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Sheheryar Banuri, Damien de Walque, Philip Keefer, Ousmane Diadie Haidara, Paul Jacob Robyn, Maurice Ye
The quality of care is a crucial determinant of good health outcomes, but is difficult to measure. Survey vignettes are a standard approach to measuring medical knowledge among health care providers. Given that written vignettes or knowledge tests may be too removed from clinical practice, particularly where "learning by doing" may be an important form of training, we developed a new type of provider vignette. It uses videos presenting a patient visiting the clinic with maternal/early childhood symptoms...
July 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Ahmed Elkamhawy, Jung-Eun Park, Ahmed H E Hassan, Ae Nim Pae, Jiyoun Lee, Sora Paik, Beoung-Geon Park, Eun Joo Roh
Herein, we report synthesis and evaluation of new twenty-eight pyrazinyl ureas against β amyloid (Aβ)-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) using JC-1 assay which measures the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The neuroprotective effect of seventeen compounds against Aβ-induced mPTP opening was superior to that of the standard Cyclosporin A (CsA). Among them, 1-(3-(benzyloxy)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (5) effectively maintained mitochondrial function and cell viabilities on ATP assay and MTT assay...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wenjin Sun, Bing Xiao, Aijun Jia, Lulu Qiu, Qingping Zeng, Da Liu, Yu Yuan, Jingsi Jia, Xiufeng Zhang, Xudong Xiang
T helper 17 (Th17) cells has proven to be crucial in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Although it is known that Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is involved in differentiation of Th17 cells but, how it affects severe asthma is uncertain. Since previous studies indicated that Methtyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) null mice was deficient in Th17 cell differentiation, the aim of the present study was to understand how MBD2 interacts with SOCS3 to regulate Th17 cell differentiation in severe asthma...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Ruth A Mitchell, Rodney B Luwor, Antony W Burgess
Research on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and the family of receptors (EGFR) has progressed rapidly in recent times. New crystal structures of the ectodomains with different ligands, the activation of the kinase domain through oligomerisation and the use of fluorescence techniques have revealed profound conformational changes on ligand binding. The control of cell signaling from the EGFR-family is complex, with heterodimerisation, ligand affinity and signaling cross-talk influencing cellular outcomes...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Runmin Wei, Alastair B Ross, MingMing Su, Jingye Wang, Seu-Ping Guiraud, Colleen Fogarty Draper, Maurice Beaumont, Wei Jia, Francois-Pierre Martin
SCOPE: The objective of this study was to develop a new methodology to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolites indicative of food intake and metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma and urine samples from healthy Swiss subjects (n = 89) collected over two time points were analyzed for a panel of host-microbial metabolites using gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
J F Willms, O Boss, E Keller
BACKGROUND: Fever control plays a key role in therapy of patients with acute brain injury. The infusion of cold saline could serve as an alternative or additional method for targeted temperature management. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of fluid required to achieve normothermia merely on the basis of body weight. There is no standardized load management regarding the administration of cold saline, and no closed-loop systems based on continuous temperature-controlled feedback are available...
August 10, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Francisco Espin Alvarez, Anna M Rodríguez Rivero, Jordi Navinés López, Elena Díaz Celorio, Jordi Tarascó Palomares, Luís Felipe Del Castillo Riestra, Iva Borisova, Jaime Fernández-Llamazares, Pau Turon Dols, Joan Francesc Julián Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: The use of synthetic adhesives such as cyanoacrylates has been established previously for a wide range of clinical indications. However, more research is necessary to evaluate their use in digestive closures or anastomosis. New chemical formulations developed to achieve more flexibility of synthetic adhesives (i.e., based on n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) could be an alternative to achieve this purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using flexible cyanoacrylate adhesives for large gastric incision closure in an animal model...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Axel Neulen, Tobias Pantel, Anna Dieter, Michael Kosterhon, Manfred Berres, Serge C Thal, Marc A Brockmann, Sven R Kantelhardt
PURPOSE: Together with other diagnostic modalities, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is commonly used to indicate endovascular vasospasm treatment after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), despite the fact that objective, user-independent parameters for evaluation of CTA are lacking. This exploratory study was designed to investigate whether quantification of vasospasm by automated volumetric analysis of the middle cerebral artery M1 segment from CTA data could be used as an objective parameter to indicate endovascular vasospasm treatment...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Dan-Dan Xiong, Yue Qin, Wen-Qing Xu, Rong-Quan He, Hua-Yu Wu, Dan-Min Wei, Jing-Jing Zeng, Yi-Wu Dang, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological control against ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma has received increasing attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate multi-drug treatments as synergetic therapy for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and to explore their mechanisms of action by the network pharmacology method. METHODS: Genes acting on ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma were first collected from GEPIA and DisGeNET. Gene Ontology annotation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, Reactome pathway, and Disease Ontology analyses were then conducted...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Teruko Nakamura, Taisei Fujisaki, Motoaki Miyazono, Maki Yoshihara, Hiroshi Jinnouchi, Kenichi Fukunari, Yuki Awanami, Yuki Ikeda, Kohei Hashimoto, Masatora Yamasaki, Yasunori Nonaka, Makoto Fukuda, Tomoya Kishi, Yuji Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Concerns about sodium overload when using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Na-resin) as an ion-exchange resin for the treatment of hyperkalemia led our institution to gradually shift to the use of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Ca-resin). However, as serum potassium levels were insufficiently controlled and patients experienced constipation, we returned to using Na-resin and observed better results than previously. OBJECTIVE: As few papers have examined the potassium adsorption ability of Ca-resin compared with Na-resin, we investigated this issue within our institution...
August 10, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Yu-Seong Seo, Man Jin Eom, Jun Sung Kim, Chang-Jong Kang, Byung Il Min, Jungseek Hwang
An interesting van der Waals material, Ta2 NiSe5 has been known one of strong excitonic insulator candidates since it has very small or zero bandgap and can have a strong exciton binding energy because of its quasi-one-dimensional crystal structure. Here we investigate a single crystal Ta2 NiSe5 using optical spectroscopy. Ta2 NiSe5 has quasi-one-dimensional chains along the a-axis. We have obtained anisotropic optical properties of a single crystal Ta2 NiSe5 along the a- and c-axes. The measured a- and c-axis optical conductivities exhibit large anisotropic electronic and phononic properties...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hongkui Wang, Youlang Zhou, Meng Cong, Li Zhang, Xiaosong Gu, Xin Tang
Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor and sensory function in humans, and its functional recovery largely depends on the axonal outgrowth required for the accurate reinnervation of appropriate targets. To better understand how motor and sensory nerve fibres select their terminal pathways, an unbiased cDNA microarray analysis was conducted to examine differential gene expression patterns in peripheral efferent and afferent fibres at different developmental stages in mice. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed common and distinct features of enrichment for differentially expressed genes during motor and sensory nerve fibre development...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cássia Rita Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar Pereira da Veiga, Ana Paula Drummond-Lage
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the modulation of the immune system has resulted in the development of new classes of antitumor agents such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Despite the proven effectiveness and tolerability of these new drugs for specific types of cancer, the high cost of treatment has affected their accessibility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-narrative review of studies that have addressed the concerns that have been voiced regarding the cost of and access to nivolumab and pembrolizumab in oncology health care...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Juan Zhang, Jing-Yi Ma, Qiu-Hong Li, Hui Su, Xin Sun
Great interest has been taken in the use of beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases recently, but the underlying mechanisms through which probiotics induces immune regulation or immune tolerance are poorly understood. We aimed to explore whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-induced beneficial effect relates to the change of microbiota. LGG was administered orally to mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. Our findings manifested that LGG-treatment contributes to protect against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation by expanding mesenteric CD103+ DCs and accumulating mucosal Tregs...
August 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Yu-Huei Liu, Yui-Ping Weng, Hsin-Ying Tsai, Chao-Jung Chen, Der-Yen Lee, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yang-Chang Wu, Jung-Yaw Lin
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains the leading cause of cancer mortality, with limited therapeutic targets, and alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related proteostasis may be a potential target for therapy. The root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa has been shown to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis, although its impact on PC is unknown. PURPOSE: To ascertain the anti-cancer effects of P. suffruticosa on oncogenic functions of PC and determine the detailed molecular mechanisms...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gemma L Holliday, Eyal Akiva, Elaine C Meng, Shoshana D Brown, Sara Calhoun, Ursula Pieper, Andrej Sali, Squire J Booker, Patricia C Babbitt
The radical SAM superfamily contains over 100,000 homologous enzymes that catalyze a remarkably broad range of reactions required for life, including metabolism, nucleic acid modification, and biogenesis of cofactors. While the highly conserved SAM-binding motif responsible for formation of the key 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate is a key structural feature that simplifies identification of superfamily members, our understanding of their structure-function relationships is complicated by the modular nature of their structures, which exhibit varied and complex domain architectures...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Richard M Stewart, Sean D Hood, Pradeep Rao, Julia K Moore, Kevin C Runions, Susannah E Murphy, Janice W Y Wong, Florian D Zepf
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are amongst the most prescribed antidepressants for adolescents with depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. However, SSRIs have significant shortcomings as a first-line treatment considering that not all patients respond to these antidepressants. Amongst paediatric populations, meta-analyses indicate that up to approximately 40% of patients do not respond, and for those who do show benefit, there is substantial heterogeneity in response onset...
August 10, 2018: Trials
Ankit Hirpara, Mathew Bloomfield, Peter Duesberg
It has been known for over 100 years that cancers have individual karyotypes and arise only years to decades after initiating carcinogens. However, there is still no coherent theory to explain these definitive characteristics of cancer. The prevailing mutation theory holds that cancers are late because the primary cell must accumulate 3⁻8 causative mutations to become carcinogenic and that mutations, which induce chromosomal instability (CIN), generate the individual karyotypes of cancers. However, since there is still no proven set of mutations that transforms a normal to a cancer cell, we have recently advanced the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation...
August 9, 2018: Genes
Jie Bao, Fei He, Jin-Hai Yu, Huijuan Zhai, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Yuying Zhang, Yun Zhang, Xiaoyong Zhang, Guangying Chen, Hua Zhang
Five new chromone derivatives, arthones A⁻E ( 1 ⁻ 5 ), together with eight known biogenetically related cometabolites ( 6 ⁻ 13 ), were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Arthrinium sp. UJNMF0008. Their structures were assigned by detailed analyses of spectroscopic data, while the absolute configurations of 1 and 5 were established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations and that of 2 was determined by modified Mosher ester method. Compounds 3 and 8 exhibited potent antioxidant property with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values ranging from 16...
August 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Volha Dzmitruk, Evgeny Apartsin, Aliaksei Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Viktar Abashkin, Dzmitry Shcharbin, Maria Bryszewska
The lack of an appropriate intracellular delivery system for therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) is a major problem in molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicine. A relatively new class of highly symmetrical hyperbranched polymers, called dendrimers, shows promise for transporting small TNAs into both cells and target tissues. Dendrimers have intrinsic advantages for this purpose: their physico-chemical and biological properties can be controlled during synthesis, and they are able to transport large numbers of TNA molecules that can specifically suppress the expression of single or multiple targeted genes...
August 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
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