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Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Ryo Haraguchi, Junko Nakashima, Kengo Kusano, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda
Myocardial bundles working as accessory pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome are generally tiny tissues, so elucidating the culprit histology of atrioventricular (AV) myocardial connections requires careful serial sectioning of the AV junction. We performed a postmortem examination of accessory AV myocardial connections in an 84-year-old man who died from pneumonia 20 years after surgical cryoablation for WPW syndrome. Three-dimensional reconstruction images of serial histologic sections revealed accessory AV connections between the atrial and ventricular myocardium in the vicinity of the cryoablation scar...
July 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Jade B Jackson, Alexandra Woolgar
Our ability to flexibly switch between different tasks is a key component of cognitive control. Non-human primate (NHP) studies (e.g., Freedman, Riesenhuber, Poggio, & Miller, 2001) have shown that prefrontal neurons are re-used across tasks, re-configuring their responses to code currently relevant information. In a similar vein, in the human brain, the "multiple demand" (MD) system is suggested to exert control by adjusting its responses, selectively processing information in line with our current goals (Duncan, 2010)...
July 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sheng Shen, Zongyan Gao, Junyi Liu
BACKGROUND: Pain management after arthroplasties has become a serious problem. We perform a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trial (RCTs) to examine the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone in the setting of postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We conduct electronic searches of Medline (1966 to October 2017), Embase (1980 to October 2017), ScienceDirect (1985 to October 2017) and the Web of Science (1995 to October 2017)...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Chao Zhang, Stefi A Baum, Viraj R Adduru, Bharat B Biswal, Andrew M Michael
While static functional connectivity (sFC) of resting state fMRI (rfMRI) measures the average functional connectivity (FC) over the entire rfMRI scan, dynamic FC (dFC) captures the temporal variations of FC at shorter time windows. Although numerous studies have implemented dFC analyses, only a few studies have investigated the reliability of dFC and this limits the biological interpretation of dFC. Here, we used a large cohort (N = 820) of subjects and four rfMRI scans from the Human Connectome Project to systematically explore the relationship between sFC, dFC and their test-retest reliabilities through intra-class correlation (ICC)...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Ji Young Bang, Bryce Sutton, Robert H Hawes, Shyam Varadarajulu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although frequently performed, the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) for palliation of pain in pancreatic cancer is suboptimal. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) has been proposed as a palliative treatment option for pancreatic neoplasms. We performed a single-blind, randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of EUS-CPN and EUS-RFA for palliation of pain in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients with abdominal pain due to locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer underwent EUS-CPN (n=14) or EUS-RFA (n=12)...
August 15, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Abhishek Bandyopadhyay, Ned Van Eps, Bryan T Eger, Sarah Rauscher, Ravikiran S Yedidi, Tina Moroni, Graham M West, Kelly Ann Robinson, Patrick R Griffin, Jane Mitchell, Oliver P Ernst
Photoreceptors of the squid Loligo pealei contain a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system that activates phospholipase C in response to light. Analogous to the mammalian visual system, signaling of the photoactivated GPCR rhodopsin is terminated by binding of squid arrestin (sArr). sArr forms a light-dependent, high affinity complex with squid rhodopsin, which does not require prior receptor phosphorylation for interaction. This is at odds with classical mammalian GPCR desensitization where an agonist-bound phosphorylated receptor is needed to break stabilizing constraints within arrestins, the so-called 'three-element interaction' and 'polar core' network, before a stable receptor-arrestin complex can be established...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Chang Young Lee, Harley Chan, Hideki Ujiie, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Jonathan C Irish, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We developed thoracoscopic surgical navigation system with real-time augmented image guidance to assess the potential benefits for minimally invasive resection of chest wall tumors. The accuracy of localization of tumor and resection margin, and the effect on task workload and confidence were evaluated in a chest wall tumor phantom. METHODS: After scanning a realistic tumor phantom by cone beam computed tomography and registering CT data into the system, three-dimensional contoured tumor and resection margin was displayed...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Numan Karaarslan, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Hanefi Ozbek, Duygu Yasar Sirin, Necati Kaplan, Tezcan Caliskan, Cigdem Ozdemir, Yener Akyuva, Ozkan Ates
In the literature, there have been no studies showing clear results on how radio-contrast pharmaceuticals would affect intact disc tissue cells. In this context, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of Iopromide and Gadoxetic acid, frequently used in the discography, on intact lumbar disc tissue in pharmaco-molecular and histopathological level. Primary cell cultures were prepared from the healthy disc tissue of the patients operated in the neurosurgery clinic. Except for the control group, the cultures were incubated with the indicated radio-contrast agents...
August 18, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Wei Feng, Rui Shi, Chao Zhang, Shaojun Liu, Tingting Yu, Dan Zhu
To realize visualization of the skin microvascular dysfunction of type 1 diabetic mice, we combined laser speckle contrast imaging and hyperspectral imaging to simultaneously monitor the noradrenaline (NE)-induced responses of vascular blood flow and blood oxygen with the development of diabetes through optical clearing skin window. The main results showed that venous and arterious blood flow decreased without recovery after injection of NE; furthermore, the decrease of arterious blood oxygen induced by NE greatly weakened, especially for 2- and 4-week diabetic mice...
August 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Yiyang Gao, Hengrui Liang, Luhao Liu, Alberto Gurioli, Wenqi Wu
OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysiswas conducted to compare alpha-blocker and antimuscarinic monotherapies in releasing US-related symptoms. METHOD: A comprehensive literature search was performed on online databases PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, and Cochrane library. Ureteric Symptom Score Questionnaire (USSQ), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) and visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) were pooled and compared. Statistical significance was taken as two-sided p<0...
August 18, 2018: Urology Journal
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the principles of active inference. We illustrate how different forms of short-term memory are expressed formally (mathematically) through appealing to beliefs about the causes of our sensations and about the actions we pursue. This is used to motivate an approach to active vision that depends upon inferences about the causes of 'what I have seen' and learning about 'what I would see if I were to look there'. The former could manifest as persistent 'delay-period' activity - of the sort associated with working memory, while the latter is better suited to changes in synaptic efficacy - of the sort that underlies short-term learning and adaptation...
August 18, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Melissa G Medina, Steven S Tsoraides, Anthony M Dwyer
As the field of surgery advances, new approaches have allowed surgeons additional flexibility to perform further interventions with minimal or no external incisions. For many years, single site access (SSA) has been used for transanal procedures, and platforms allowing modified endoscopic approaches have been available. These platforms have limitations related to access, visualization, dexterity, camera control, and instrumentation. Recently, surgical robotics companies have developed and introduced new technologies and platforms, which may help address some of these limitations...
August 17, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Ya-Sian Chang, Chun-Chi Chang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Kun-Tu Yeh, Jan-Gowth Chang
Genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with the progression and prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor tissue from seven patients with sporadic MTC using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. We conducted Sanger sequencing to confirm the somatic mutations in both tumor and matched normal tissues. We applied Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and STRING for pathway analysis...
August 17, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Kevin Kien Hoa Chung, Jason C M Lo, Catherine McBride
Dyslexia is a developmental disability affecting the acquisition of reading and writing skills, and its developmental nature makes longitudinal research of great importance. This study therefore investigated the cognitive-linguistic profiles of the typical-functioning dyslexics and high-functioning dyslexics with longitudinal cohorts of Chinese-speaking adolescents diagnosed with childhood dyslexia. These two dyslexic groups of fifty students (with 25 typical-functioning dyslexics) were assessed in Grade 2 (Time 1) and in Grade 8 (Time 2), whereas 25 typically developing controls were assessed at Time 2...
August 17, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Jordana Greenblatt
Analyzing two harm reduction comics campaigns-one early in the AIDS crisis (the Gay Men's Health Crisis' [GMHC] 1980s Safer Sex Comix) and one more recent (Fabrice Neaud and Thierry Robberecht's 2008 Alex et la vie d'après), I explore tensions between queer safer sexual erotics and national discourses of sexual norms/deviation raised by Cindy Patton and William Haver at the height of AIDS discourse theory in 1996, approximately halfway between the comics. Using these theorists' reflections on the history of AIDS activism/representation as a hinge, I explore the manifestation/transformation a decade later of the ethical, educational, and erotic issues they raise...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Nicole M Pirozzi, Jacob P Hoogenboom, Ben N G Giepmans
Nanometer-scale identification of multiple targets is crucial to understand how biomolecules regulate life. Markers, or probes, of specific biomolecules help to visualize and to identify. Electron microscopy (EM), the highest resolution imaging modality, provides ultrastructural information where several subcellular structures can be readily identified. For precise tagging of (macro)molecules, electron-dense probes, distinguishable in gray-scale EM, are being used. However, practically these genetically-encoded or immune-targeted probes are limited to three targets...
August 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Christina M Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Che'Renee Zaragoza, Angie Rubio-Garcia, Evan Clarkson, Joel S Snyder
Our world is a sonically busy place and we use both acoustic information and experience-based knowledge to make sense of the sounds arriving at our ears. The knowledge we gain through experience has the potential to shape what sounds are prioritized in a complex scene. There are many examples of how visual expertise influences how we perceive objects in visual scenes, but few studies examine how auditory expertise is associated with attentional biases toward familiar real-world sounds in complex scenes. In the current study, we investigated whether musical expertise is associated with the ability to detect changes to real-world sounds in complex auditory scenes, and whether any such benefit is specific to musical instrument sounds...
August 17, 2018: Psychological Research
Suzanne A E Nooij, Paolo Pretto, Heinrich H Bülthoff
Full-field visual rotation around the vertical axis induces a sense of self-motion (vection), optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and, eventually, also motion sickness (MS). If the lights are then suddenly switched off, optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN) occurs. This is due to the discharge of the velocity storage mechanism (VSM), a central integrative network that has been suggested to be involved in motion sickness. We previously showed that visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) following optokinetic stimulation is dependent on vection intensity...
August 17, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sabrina Horvath, Elizabeth McDermott, Kathleen Reilly, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development. Method: Thirty-two children with ASD, ages 2;1-4;5 (years;months), participated in a verb-learning task. In a between-subjects design, they were randomly assigned to hear novel verbs in either transitive or intransitive syntactic frames while watching an unrelated silent animation or playing quietly with a toy...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Rebecca Treiman
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial on statistical learning and its role in learning to spell and to discuss the implications of the research for educators. Method: The tutorial begins with a discussion of statistical learning and its characteristics. It then discusses research on how statistical learning plays out in learning to spell, how spelling should be taught, and similarities and differences among learners. The focus is on the learning of English, although studies of other alphabetic writing systems are also considered...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
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