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brain AND network

Keyvan Mahjoory, Elena Cesnaite, Friederike U Hohlefeld, Arno Villringer, Vadim V Nikulin
Resting state neuronal activity in EEG/MEG recordings is primarily characterized by the presence of alpha oscillations (approx. 8-12 Hz). However, their functional significance and link to cognitive task performance remains elusive. We investigated resting state neuronal activity and its relation to task performance by assessing traditional measures of alpha activity (power and individual alpha peak frequency) and dynamic properties of the signal measured by long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). Multichannel EEG was recorded at rest in 82 healthy male adults and compared to their cognitive performance, measured by tests involving executive functions, working memory, short- and long-term memory demands...
December 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Alik S Widge, Matthew Boggess, Alexander P Rockhill, Andrew Mullen, Shivani Sheopory, Roman Loonis, Daniel K Freeman, Earl K Miller
Oscillations of the brain's local field potential (LFP) may coordinate neural ensembles and brain networks. It has been difficult to causally test this model or to translate its implications into treatments, because there are few reliable ways to alter LFP oscillations. We developed a closed-loop analog circuit to enhance brain oscillations by feeding them back into cortex through phase-locked transcranial electrical stimulation. We tested the system in a rhesus macaque with chronically implanted electrode arrays, targeting 8-15 Hz (alpha) oscillations...
2018: PloS One
Davis C Woodworth, Adelle Dagher, Adam Curatolo, Monisha Sachdev, Cody Ashe-McNalley, Bruce D Naliboff, Jennifer S Labus, J Richard Landis, Jason J Kutch, Emeran A Mayer, Richard S Lee, Marsha A Moses, Benjamin M Ellingson
The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network has yielded neuroimaging and urinary biomarker findings that highlight unique alterations in brain structure and in urinary proteins related to tissue remodeling and vascular structure in patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS). We hypothesized that localized changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements might be associated with corresponding changes in urinary protein levels in UCPPS. To test this hypothesis, we created statistical parameter maps depicting the linear correlation between DTI measurements (fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) and urinary protein quantification (MMP2, MMP9, NGAL, MMP9/NGAL complex, and VEGF) in 30 UCPPS patients from the MAPP Research Network, after accounting for clinical covariates...
2018: PloS One
Katie L Burkhouse, Jonathan P Stange, Rachel H Jacobs, Runa Bhaumik, Katie L Bessette, Amy T Peters, Natania A Crane, Kayla A Kreutzer, Kate Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, Robert C Welsh, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Three well-established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in cognitive-affective processing include the cognitive control network (CCN), default mode network (DMN), and salience and emotional network (SEN). Despite recent advances in understanding developmental changes in these ICNs, the majority of research has focused on single seeds or networks in isolation with limited age ranges. Additionally, although internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as anxiety and depression, are often characterized by maladaptive cognitive-affective processing styles, it is not clear how IP history influences age-related changes in brain networks...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Omar Akhand, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review emerging vision-based assessments in the evaluation of concussion. RECENT FINDINGS: Involvement of the visual pathways is common following concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury. The visual system contains widely distributed networks that are prone to neurophysiologic changes after a concussion, resulting in visual symptoms and ocular motor dysfunction. Vision-based testing is increasingly used to improve detection and assess head injury...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Rebecca S Wilson, Stephen D Mayhew, David T Rollings, Aimee Goldstone, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Prior sleep behavior has been shown to correlate with waking resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode network (DMN). However, the impact of sleep history on FC during sleep has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is an association between intersubject variability in habitual sleep behaviors and the strength of FC within the regions of the DMN during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. METHODS: Wrist actigraphy and sleep questionnaires were used as objective and subjective measures of habitual sleep behavior, and EEG-functional MRI during NREM sleep was used to quantify sleep...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yunman Xia, Qunlin Chen, Liang Shi, MengZe Li, Weikang Gong, Hong Chen, Jiang Qiu
The transition from early adulthood to the elder is marked by functional and structural brain transformations. Many previous studies examined the correlation between the functional connectivity (FC) and aging using resting-state fMRI. Results showed that the changes in FC are linked to aging as well as the cognitive ability changes. However, some researchers proposed that the FC is not static but dynamic changes during the resting-state fMRI scan. In this study, we examined the correlation between the resting-state dynamic functional network connectivity and age using resting scan data of 434 subjects...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yuan Zhong, Chun Wang, Weijia Gao, Qian Xiao, Dali Lu, Qing Jiao, Linyan Su, Guangming Lu
Mood disorders/psychosis have been associated with dysfunctions in the default mode network (DMN). However, the relative contributions of DMN regions to state and trait disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of PBD through brain imaging and explore the influence of psychotic symptoms on functional alterations in PBD patients. Twenty-nine psychotic and 26 non-psychotic PBD patients, as well as 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and the data were analyzed by independent component analysis...
December 4, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Karen Fairlie-Clarke, Mark Barbour, Chelsey Wilson, Shehla U Hridi, Debbie Allan, Hui-Rong Jiang
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a well-recognized immunomodulatory cytokine which plays critical roles in tissue function and immune-mediated diseases. The abundant expression of IL-33 in brain and spinal cord prompted many scientists to explore its unique role in the central nervous system (CNS) under physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed emerging evidence from over a decade's research suggests that IL-33 acts as one of the key molecular signaling cues coordinating the network between the immune and CNS systems, particularly during the development of neurological diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Skyler J Mooney, Melissa M Holmes
The social decision-making network (SDMN) is a conserved neural circuit that modulates a range of social behaviors via context-specific patterns of activation that may be controlled in part by oxytocinergic signaling. We have previously characterized oxytocin's (OT) influence on prosociality in the naked mole-rat, a eusocial mammalian species, and its altered neural distribution between animals of differing social status. Here, we asked two questions: (1) do patterns of activation in the SDMN vary by social context and (2) is functional connectivity of the SDMN altered by OT manipulation? Adult subordinate naked mole-rats were exposed to one of three types of stimuli (three behavioral paradigms: familiar adult conspecific, unfamiliar adult conspecific, or familiar pups) while manipulating OT (three manipulations: saline, OT, or OT antagonist)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yann Le Guen, Marie Amalric, Philippe Pinel, Christophe Pallier, Vincent Frouin
Cognitive performance is highly heritable. However, little is known about common genetic influences on cognitive ability and brain activation when engaged in a cognitive task. The Human Connectome Project (HCP) offers a unique opportunity to study this shared genetic etiology with an extended pedigree of 785 individuals. To investigate this common genetic origin, we took advantage of the HCP dataset, which includes both language and mathematics activation tasks. Using the HCP multimodal parcellation, we identified areals in which inter-individual functional MRI (fMRI) activation variance was significantly explained by genetics...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gianluca Milano, Michael Luebben, Zheng Ma, Rafal Dunin-Borkowski, Luca Boarino, Candido F Pirri, Rainer Waser, Carlo Ricciardi, Ilia Valov
The ability for artificially reproducing human brain type signals' processing is one of the main challenges in modern information technology, being one of the milestones for developing global communicating networks and artificial intelligence. Electronic devices termed memristors have been proposed as effective artificial synapses able to emulate the plasticity of biological counterparts. Here we report for the first time a single crystalline nanowire based model system capable of combining all memristive functions - non-volatile bipolar memory, multilevel switching, selector and synaptic operations imitating Ca2+ dynamics of biological synapses...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas P O'Connell, Marvin M Chun
Eye tracking has long been used to measure overt spatial attention, and computational models of spatial attention reliably predict eye movements to natural images. However, researchers lack techniques to noninvasively access spatial representations in the human brain that guide eye movements. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict eye movement patterns from reconstructed spatial representations evoked by natural scenes. First, we reconstruct fixation maps to directly predict eye movement patterns from fMRI activity...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Philippe Ryvlin, Karl J Friston, Marina A Pavlova
The perception of actions underwrites a wide range of socio-cognitive functions. Previous neuroimaging and lesion studies identified several components of the brain network for visual biological motion (BM) processing, but interactions among these components and their relationship to behavior remain little understood. Here, using a recently developed integrative analysis of structural and effective connectivity derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assess the cerebro-cerebellar network for processing of camouflaged point-light BM...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Paolo Mazzarello
In 1873 Camillo Golgi published an article that contained the description of entire nerve cells stained in black with a new histological procedure, the black reaction. He subsequently organized all the observations made with this method in a book published in 1885. On the basis of these studies, Golgi developed a physiological model of the brain that was influenced by a holistic conception he had in mind. He named this theory diffuse nervous network, assuming that the axonal prolongations were fused (or intimately interlaced) in a diffuse web along which the nervous impulse propagated...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Tsung-Yuan Li, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Dah-Cherng Yeh, Shu-Ling Huang, Cheng-Nan Chen, Jyh-Wen Chai, Clayton Chi-Chang Chen, Jun-Cheng Weng
BACKGROUND: Breast neoplasms are the most common cancer among women in Taiwan. Cognitive deficits are common complications of breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy. The most frequently observed disorders involve executive function and memory impairment. With improvements in tumor intervention and the consequent increase in the number of cancer survivors, the quality of life of patients has become an important issue. We are interested in the early effects of chemotherapy on the brain structures of patients...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Annabelle Monnier, Rachel Boniface, Régis Bouvet, Amandine Etcheverry, Marc Aubry, Tony Avril, Véronique Quillien, Eric Chevet, Jean Mosser
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is a highly invasive primary brain tumor that nearly always systematically recurs at the site of resection despite aggressive radio-chemotherapy. Previously, we reported a gene expression signature related to tumor infiltration. Within this signature, the EMX2 gene encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that we found was down regulated in glioblastoma. As EMX2 is reported to play a role in carcinogenesis, we investigated the impact of EMX2 overexpression in glioma-related cell lines...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Uijong Ju, Christian Wallraven
A large number of perceptual and cognitive processes are instantiated during active gameplay, culminating in what is termed the overall "gaming experience", which encapsulates multiple, subjective dimensions of how one feels about the game. Although some research has been conducted into the neural mechanisms underlying the gaming experience, previous studies so far have relied on commercial games that provide little control over key aspects of gameplay and also have focused only on a few individual dimensions of the gaming experience...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
K Rubia, M Criaud, M Wulff, A Alegria, H Brinson, G Barker, D Stahl, V Giampietro
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. We showed previously that 18 ADHD adolescents over 11 runs of 8.5 min of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) progressively increased activation in 2 regions of the rIFC which was associated with clinical symptom improvement. In this study, we used functional connectivity analyses to investigate whether fMRI-Neurofeedback of rIFC resulted in dynamic functional connectivity changes in underlying neural networks...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
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