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Current concepts

Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Angela Bechthold, Heiner Boeing, Inge Tetens, Lukas Schwingshackl, Ute Nöthlings
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) are important tools for nutrition policies and public health. FBDGs provide guidelines on healthy food consumption and are based on scientific evidence. In the past, disease prevention and nutrient recommendations dominated the process of establishing FBDGs. However, scientific advances and social developments such as changing lifestyles, interest in personalized health, and concerns about sustainability require a reorientation of the creation of FBDGs to include a wider range of aspects of dietary behavior...
August 11, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Eric A Wold, Jianping Chen, Kathryn A Cunningham, Jia Zhou
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been tractable drug targets for decades with over one-third of currently marketed drugs targeting GPCRs. Of these, the class A GPCR superfamily is highly represented and continued drug discovery for this family of receptors may provide novel therapeutics for a vast range of diseases. GPCR allosteric modulation is an innovative targeting approach that broadens the available small molecule toolbox and is proving to be a viable drug discovery strategy, as evidenced by recent FDA approvals and clinical trials...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Naoki Nakano, Emmanuel Audenaert, Anil Ranawat, Vikas Khanduja
In the last 15 years, hip arthroscopy has become increasingly popular in addressing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) because of its minimally invasive approach. However, assessing the adequacy of bone resection when correcting FAI can be difficult because visualisation and spatial awareness of the joint are poor. Recent advances in technology in the field of computer-assisted surgery and navigation and robotic surgery in orthopaedics as a resource for preoperative planning and intraoperative assistance have been widely reported...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Tessa Dekkers, Dorijn F L Hertroijs
Calls for a more tailored approach to the management of cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal diseases have been increasing. Although tailored care is a centuries-old concept, it is still unclear how it should be best practised. The current paper introduces two phenotype-based Dutch approaches to support tailored care. One approach focuses on patients with type 2 diabetes, the other on patients undergoing total joint replacement. Using the patient profiling approach, both projects propose that care can be tailored by the assessment of biopsychosocial patient characteristics, stratification of patients into subgroups of patients with similar care needs, abilities, and preferences (so-called patient profiles) and tailoring of care in concordance with the common care preferences of these profiles...
August 13, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Nicolai Bache, Philipp Emanuel Geyer, Dorte B Bekker-Jensen, Ole Hoerning, Lasse Falkenby, Peter V Treit, Sophia Doll, Igor Paron, Johannes Bruno Müller, Florian Meier, Jesper V Olsen, Ole Vorm, Matthias Mann
To further integrate mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics into biomedical research and especially into clinical settings, high throughput and robustness are essential requirements. They are largely met in high-flow rate chromatographic systems for small molecules but these are not sufficiently sensitive for proteomics applications. Here we describe a new concept that delivers on these requirements while maintaining the sensitivity of current nano-flow LC systems. Low-pressure pumps elute the sample from a disposable trap column, simultaneously forming a chromatographic gradient that is stored in a long storage loop...
August 13, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Jane Simpson, Gerasimos Chatzidamianos, Ian Fletcher, Luis Perpetuo, Fiona J R Eccles
INTRODUCTION: Perceived control is an important concept in understanding adjustment to chronic conditions such as Parkinson's. While generic measures have been used to measure the construct in Parkinson's, no Parkinson's-specific scale currently exists. This study outlines the initial development and further validation of a free-to-use scale, the Parkinson's UK Scale of Perceived Control (PUKSoPC). METHOD: Focus groups were used to create items for the new scale...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Sabine Ulrike Vay, Lea Jessica Flitsch, Monika Rabenstein, Rebecca Rogall, Stefan Blaschke, Judith Kleinhaus, Noémie Reinert, Annika Bach, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Michael Schroeter, Maria Adele Rueger
BACKGROUND: Microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic "M1" pro-inflammatory or an alternative "M2" anti-inflammatory phenotype following characteristic temporo-spatial patterns, contributing either to secondary tissue damage or to regenerative responses. They closely interact with endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches of the adult brain. The current study aimed at elucidating the dynamics of microglia polarization and their differential effects on NSC function...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rosanne Schaap, Kathelijne Bessems, René Otten, Stef Kremers, Femke van Nassau
BACKGROUND: Until now, there is no clear overview of how fidelity is assessed in school-based obesity prevention programmes. In order to move the field of obesity prevention programmes forward, the current review aimed to 1) identify which fidelity components have been measured in school-based obesity prevention programmes; 2) identify how fidelity components have been measured; and 3) score the quality of these methods. METHODS: Studies published between January 2001-October 2017 were selected from searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ERIC...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Luciano Pirola, Oskar Ciesielski, Aneta Balcerczyk
Approximately 50 years ago, Judah Folkman raised the concept of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis for treating solid tumors. The development of anti-angiogenic drugs would decrease or even arrest tumor growth by restricting the delivery of oxygen and nutrient supplies, while at the same time display minimal toxic side effects to healthy tissues. Bevacizumab (Avastin)-a humanized monoclonal anti VEGF-A antibody-is now used as anti-angiogenic drug in several forms of cancers, yet with variable results. Recent years brought significant progresses in our understanding of the role of chromatin remodeling and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis...
August 10, 2018: Cancers
Patrick Mayrhofer, Renate Kunert
Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies traditionally followed a strict scheme indicating target and species information. Because of the rapid advances in this field, emphasized by approval of four humanized and six human antibodies in 2017, the International Nonproprietary Name of new antibodies was updated profoundly by removing the species substem completely. In this review we give an overview about what developments led to the preference of the scientific community towards human-like antibodies. We summarize the major updates in naming schemes that tried to classify antibodies according to their humanization technique or to the final primary sequence and how this led to the erroneous perception to indicate expected immunogenicity...
July 23, 2018: Human Antibodies
Piyamas Kanokwongnuwut, K Paul Kirkbride, Adrian Linacre
Touch DNA is one of the most common sample types submitted for DNA profiling. There is currently no process to visualise the presence of such DNA deposited when a person makes direct contact with items of forensic relevance. This report demonstrates the effective use of Diamond Dye to bind to DNA and allow visualisation of deposited cellular material using a mini-fluorescence microscope. Volunteers made contact with a range of items typical of those submitted as part of a forensic investigation. Contact was for less than 5 s and occurred either 15 min after hands were washed to remove any traces of DNA, and therefore under controlled conditions, or at an undefined time post handwashing to mimic real-world scenarios...
August 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jan Schraml, Joana Do Carmo Silva, Marko Babjuk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transurethral resection of bladder cancer (TURB) is the critical step in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This review presents new improvements in the strategy and technique of TURB as well as in technological developments used for tumour visualization and removal. RECENT FINDINGS: The goal of TURB is to perform complete resection of NMIBC. Tumor visualization during procedure can be improved by enhanced optical technologies...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Akbar N Ashrafi, Alessandro Tafuri, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Daniel Park, Andre L de Castro Abreu, Inderbir S Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present a perspective on the current status and future directions of focal therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Focal therapy for localized PCa is a rapidly evolving field. Various recent concepts - the index lesion driving prognosis, the enhanced detection of clinically significant PCa using multiparametric MRI and targeted biopsy, improved risk-stratification using novel blood/tissue biomarkers, the recognition that reducing radical treatment-related morbidity (along with reducing pathologic progression) is a clinically meaningful end-point - have all led to a growing interest in focal therapy...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Gang Hu, Lukasz Kurgan
Sequence similarity searching has become an important part of the daily routine of molecular biologists, bioinformaticians and biophysicists. With the rapidly growing sequence databanks, this computational approach is commonly applied to determine functions and structures of unannotated sequences, to investigate relationships between sequences, and to construct phylogenetic trees. We introduce arguably the most popular BLAST-based family of the sequence similarity search tools. We explain basic concepts related to the sequence alignment and demonstrate how to search the current databanks using Web site versions of BLASTP, PSI-BLAST and BLASTN...
August 13, 2018: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Dorice Hankemeier, Sarah A Manspeaker
CONTEXT:   The ability to engage in interprofessional and collaborative practice (IPCP) has been identified as one of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies required of all health care professionals. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the perceptions of athletic trainers (ATs) in the collegiate setting regarding IPCP and current practice patterns. DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Of 6313 ATs in the collegiate setting, 739 (340 men, 397 women, 2 preferred not to answer; clinical experience = 10...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Mika Miura, Masahiko Ohtaka, Mitsuhiko Hanawa, Atsuko Kitahashi, Yuichi Hirose, Kazuhiko Takaso, Yoshioki Yoda, Ichiro Takayama, Zentarou Yamagata, Nobuyuki Enomoto
The LZ test "Eiken" for H. pylori antibody (LZ test) was examined. In patients with an antibody titer of ≥3.0U/mL and <10.0U/mL among 698 patients who underwent breath tests, the status of H. pylori infection was assessed from the results of the 13 C urea breath test and the findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by performing an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A positive 13 C urea breath test was observed in 22.3% of these patients (156/698, 95% confidence interval 19.4-25.6%), and gastric mucosal atrophy of C-2 or greater was observed in 39...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Emilia Castaño, Elizabeth Gilboy, Sara Feijóo, Elisabet Serrat, Carles Rostan, Joseph Hilferty, Toni Cunillera
Conceptual metaphor is ubiquitous in language and thought, as we usually reason and talk about abstract concepts in terms of more concrete ones via metaphorical mappings that are hypothesized to arise from our embodied experience. One pervasive example is the conceptual projection of valence onto space, which flexibly recruits the vertical and lateral spatial frames to gain structure (e.g., good is up-bad is down and good is right-bad is left). In the current study, we used a valence judgment task to explore the role that exogenous bodily cues (namely response hand positions) play in the allocation of spatial attention and the modulation of conceptual congruency effects...
August 12, 2018: Cognitive Science
Marzieh Salehi, Adrian Vella, Tracey McLaughlin, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Context: Hypoglycemia, occurring after bariatric and other forms of upper gastrointestinal surgery, is increasingly encountered by clinical endocrinologists. The true frequency of this condition remains uncertain, due, in part, to differences in the diagnostic criteria and in the affected populations, as well as relative lack of patient and physician awareness and understanding of this condition. Postbariatric hypoglycemia can be severe and disabling for some patients, with neuroglycopenia (altered cognition, seizures, and loss of consciousness) leading to falls, motor vehicle accidents, and job and income loss...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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