kageyama, Mitsuro Hyakumachi
Fusarium fujikuroi is a pathogenic fungus that infects rice. It produces several important mycotoxins such as fumonisins. Fumonisin production has been detected in strains of maize, strawberry, and wheat, whereas it has not been detected in strains from rice seedlings infested with bakanae disease in Japan. We investigated the genetic relationships, pathogenicity, and resistance to a fungicide-thiophanate-methyl (TM)-in 51 fumonisin-producing strains and 44 non-producing strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and two specific genes-combined sequence of translation elongation factor 1α ( TEF1α ) and RNA polymerase II second largest-subunit ( RPB2 )-indicated differential clustering between the fumonisin-producing and non-producing strains...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tania Fleming, Debra K Creedy, Roianne West
BACKGROUND: Awareness of cultural safety by midwifery academics is integral to the provision of a safe learning and teaching environments, use of effective pedagogies, and academic success of Indigenous midwifery students. However, little is known about the scope and efficacy of continuing professional development activities that aim to develop awareness of cultural safety by midwifery academics. AIMS: To conduct an integrative review of the literature with respect to the scope and efficacy of professional development interventions that aim to increase awareness of cultural safety by midwifery academics...
October 16, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Oshri Rinot, Guy J Levy, Yosef Steinberger, Tal Svoray, Gil Eshel
The wellbeing of soils is crucial for securing food production worldwide. The soil health (SH) concept has been introduced due to an evolving understanding that soil is not just a growing medium for crops but that it provides a foundation for other essential ecosystem services (ES). The SH concept requires development of a holistic index for reliable and quantitative assessment of soil wellbeing related to the effects of different soil management practices and land uses. The aims of this paper are to: (1) review current approaches and methods to assess SH, (2) highlight the role of soil ES in characterizing soil function and (3) propose a new approach to assess SH via monitoring of ES provided by soils...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Catalina Filote, Irina Volf, Sílvia C R Santos, Cidália M S Botelho
In the context of developing the circular economy that enables a more sustainable use of the available resources and minimum waste generation, marine macroalgae have attracted the attention of researchers and industry due to its potential as a renewable resource. The current work aims to contribute to the design of a complete biorefinery processing, using Fucus spiralis seaweed (brown division) as starting material, and to determine the potential of the derived waste as biosorbent of heavy metals in aqueous solution...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tomohiro Makino, Shintaro Sengoku, Shuichi Ishida, Kota Kodama
Personalized medicine is an innovative concept that allows patients with a validated companion diagnosis (CoDx) to receive treatment using the most suitable drug. Currently, a major movement in the pharmaceutical industry involves the integrated use of multiple resources from external sources. To ascertain preferable interorganizational collaborations and their suitable exits, we compared the related transactions in personalized and nonpersonalized cancer drugs. We found that there were significantly more of some alliance deals in personalized medicine, and that market licenses, one of the exits, were well correlated with other alliances only in personalized medicine...
October 16, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
I-Ping Liu, Wei-Hsun Lin, Chih-Mei Tseng-Shan, Yuh-Lang Lee
Power generation in indoor environments is the next step in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) evolution. To achieve this goal, a critical recombination route which is usually inhibited by the TiCl4 -derived blocking layers (BLs), i.e., charge transfer at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate/electrolyte interface, is of concern. In this study, we demonstrate that due to low surface coverage, the conventional TiCl4 BLs are unable to suppress such electron leakage, thus limiting the photovoltaic performance of Co(bpy)3 2+/3+ -mediated DSSCs (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) under ambient lighting...
October 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Annie L Colebatch, Andrew S Weller
The dehydropolymerization of amine-boranes, exemplified as H2RB·NR'H2, to produce polyaminoboranes (HRBNR'H)n that are inorganic analogues of polyolefins with alternating main chain B-N units, is an area with significant potential; stemming from both fundamental (mechanism, catalyst development, main-group hetero-cross-coupling) and technological (new polymeric materials) opportunities. This Concept Article outlines recent advances in the field, covering catalyst development and performance, current mechanistic-models, and alternative non-catalytic routes for polymer production...
October 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fumiaki Amano, Hyosuke Mukohara, Ayami Shintani, Kenyou Tsurui
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water vapor splitting using n-type semiconductor electrodes with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) enabled pure hydrogen production from humidity in the ambient air. We proved a design concept that the gas-electrolyte-semiconductor triple-phase boundary on a nanostructured photoanode is important for the photoinduced gas-phase reaction. A surface coating of solid polymer electrolyte on a titania nanotube array (TNTA) macroporous electrode markedly enhanced the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) at the gas-solid interface...
October 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Muhidien Soufi, Volker Ruppert, Susanne Rinné, Tobias Mueller, Bilgen Kurt, Guenter Pilz, Andreas Maieron, Richard Dodel, Niels Decher, Juergen R Schaefer
Objective: To identify the genetic basis of a patient with symptoms of normokalemic sporadic periodic paralysis (PP) and to study the effect of KCNJ18 mutations. Methods: A candidate gene approach was used to identify causative gene mutations, using Sanger sequencing. KCNJ18 promoter activity was analyzed in transfected HEK293 cells with a luciferase assay, and functional analysis of Kir2.6 channels was performed with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Results: Although we did not identify harmful mutations in SCN4A, CACNA1S, KCNJ2 and KCNE3, we detected a monoallelic four-fold variant in KCNJ18 (R39Q/R40H/A56E/I249V), together with a variant in the respective promoter of this channel (c...
October 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Richard Gannotta, Shaista Malik, Alvin Y Chan, Kamran Urgun, Frank Hsu, Sumeet Vadera
The landscape of medicine in the United States has been slowly progressing toward a more holistic and individualized approach to healing. Part of this progress has been the integration between western and alternative forms of medicine, a concept that has been described as "integrative medicine." This approach to healthcare incorporates a patient's mind, spirituality, and sense of community into the healing process. Integrative medicine has been typically well received and the demand has been steadily increasing in primary US hospitals...
August 4, 2018: Curēus
Hryhoriy Stryhanyuk, Federica Calabrese, Steffen Kümmel, Florin Musat, Hans H Richnow, Niculina Musat
The nanoSIMS-based chemical microscopy has been introduced in biology over a decade ago. The spatial distribution of elements and isotopes analyzed by nanoSIMS can be used to reconstruct images of biological samples with a resolution down to tens of nanometers, and can be also interpreted quantitatively. Currently, a unified approach for calculation of single cell assimilation rates from nanoSIMS-derived changes in isotope ratios is missing. Here we present a comprehensive concept of assimilation rate calculation with a rigorous mathematical model based on quantitative evaluation of nanoSIMS-derived isotope ratios...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paul Taylor, Miriam J Johnson, Dawn Wendy Dowding
OBJECTIVES: To improve the ability of clinical staff to recognise end of life in hospital inpatients dying as a result of cancer and heart failure, and to generate new hypotheses for further research. METHODS: This mixed-methods study used decision theory as a theoretical basis. It involved a parallel databases-convergent design, incorporating findings from previously published research, with equal priority to study groups and synthesis by triangulation. The individual arms were (1) a retrospective cohort study of 102 patients with cancer and 81 patients with heart failure in an acute trust in the North of England, and(2) a semistructured interview study of 19 healthcare professionals caring for the same patient groups...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Julie Khlevner, Yeji Park, Kara Gross Margolis
This article provides an overarching view of what is currently known about the physiology of the brain-gut axis in both health and disease and how these concepts apply to irritable bowel syndrome, the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder in pediatrics.
December 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Mohammad-Pooyan Jadidfard, Shahram Yazdani
With the knowledge we have today about the concept of health and its complexities and determinants, the separation between medical and dental education (DE) does not seem reasonable anymore. Dentistry has mainly developed based on a mechanical approach to treat the related problems. This makes the efforts for reorientation of dental care (DC) toward a preventive approach, relying upon dentists as the chief oral health (OH)-related workforce, inefficient. This is while effective strategies have been identified for prevention, as the key to simultaneously control the burden and costs of the ubiquitous oral diseases, at both individual and population levels without dentists...
October 18, 2018: Evaluation & the Health Professions
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