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brain AND network

Felix Brandl, Chun Meng, Claus Zimmer, Christian Sorg
BACKGROUND:  About two-thirds of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from depressive relapse, the mechanisms of which are still poorly understood. In recent years, analyses of the brain's connectome have increasingly been employed to identify potential biomarkers of depressive relapse. The term "connectome" refers to the map of all structural or functional connections in the brain. It can be investigated by structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging followed by graph theory-based analysis to characterize network topology on the global and regional level...
August 13, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Jennifer Zuk, Meaghan V Perdue, Bryce Becker, Xi Yu, Michelle Chang, Nora Maria Raschle, Nadine Gaab
Phonological processing has been postulated as a core area of deficit among children with dyslexia. Reduced brain activation during phonological processing in children with dyslexia has been observed in left-hemispheric temporoparietal regions. Musical training has shown positive associations with phonological processing abilities, but the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unspecified. The present research aims to distinguish neural correlates of phonological processing in school-age typically developing musically trained children, musically untrained children, and musically untrained children with dyslexia utilizing fMRI...
July 29, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Amélie S Tora, Xavier Rovira, Anne-Marinette Cao, Alexandre Cabayé, Linnéa Olofsson, Fanny Malhaire, Pauline Scholler, Hayeon Baik, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Philippe Rondard, Emmanuel Margeat, Francine Acher, Jean-Philippe Pin, Cyril Goudet
Due to the essential roles of glutamate, detection and response to a large range of extracellular concentrations of this excitatory amino acid are necessary for the fine-tuning of brain functions. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are implicated in shaping the activity of many synapses in the central nervous system. Among the eight mGluR subtypes, there is increasing interest in studying the mGlu3 receptor which has recently been linked to various diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This receptor displays striking functional properties, with a high and, often, full basal activity, making its study elusive in heterologous systems...
August 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Louis Bherer, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Susan Muir-Hunter, Karen Z H Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, William McIlroy, Laura Middleton, José A Morais, Ryota Sakurai, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, Olivier Beauchet, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Caterina Rosano, Stephanie Studenski, Joe Verghese
Background: A new paradigm is emerging in which mobility and cognitive impairments, previously studied, diagnosed, and managed separately in older adults, are in fact regulated by shared brain resources. Deterioration in these shared brain mechanisms by normal aging and neurodegeneration increases the risk of developing dementia, falls, and fractures. This new paradigm requires an integrated approach to measuring both domains. We aim to identify a complementary battery of existing tests of mobility and cognition in community-dwelling older adults that enable assessment of motor-cognitive interactions...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Vishal Samboju, Carissa L Philippi, Phillip Chan, Yann Cobigo, James L K Fletcher, Merlin Robb, Joanna Hellmuth, Khunthalee Benjapornpong, Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Mantana Pothisri, Robert Paul, Jintanat Ananworanich, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour
Background: HIV RNA is identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within eight days of estimated viral exposure. Neurological findings and impaired neuropsychological testing performance are documented in a subset of individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI). The purpose of this study was to determine whether microstructural white matter and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) are disrupted in AHI. Methods: We examined 49 AHI (100% male; mean age = 30 ± SD 9...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiaoxia Lei, Yunjie Liao, Mingtian Zhong, Wanrong Peng, Qian Liu, Shuqiao Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu, Changlian Tan, Jinyao Yi
In this study, combining degree centrality (DC) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) analyses of resting state (rs)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we aimed to explore functional connectivity density, local brain spontaneous activity, and their coupling strengths in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Forty-three BPD patients and 39 demographically-matched controls underwent rs-fMRI after completing a series of psychological tests. Two-sample t -tests were performed to compare DC and fALFF between these two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
D Fuhrmann, S Schweizer, J Leung, C Griffin, S J Blakemore
Academic diligence is the ability to regulate behavior in the service of goals, and a predictor of educational attainment. Here we combined behavioral, structural MRI, functional MRI and connectivity data to investigate the neurocognitive correlates of diligence. We assessed whether individual differences in diligence are related to the interplay between frontal control and striatal reward systems, as predicted by the dual-systems hypothesis of adolescent development. We obtained behavioral measures of diligence from 40 adolescent girls (aged 14-15 years) using the Academic Diligence Task...
August 13, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Leila Maria Soravia, Simon Schwab, Nico Weber, Masahito Nakataki, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Markus Heinrichs, Dominique de Quervain, Andrea Federspiel
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in patients with anxiety disorders. Although the neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, convergent structural and functional neuroimaging studies have identified abnormalities in various brain regions, including those in the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN). Here, we examine the effects of glucocorticoid administration on SN and DMN activity during the processing of phobic stimuli. METHODS: We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain activity in 24 female patients with spider phobia who were administered either 20 mg of cortisol or placebo while viewing pictures of spiders...
August 12, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Aleksandra M Herman, Hugo D Critchley, Theodora Duka
Binge drinking is associated with increased impulsivity and altered emotional processing. The current study investigated, in a group of university students who differed in their level of binge drinking, whether the ability to inhibit a pre-potent response and to delay gratification is disrupted in the presence of emotional context. We further tested whether functional connectivity within intrinsic resting-state networks was associated with alcohol use. Higher incidence of binge drinking was associated with enhanced activation of the lateral occipital cortex, angular gyrus, the left frontal pole during successful response inhibition irrespective of emotional context...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yu-Han Chen, Breannan Howell, J Christopher Edgar, Mingxiong Huang, Peter Kochunov, Michael A Hunter, Cassandra Wootton, Brett Y Lu, Juan Bustillo, Joseph R Sadek, Gregory A Miller, José M Cañive
Background: Auditory encoding abnormalities, gray-matter loss, and cognitive deficits are all candidate schizophrenia (SZ) endophenotypes. This study evaluated associations between and heritability of auditory network attributes (function and structure) and attention in healthy controls (HC), SZ patients, and unaffected relatives (UR). Methods: Whole-brain maps of M100 auditory activity from magnetoencephalography recordings, cortical thickness (CT), and a measure of attention were obtained from 70 HC, 69 SZ patients, and 35 UR...
August 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Emiliano Bruner
Paleoneurology deals with the study of brain anatomy in fossil species, as inferred from the morphology of their endocranial features. When compared with other living and extinct hominids, Homo sapiens is characterized by larger parietal bones and, according to the paleoneurological evidence, also by larger parietal lobes. The dorsal elements of the posterior parietal cortex (superior parietal lobules, precuneus, and intraparietal sulcus) may be involved in these morphological changes. This parietal expansion was also associated with an increase in the corresponding vascular networks, and possibly with increased heat loads...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Naren P Rao, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Kalyani Bangalore Gangadhar, Rashmi Arasappa, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bangalore N Ganagadhar
OM chanting is an ancient technique of Indian meditation. OM chanting is associated with an experience of relaxation, changes in autonomic balance and deactivation of limbic brain regions. While functional localization is important, how brain regions interact with each other has been shown to underlie various brain functions. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that there is reduced communication between deactivated regions during OM chanting. In order to do so, we employed multivariate autoregressive model (MVAR) based Granger causality to obtain directional connectivity between deactivated regions...
August 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
I Witzel, E Laakmann, R Weide, T Neunhöffer, T-J Park-Simon, M Schmidt, P A Fasching, T Hesse, A Polasik, S Mohrmann, F Würschmidt, C Schem, C Bechtner, R Würstlein, T Fehm, V Möbus, N Burchardi, S Loibl, V Müller
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BMs) have a major impact on life expectancy and quality of life for many breast cancer patients. Knowledge about treatment patterns and outcomes is limited. METHODS: We analysed clinical data of 1712 patients diagnosed with BMs from breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2016 at 80 institutions. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of BMs was 56 years (22-90 years). About 47.8% (n = 732) of patients had HER2-positive, 21...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Andrea L Johnstone, Jiaqi J O'Reilly, Annika J Patel, Zhihong Guo, Nadja S Andrade, Marco Magistri, Lubov Nathanson, Rustam Esanov, Brooke H Miller, Gustavo Turecki, Shaun P Brothers, Zane Zeier, Claes Wahlestedt
BACKGROUND: With the capacity to modulate gene networks in an environmentally-sensitive manner, the role of epigenetic systems in mental disorders has come under intense investigation. Dysregulation of epigenetic effectors, including microRNAs and histone-modifying enzymes, may better explain the role of environmental risk factors and the observed heritability rate that cannot be fully attributed to known genetic risk alleles. Here, we aimed to identify novel epigenetic targets of the schizophrenia-associated microRNA 132 (miR-132)...
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Aglieri Virginia, Chaminade Thierry, Takerkart Sylvain, Belin Pascal
Recognizing who is speaking is a cognitive ability characterized by considerable individual differences, which could relate to the inter-individual variability observed in voice-elicited BOLD activity. Since voice perception is sustained by a complex brain network involving temporal voice areas (TVAs) and, even if less consistently, extra-temporal regions such as frontal cortices, functional connectivity (FC) during an fMRI voice localizer (passive listening of voices vs non-voices) has been computed within twelve temporal and frontal voice-sensitive regions ("voice patches") individually defined for each subject (N = 90) to account for inter-individual variability...
August 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Robert M Hardwick, Svenja Caspers, Simon B Eickhoff, Stephan P Swinnen
Several models propose Motor Imagery, Action Observation, and Movement Execution recruit the same brain regions. There is, however, no quantitative synthesis of the literature that directly compares their respective networks. Here we summarized data from neuroimaging experiments examining Motor Imagery (303 experiments, 4,902 participants), Action Observation (595 experiments, 11,032 participants), and related control tasks involving Movement Execution (142 experiments, 2,302 participants). Comparisons across these networks showed that Motor Imagery and Action Observation recruited similar premotor-parietal cortical networks...
August 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Elyse J Cadena, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Ripu Jindal, Roland Matthew Pixley, Adrienne C Lahti
To better understand cognitive control impairment in schizophrenia, it is vital to determine the extent of dysfunctional connectivity in the associated fronto-striatal brain network, with a focus on the connections with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prior to the potential confounding effect of medication. It is also essential to determine the effects following antipsychotic medication and the relationship of those effects on psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) performed a fMRI task twice, six weeks apart...
August 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Mustafa Taha Bilge, Aishwarya K Gosai, Alik S Widge
Deep brain stimulation has preliminary evidence of clinical efficacy, but has been difficult to develop into a robust therapy, in part because its mechanisms are incompletely understood. We review evidence from movement and psychiatric disorder studies, with an emphasis on how deep brain stimulation changes brain networks. From this, we argue for a network-oriented approach to future deep brain stimulation studies. That network approach requires methods for identifying patients with specific circuit/network deficits...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Leonardo Iaccarino, Arianna Sala, Silvia Paola Caminiti, Roberto Santangelo, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Daniela Perani
Visual hallucinations (VH) are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), but their specific neural substrate remains elusive. We used 18 F-FDG-PET to study the neural dysfunctional signature of VH in a group of 38 DLB patients (mean age±SD 72.9 ± 7.5) with available anamnestic records, cognitive and neurological examination and NeuroPsychiatric Inventory assessing VH. We tested the voxel-wise correlation between 18 F-FDG-PET hypometabolism and VH NPI scores at the whole-group level, then adopting inter-regional correlation analysis to explore the resting-state networks (RSNs) metabolic connectivity in DLB patients with and without visual hallucinations, as compared to N = 38 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) (mean age±SD 71...
July 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Mihail Bota, Christina A Snider, Steven P Wilson, Kannan U Venkataraju, Pavel Osten, Alexis M Stranahan
Diabetes increases adrenal steroids in humans and animal models, but potential interactions with psychological stress remain poorly understood. Diabetic rodents exhibit anxiety and reductions in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and these studies investigated whether loss of BDNF-driven hippocampal activity promotes anxiety and disinhibits the HPA axis. Mice with genetic obesity and diabetes (db/db) received intrahippocampal injections of lentivirus for BDNF overexpression (db/db-BDNFOE), and Wt mice received lentiviral constructs for BDNF knockdown (Wt-BDNFKD)...
August 11, 2018: Hippocampus
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