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brain AND network

Xuyun Wen, Han Zhang, Gang Li, Mingxia Liu, Weiyan Yin, Weili Lin, Jun Zhang, Dinggang Shen
The human brain develops rapidly in the first postnatal year, in which rewired functional brain networks could shape later behavioral and cognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonances imaging (rs-fMRI) and complex network analysis have been widely used for characterizing the developmental brain functional connectome. Yet, such studies focusing on the first year of postnatal life are still very limited. Leveraging normally developing longitudinal infant rs-fMRI scans from neonate to one year of age, we investigated how brain functional networks develop at a fine temporal scale (every 3 months)...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Niraj K Sharma, Carlos Pedreira, Umair J Chaudhary, Maria Centeno, David W Carmichael, Tinonkorn Yadee, Teresa Murta, Beate Diehl, Louis Lemieux
OBJECTIVES: Simultaneous intracranial EEG and functional MRI (icEEG-fMRI) can be used to map the haemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with the generation of IEDs. Unlike scalp EEG-fMRI, in most patients who undergo icEEG-fMRI, IEDs recorded intracranially are numerous and show variability in terms of field amplitude and morphology. Therefore, visual marking can be highly subjective and time consuming. In this study, we applied an automated spike classification algorithm, Wave_clus (WC), to IEDs marked visually on icEEG data acquired during simultaneous fMRI acquisition...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Graham Staunton, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based neurofeedback represents the latest applied behavioural neuroscience methodology developed to train participants in the self-regulation of brain regions or networks. However, as with previous biofeedback approaches which rely on electroencephalography (EEG) or related approaches such as brain-machine interface technology (BCI), individual success rates vary significantly, and some participants never learn to control their brain responses at all. Given that these approaches are often being developed for eventual use in a clinical setting (albeit there is also significant interest in using NF for neuro-enhancement in typical populations), this represents a significant hurdle which requires more research...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Zhitong Li, Wenjing Li, Jinmiao Zha, Huihui Chen, Christopher J Martyniuk, Xuefang Liang
Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are widely applied ultraviolet absorbing compounds in industrial materials and personal care products. Due to their ubiquitous use and reports of bio-accumulation in aquatic organisms, these compounds are significant environmental pollutants; however, data are limited for BUVSs toxicity. In this study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 4 commonly used BUVSs (UV-234, UV-326, UV-329, and UV-P) at one dose of 10 or 100 μg/L for 28 days. To characterize the underlying mechanisms of different BUVSs-induced toxicities, we performed global transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the brain (100 μg/L)...
October 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Patrick Luckett, Elena Pavelescu, Todd McDonald, Lee Hively, Juan Ochoa
Networks are naturally occurring phenomena that are studied across many disciplines. The topological features of a network can provide insight into the dynamics of a system as it evolves, and can be used to predict changes in state. The brain is a complex network whose temporal and spatial behavior can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG). This data can be reconstructed to form a family of graphs that represent the state of the brain over time, and the evolution of these graphs can be used to predict changes in brain states, such as the transition from preictal to ictal in patients with epilepsy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Kang Min Park, Ho-Joon Lee, Byung In Lee, Sung Eun Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare structural connectivity using graph theoretical analysis in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients with iRBD were recruited from a single tertiary hospital. All patients had normal brain magnetic resonance imaging results on visual inspection. They did not have any other neurological disorder. Control subjects were also enrolled. All subjects underwent three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted imaging...
October 12, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Nicolas Y Masse, Gregory D Grant, David J Freedman
Humans and most animals can learn new tasks without forgetting old ones. However, training artificial neural networks (ANNs) on new tasks typically causes them to forget previously learned tasks. This phenomenon is the result of "catastrophic forgetting," in which training an ANN disrupts connection weights that were important for solving previous tasks, degrading task performance. Several recent studies have proposed methods to stabilize connection weights of ANNs that are deemed most important for solving a task, which helps alleviate catastrophic forgetting...
October 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Omri Raccah, Amy L Daitch, Aaron Kucyi, Josef Parvizi
The past decade has seen a large number of neuroimaging studies focused on the anti-correlated functional relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN). Due principally to the low-temporal resolution of functional neuroimaging modalities, the fast-neuronal dynamics across these networks remains poorly understood. Here we report novel human intracranial electrophysiology data from six neurosurgical patients (four males) with simultaneous coverage of well-characterized nodes of the DMN and DAN...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alexa A Lampasona, Kevin Czaplinski
Cell migration requires a complicated network of structural and regulatory proteins. Changes in cellular motility can impact migration as a result of cell-type or developmental stage regulated expression of critical motility genes. Hnrnpab is a conserved RNA binding protein found as two isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Its expression is enriched in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream within the brain, suggesting possible support of the migration of neural progenitor cells in this region...
October 12, 2018: RNA
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L T M Müller
One of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is expanding to studying cholinergic correlates of mobility impairments, dyskinesias, olfaction, sleep, visual hallucinations and risk taking behavior in this disorder...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Guangying Pei, Jinglong Wu, Duanduan Chen, Guoxin Guo, Shuozhen Liu, Mingxuan Hong, Tianyi Yan
Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback improves cognitive capacity and behaviors by regulating brain activity, which can lead to cognitive enhancement in healthy people and better rehabilitation in patients. The increased use of EEG neurofeedback highlights the urgent need to reduce the discomfort and preparation time and increase the stability and simplicity of the system's operation. Based on brain-computer interface technology and a multithreading design, we describe a neurofeedback system with an integrated design that incorporates wearable, multichannel, dry electrode EEG acquisition equipment and cognitive function assessment...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Sanae Hosomi, Tadashi Watabe, Yuki Mori, Yoshihisa Koyama, Soichiro Adachi, Namiko Hoshi, Mitsuo Ohnishi, Hiroshi Ogura, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Jun Hatazawa, Toshihide Yamashita, Takeshi Shimazu
Due to the heterogeneous pathology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the exact mechanism of how initial brain damage leads to chronic inflammation and its effects on the whole brain remain unclear. Here, we report on long-term neuroinflammation, remote from the initial injury site, even after subsiding of the original inflammatory response, in a focal TBI mouse model. The use of translocator protein-positron emission tomography in conjunction with specialised magnetic resonance imaging modalities enabled us to visualize "previously undetected areas" of spreading inflammation after focal cortical injury...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Laura E Engelhardt, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Executive functions (EFs) are regulatory cognitive processes that support goal-directed thoughts and behaviors and that involve two primary networks of functional brain activity in adulthood: the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks. The current study assessed whether the same networks identified in adulthood underlie child EFs. Using task-based fMRI data from a diverse sample of N = 117 children and early adolescents (M age = 10.17 years), we assessed the extent to which neural activity was shared across switching, updating, and inhibition domains, and whether these patterns were qualitatively consistent with adult EF-related activity...
October 9, 2018: NeuroImage
D Kumral, H L Schaare, F Beyer, J Reinelt, M Uhlig, F Liem, L Lampe, A Babayan, A Reiter, M Erbey, J Roebbig, M Loeffler, M L Schroeter, D Husser, A V Witte, A Villringer, M Gaebler
Resting heart rate variability (HRV), an index of parasympathetic cardioregulation and an individual trait marker related to mental and physical health, decreases with age. Previous studies have associated resting HRV with structural and functional properties of the brain - mainly in cortical midline and limbic structures. We hypothesized that aging affects the relationship between resting HRV and brain structure and function. In 388 healthy subjects of three age groups (140 younger: 26.0 ± 4.2 years, 119 middle-aged: 46...
October 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Teppo Särkämö, Aleksi J Sihvonen
During the last decades, there have been major advances in mapping the brain regions that underlie our ability to perceive, experience, and produce music and how musical training can shape the structure and function of the brain. This progress has fueled and renewed clinical interest towards uncovering the neural basis for the impaired or preserved processing of music in different neurological disorders and how music-based interventions can be used in their rehabilitation and care. This article reviews our contribution to and the state-of-the-art of this field...
September 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Aakash V Sathappan, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby
Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)1 each show efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders; however, more efficacious interventions are needed as reflected by an overall unmet need in mental health care. While each modality has typically been studied and developed as a monotherapy, in practice they are typically used in combination. Research has begun to emerge studying the potential synergistic actions of multi-modal, combination therapies. For example, NIBS combined with rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated some success for speech and motor rehabilitation in stroke patients...
October 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Olimpia Musumeci, Silvia Marino, Francesca Granata, Rosa Morabito, Lilla Bonanno, Teresa Brizzi, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Marcello Longo, Antonio Toscano
BACKGROUND: Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) is a rare, multisystem disorder, that is well established to mainly impair skeletal muscle function. Systematic studies exploring brain functions in LOPD are lacking. Aim of this study is to detect morphological and functional brain alterations as well as neuropsychological impairment in LOPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 21 patients (10M, 11F, mean-age 49±18,4years), with defined diagnosis of LOPD, divided in two groups: one with presymptomatic hyperCKemia with no muscle weakness and the second with Limb-Girdle Muscle Weakness (LGMW group)...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nele De Bruyn, Sarah Meyer, Simon S Kessner, Bea Essers, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Andre Peeters, Stefan Sunaert, Thierry Duprez, Vincent Thijs, Hilde Feys, Kaat Alaerts, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: Aberrant functional connectivity in brain networks associated with motor impairment after stroke is well described, but little is known about the association with somatosensory impairments. AIM: The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to investigate the relationship between brain functional connectivity and severity of somatosensory impairments in the upper limb in the acute phase post stroke. METHODS: Nineteen first-ever stroke patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a standardized clinical somatosensory profile assessment (exteroception and higher cortical somatosensation) in the first week post stroke...
2018: PloS One
Arnab Roy, Rachel A Bernier, Jianli Wang, Monica Benson, Jerry J French, David C Good, Frank G Hillary
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170541.].
2018: PloS One
Thomas Lehoux, Julie Carrier, Roger Godbout
Autism is a developmental disorder with a neurobiological aetiology. Studies of the autistic brain identified atypical developmental trajectories that may lead to an impaired capacity to modulate electroencephalogram activity during sleep. We assessed the topography and characteristics of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram slow waves in 26 boys aged between 6 and 13 years old: 13 with an autism spectrum disorder and 13 typically developing. None of the participants was medicated, intellectually disabled, reported poor sleep, or suffered from medical co-morbidities...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
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