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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141066/vancomycin-infiltrate-induced-dermatitis-mimicking-bullous-cellulitis
#1
Sowmya Nanjappa, Matthew Snyder, John N Greene
<p>Extravasation of medications can manifest as tenderness, pain, tissue necrosis, and thrombophlebitis and lead to infection and severe long-term complications. Risk factors for leakage of medications include mechanical and pharmacologic mechanisms such as cannulation technique, vasoconstriction, and cytotoxicity. Well-known vesicants like anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, and vasopressors are usually administered with proper caution. Often overlooked are many antimicrobial agents, which typically act via differences in osmolality and pH...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140922/fingolimod-reduces-neuropathic-pain-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-dependent-inhibition-of-central-sensitization-in-the-dorsal-horn
#2
Suzanne Doolen, Tommaso Iannitti, Benjamin C Shaw, Carolyn M Grachen, Renee R Donahue, Bradley K Taylor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory neurodegenerative disease that is often accompanied by a debilitating neuropathic pain. Disease-modifying agents slow the progression of MS and prevent relapses, yet it remains unclear if they yield analgesia. We explored the analgesic potential of fingolimod (FTY720), an agonist/functional antagonist at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), because it reduces hyperalgesia in models of peripheral inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We used a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), modified to avoid frank paralysis and thus allow for assessment of withdrawal behaviors to somatosensory stimuli...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140806/florid-granuloma-annulare-like-reaction-in-regional-lymph-nodes-after-regression-of-red-pigment-in-tattoos
#3
Michael D Carter, Jonathan Trites, Shelly A McNeil, Noreen N M Walsh, Martin J Bullock
A healthy 50-year-old woman had a tattoo performed on the posterior aspect of her neck and another on the dorsum of her left foot. Several weeks later, she noted redness, tenderness, and intense pruritis at both tattoo sites. Treatment with cephalexin and hydrocortisone cream was instituted, without success. Within a few months, the red, but not black, pigment had disappeared from both tattoos and was replaced by pale areas of scarring. Persistently enlarged left supraclavicular and suboccipital lymph nodes were excised 7 and 10 months after receipt of the tattoos, respectively...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#4
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139111/a-retrotransposon-in-an-hkt1-family-sodium-transporter-causes-variation-of-leaf-na-exclusion-and-salt-tolerance-in-maize
#5
Ming Zhang, Yibo Cao, Zhiping Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Junpeng Shi, Xiaoyan Liang, Weibin Song, Qijun Chen, Jinsheng Lai, Caifu Jiang
Soil salinity is one of several major abiotic stresses that constrain maize productivity worldwide. An improved understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms will thus enhance the breeding of salt-tolerant maize and boost productivity. Previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of leaf Na(+) concentration is essential for maize salt tolerance, and the difference in leaf Na(+) exclusion has previously been associated with variation in salt tolerance between maize varieties. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of a maize salt-tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL), Zea mays Na(+) Content1 (ZmNC1), which encodes an HKT-type transporter (designated as ZmHKT1)...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137946/distinct-environmental-enrichment-protocols-reduce-anxiety-but-differentially-modulate-pain-sensitivity-in-rats
#6
Louise Faggionato Kimura, Vânia Gomes de Moura Mattaraia, Gisele Picolo
Environmental enrichment (EE) can alter anxiety as well as perception of nociceptive stimuli, suggesting a relationship between well-being and analgesia. Considering that, we aimed to evaluate the influence of different EE types on anxiety and peripheral pain sensibility of male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to two different types of EE: On the first one, animals were housed in standard size cages after weaning and received three different objects, one type per week, on a regular basis (simple EE - sEE)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136621/evaluation-of-nickel-release-from-endobronchial-valves-as-a-possible-cause-of-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-treated-with-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction
#7
Daniel P Franzen, Claudia Lang, Nikos Agorastos, Lutz Freitag, Malcolm Kohler, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial valve (EBV) placement is an established lung volume reduction procedure aiming to improve lung function and exercise capacity in patients with severe emphysema. As EBVs consist of silicone and nitinol (a metal alloy of nickel and titanium), there are concerns that nickel ions might be released and could have a clinical impact in patients with a contact allergy to nickel. Based on a case with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) after treatment with EBVs, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro nickel release from EBVs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 15, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136238/regulation-of-transcriptional-silencing-and-chromodomain-protein-localization-at-centromeric-heterochromatin-by-histone-h3-tyrosine-41-phosphorylation-in-fission-yeast
#8
Bingbing Ren, Hwei Ling Tan, Thi Thuy Trang Nguyen, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Sayed, Ying Li, Yu-Keung Mok, Henry Yang, Ee Sin Chen
Heterochromatin silencing is critical for genomic integrity and cell survival. It is orchestrated by chromodomain (CD)-containing proteins that bind to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me), a hallmark of heterochromatin. Here, we show that phosphorylation of tyrosine 41 (H3Y41p)-a novel histone H3 modification-participates in the regulation of heterochromatin in fission yeast. We show that a loss-of-function mutant of H3Y41 can suppress heterochromatin de-silencing in the centromere and subtelomere repeat regions, suggesting a de-silencing role for H3Y41p on heterochromatin...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#9
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135282/genome-wide-dna-methylation-drives-human-embryonic-stem-cell-erythropoiesis-by-remodeling-gene-expression-dynamics
#10
Zhijing Liu, Qiang Feng, Pengpeng Sun, Yan Lu, Minlan Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Xiangshu Jin, Yulin Li, Shi-Jiang Lu, Chengshi Quan
AIM: To investigate the role of DNA methylation during erythrocyte production by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). METHODS: We employed an erythroid differentiation model from hESCs, and then tracked the genome-wide DNA methylation maps and gene expression patterns through an Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip and an Ilumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression Beadchip, respectively. RESULTS: A negative correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression was substantially enriched during the later differentiation stage and was present in both the promoter and the gene body...
November 14, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134661/regulation-of-tmem16a-ano1-and-tmem16f-ano6-ion-currents-and-phospholipid-scrambling-by-ca-2-and-plasma-membrane-lipid
#11
Rainer Schreiber, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Lalida Sirianant, Roberta Benedetto, Karina Reiss, Karl Kunzelmann
TMEM16/anoctamin proteins form Ca(2+) activated ion channels or phospholipid scramblases. We found that both TMEM16A/ANO1 and TMEM16F/ANO6 produced Cl(-) currents when activated by intracellular Ca(2+) , but only TMEM16F was able to expose phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Mutations within TMEM16F or TMEM16A/F chimeras similarly changed Cl(-) currents and phospholipid scrambling, suggesting the same intramolecular pathway for Cl(-) and phospholipids. When overexpressed, TMEM16A and TMEM16F produced spontaneous Cl(-) currents at 37°C even at resting intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which was abolished by inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 )...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134656/long-term-dynamic-synaptic-reorganization-after-gabaergic-precursor-cell-transplantation-into-adult-mouse-spinal-cord
#12
Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Allan I Basbaum, João M Bráz
Transplanting embryonic precursors of GABAergic neurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) into adult mouse spinal cord ameliorates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in peripheral nerve injury models of neuropathic pain. Although Fos and transneuronal tracing studies strongly suggest that integration of MGE-derived neurons into host spinal cord circuits underlies recovery of function, the extent to which there is synaptic integration of the transplanted cells has not been established. Here, we used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to assess directly integration of GFP-expressing MGE-derived neuronal precursors into dorsal horn circuitry in intact, adult mice with short- (5-6 weeks) or long-term (4-6 months) transplants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132974/topical-electrophilic-nitro-fatty-acids-potentiate-cutaneous-inflammation
#13
Alicia R Mathers, Cara D Carey, Meaghan E Killeen, Sonia R Salvatore, Laura K Ferris, Bruce A Freeman, Francisco J Schopfer, Louis D Falo
Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO2), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation...
November 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132095/inhibition-of-tnf-reduces-mechanical-orofacial-hyperalgesia-induced-by-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-by-a-trpv1-dependent-mechanism-in-mice
#14
Krzysztof Lis, Tomasz Grygorowicz, Agnieszka Cudna, David E Szymkowski, Ewa Bałkowiec-Iskra
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the orofacial region results in pain and is associated with many pathological states, including migraine, neuralgias and temporomandibular disorder. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms responsible for these conditions are not known and effective treatments are lacking. We reported earlier that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in regulation of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron function in vitro. In the present study we investigated the role of TNF in mechanical hypersensitivity in mice...
June 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131815/the-karrikin-receptor-kai2-promotes-drought-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Weiqiang Li, Kien Huu Nguyen, Ha Duc Chu, Chien Van Ha, Yasuko Watanabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Marco Antonio Leyva-González, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Laura Voges, Maho Tanaka, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Motoaki Seki, Mitsunori Seo, Shinjiro Yamaguchi, David C Nelson, Chunjie Tian, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Drought causes substantial reductions in crop yields worldwide. Therefore, we set out to identify new chemical and genetic factors that regulate drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Karrikins (KARs) are a class of butenolide compounds found in smoke that promote seed germination, and have been reported to improve seedling vigor under stressful growth conditions. Here, we discovered that mutations in KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), encoding the proposed karrikin receptor, result in hypersensitivity to water deprivation...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131356/gluten-sensitivities-and-the-allergist-threshing-the-grain-from-the-husks
#16
REVIEW
J G Burkhardt, A Chapa-Rodriguez, S L Bahna
"Gluten sensitivity" has become commonplace among the public. Wheat allergy (WA) and celiac disease (CD) are well-defined entities, but are becoming a fraction of individuals following a gluten-free diet. WA has a prevalence of <0.5%. Wheat, specifically its omega-5 gliadin fraction, is the most common allergen implicated in food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. CD is a non-IgE hypersensitivity to certain cereal proteins: gluten in wheat, secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and to a lesser extent avenin in oat...
November 13, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131036/the-immunogenicity-of-biologic-therapies
#17
Sandra Garcês, Jocelyne Demengeot
Virtually all therapeutic proteins (biologics) elicit an immune response with the consequent production of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). The majority of ADA to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are directed against the antigen-binding site of the therapeutic mAb, and hence are neutralizing. This nature of the ADA response explains why fully human antibodies can still be highly immunogenic. The detection of ADA is technically challenging and all assays have limitations, namely a limited capacity in detecting ADA in the presence of a drug due to immune complex (IC) formation, which may underestimate the ADA incidence...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130935/histamine-releasing-factor-enhances-food-allergy
#18
Tomoaki Ando, Jun-Ichi Kashiwakura, Naoka Itoh-Nagato, Hirotaka Yamashita, Minato Baba, Yu Kawakami, Shih Han Tsai, Naoki Inagaki, Kiyoshi Takeda, Tsutomu Iwata, Naoki Shimojo, Takao Fujisawa, Mizuho Nagao, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuko Kawakami, Toshiaki Kawakami
Food allergy occurs due to IgE- and mast cell-dependent intestinal inflammation. Previously, we showed that histamine-releasing factor (HRF), a multifunctional protein secreted during allergy, interacts with a subset of IgE molecules and that the HRF dimer activates mast cells in an HRF-reactive IgE-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated whether HRF plays any role in food allergy. Specifically, we determined that prophylactic and therapeutic administration of HRF inhibitors that block HRF-IgE interactions reduces the incidence of diarrhea and mastocytosis in a murine model of food allergy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130364/fluorescent-labeling-and-2-photon-imaging-of-mouse-tooth-pulp-nociceptors
#19
A Kadala, P Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Z Ahmad, P Tripal, B Schmid, A Mueller, L Bernal, Z Winter, S Brauchi, U Lohbauer, K Messlinger, J K Lennerz, K Zimmermann
Retrograde fluorescent labeling of dental primary afferent neurons (DPANs) has been described in rats through crystalline fluorescent DiI, while in the mouse, this technique was achieved with only Fluoro-Gold, a neurotoxic fluorescent dye with membrane penetration characteristics superior to the carbocyanine dyes. We reevaluated this technique in the rat with the aim to transfer it to the mouse because comprehensive physiologic studies require access to the mouse as a model organism. Using conventional immunohistochemistry, we assessed in rats and mice the speed of axonal dye transport from the application site to the trigeminal ganglion, the numbers of stained DPANs, and the fluorescence intensity via 1) conventional crystalline DiI and 2) a novel DiI formulation with improved penetration properties and staining efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130057/differentiation-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-murine-bone-marrow-and-their-co-culture-with-splenic-dendritic-cells
#20
Giada Mondanelli, Claudia Volpi
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) possess the ability to suppress the immune response, and to amplify the regulatory properties of other immune cells, i.e., dendritic cells. Here we describe a protocol in which MDSCs were differentiated from murine bone marrow cells, and CD11c(+) dendritic cells were purified from murine spleens. MDSCs and CD11c dendritic cells can be co-cultured and the immunoregulatory phenotype of the MDSCs-conditioned dendritic cells could be assessed by means of a specific functional in vivo experiment, i...
September 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
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