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brain AND connectivity

Frederico Ribeiro Deliberador, Aline Monise Sebastiani, Jennifer Gerber, Luana Bonetto, Gabriela Tórtora, Allan Fernando Giovanini, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Joao César Zielak, Rafaela Scariot
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two methods of local application of alendronate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone repair and the systemic implications. A critically sized defect (5 mm) was created in the cranial region of twenty-five male Wistar rats, and the bone removed was particulated, and grafted back to the defect with different treatments. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: A1- bone graft immersion in alendronate solution (3 mg/kg) for 5 minutes; P1- bone graft immersion in PTH solution (20 µg); A2- weekly local applications of alendronate 1 mg/kg; P2- weekly local applications of PTH (20 µg); C- no drugs were used...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Katie L Burkhouse, Jonathan P Stange, Rachel H Jacobs, Runa Bhaumik, Katie L Bessette, Amy T Peters, Natania A Crane, Kayla A Kreutzer, Kate Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, Robert C Welsh, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Three well-established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in cognitive-affective processing include the cognitive control network (CCN), default mode network (DMN), and salience and emotional network (SEN). Despite recent advances in understanding developmental changes in these ICNs, the majority of research has focused on single seeds or networks in isolation with limited age ranges. Additionally, although internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as anxiety and depression, are often characterized by maladaptive cognitive-affective processing styles, it is not clear how IP history influences age-related changes in brain networks...
December 5, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Rebecca S Wilson, Stephen D Mayhew, David T Rollings, Aimee Goldstone, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Prior sleep behavior has been shown to correlate with waking resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode network (DMN). However, the impact of sleep history on FC during sleep has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is an association between intersubject variability in habitual sleep behaviors and the strength of FC within the regions of the DMN during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. METHODS: Wrist actigraphy and sleep questionnaires were used as objective and subjective measures of habitual sleep behavior, and EEG-functional MRI during NREM sleep was used to quantify sleep...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yunman Xia, Qunlin Chen, Liang Shi, MengZe Li, Weikang Gong, Hong Chen, Jiang Qiu
The transition from early adulthood to the elder is marked by functional and structural brain transformations. Many previous studies examined the correlation between the functional connectivity (FC) and aging using resting-state fMRI. Results showed that the changes in FC are linked to aging as well as the cognitive ability changes. However, some researchers proposed that the FC is not static but dynamic changes during the resting-state fMRI scan. In this study, we examined the correlation between the resting-state dynamic functional network connectivity and age using resting scan data of 434 subjects...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yuan Zhong, Chun Wang, Weijia Gao, Qian Xiao, Dali Lu, Qing Jiao, Linyan Su, Guangming Lu
Mood disorders/psychosis have been associated with dysfunctions in the default mode network (DMN). However, the relative contributions of DMN regions to state and trait disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of PBD through brain imaging and explore the influence of psychotic symptoms on functional alterations in PBD patients. Twenty-nine psychotic and 26 non-psychotic PBD patients, as well as 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and the data were analyzed by independent component analysis...
December 4, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Skyler J Mooney, Melissa M Holmes
The social decision-making network (SDMN) is a conserved neural circuit that modulates a range of social behaviors via context-specific patterns of activation that may be controlled in part by oxytocinergic signaling. We have previously characterized oxytocin's (OT) influence on prosociality in the naked mole-rat, a eusocial mammalian species, and its altered neural distribution between animals of differing social status. Here, we asked two questions: (1) do patterns of activation in the SDMN vary by social context and (2) is functional connectivity of the SDMN altered by OT manipulation? Adult subordinate naked mole-rats were exposed to one of three types of stimuli (three behavioral paradigms: familiar adult conspecific, unfamiliar adult conspecific, or familiar pups) while manipulating OT (three manipulations: saline, OT, or OT antagonist)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Filip Morys, Stefan Bode, Annette Horstmann
Obese individuals discount future rewards to a higher degree than lean individuals, which is generally considered disadvantageous. Moreover, their decisions are altered more easily by decision-irrelevant cues. Here, we investigated neural correlates of this phenomenon using functional MRI. We tested 30 lean and 26 obese human subjects on a primed delay discounting paradigm using gustatory and visual cues of positive, neutral and negative valence to bias their intertemporal preferences. We hypothesised that activation differences in reward-related and behavioural control areas, and changes in connectivity between these areas, would reflect the effect of these cues...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Philippe Ryvlin, Karl J Friston, Marina A Pavlova
The perception of actions underwrites a wide range of socio-cognitive functions. Previous neuroimaging and lesion studies identified several components of the brain network for visual biological motion (BM) processing, but interactions among these components and their relationship to behavior remain little understood. Here, using a recently developed integrative analysis of structural and effective connectivity derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assess the cerebro-cerebellar network for processing of camouflaged point-light BM...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Dmitry Postnov, Jürgen Kurths
The peripheral lymphatic system plays a crucial role in the recovery mechanisms after many pathological changes, such as infection, trauma, vascular, or metabolic diseases. The lymphatic clearance of different tissues from waste products, viruses, bacteria, and toxic proteins significantly contributes to the correspondent recovery processes. However, understanding of the cerebral lymphatic functions is a challenging problem. The exploration of mechanisms of lymphatic communication with brain fluids as well as the role of the lymphatic system in brain drainage, clearance, and recovery is still in its infancy...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Noora Heikkinen, Olli Kärkkäinen, Eila Laukkanen, Virve Kekkonen, Outi Kaarre, Petri Kivimäki, Mervi Könönen, Vidya Velagapudi, Jatin Nandania, Soili M Lehto, Eini Niskanen, Ritva Vanninen, Tommi Tolmunen
Our aim was to analyze metabolite profile changes in serum associated with moderate-to-heavy consumption of alcohol in young adults and to evaluate whether these changes are connected to reduced brain gray matter volumes. These study population consisted of young adults with a 10-year history of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption (n = 35) and light-drinking controls (n = 27). We used the targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations of metabolites in serum, and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain gray matter volumes...
May 31, 2018: Alcohol
K Rubia, M Criaud, M Wulff, A Alegria, H Brinson, G Barker, D Stahl, V Giampietro
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. We showed previously that 18 ADHD adolescents over 11 runs of 8.5 min of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) progressively increased activation in 2 regions of the rIFC which was associated with clinical symptom improvement. In this study, we used functional connectivity analyses to investigate whether fMRI-Neurofeedback of rIFC resulted in dynamic functional connectivity changes in underlying neural networks...
December 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Maggie M Sweitzer, Karli K Watson, Savannah R Erwin, Amy A Winecoff, Nandini Datta, Scott Huettel, Michael L Platt, Nancy L Zucker
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend into social domains. If so, such findings would be of prognostic significance as impaired social functioning predicts worse outcome. We explore neural circuits implicated in social reward processing in individuals with a history of AN who are weight-restored relative to controls and examine the effects of illness course on the experience of social value...
2018: PloS One
Timothy R Powell, Simone De Jong, Gerome Breen, Cathryn M Lewis, Danai Dima
Shorter telomere length (TL) has been associated with the development of mood disorders as well as abnormalities in brain morphology. However, so far, no studies have considered the role TL may have on brain function during tasks relevant to mood disorders. In this study, we examine the relationship between TL and functional brain activation and connectivity, while participants (n = 112) perform a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) facial affect recognition task. Additionally, because variation in TL has a substantial genetic component we calculated polygenic risk scores for TL to test if they predict face-related functional brain activation...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Byeong-Yeul Lee, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Xiufeng Li, Wei Chen
Characterization of the microstructural properties and topography of the human corpus callosum (CC) is key to understanding interhemispheric neural communication and brain function. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that high-resolution T1 relaxometry at high field has adequate sensitivity and specificity for characterizing microstructural properties of the human CC, and elucidating the structural connectivity of the callosal fibers to the cortices of origin. The high-resolution parametric T1 images acquired from healthy subjects (N = 16) at 7 T clearly showed a consistent T1 distribution among individuals with substantial variation along the human CC axis, which is highly similar to the spatial patterns of myelin density and myelinated axon size based on the histology study...
December 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Lutz Tellmann, Hans Herzog, Frank Boers, Christoph Lerche, N Jon Shah
INTRODUCTION: Due to the high noise emission generated by the gradients in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an efficient method of noise protection is mandatory. In addition to providing hearing protection, appropriate headphone systems also serve to facilitate communication between the operator and the patient. However, in combined PET-MR devices, use of common pneumatic headphones, as delivered by the manufacturer, is problematic due to the potential generation of attenuation artefacts in the PET measurement...
December 3, 2018: EJNMMI Research
M Rubega, M Carboni, M Seeber, D Pascucci, S Tourbier, G Toscano, P Van Mierlo, P Hagmann, G Plomp, S Vulliemoz, C M Michel
In the last decade, the use of high-density electrode arrays for EEG recordings combined with the improvements of source reconstruction algorithms has allowed the investigation of brain networks dynamics at a sub-second scale. One powerful tool for investigating large-scale functional brain networks with EEG is time-varying effective connectivity applied to source signals obtained from electric source imaging. Due to computational and interpretation limitations, the brain is usually parcelled into a limited number of regions of interests (ROIs) before computing EEG connectivity...
December 3, 2018: Brain Topography
Yu Lei, Benshen Song, Liang Chen, Jiabin Su, Xin Zhang, Wei Ni, Yuguo Yu, Bin Xu, Lianchun Yu, Yuxiang Gu, Ying Mao
Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is still unclear because of its unveiled neural synchronization. This study introduced a dynamic measurement of connectivity number entropy (CNE) to characterize both spatial and temporal dimensions of network interactions. Fifty-one patients with MMD were recruited (27 with VCI and 24 with intact cognition), as well as 26 normal controls (NCs). Static network properties were first examined to confirm its aberrance in MMD with VCI...
December 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Norman Scheel, Eric Franke, Thomas F Münte, Amir Madany Mamlouk
Spontaneous fluctuations of resting-state functional connectivity have been studied in many ways, but grasping the complexity of brain activity has been difficult. Dimensional complexity measures, which are based on Eigenvalue (EV) spectrum analyses (e.g., Ω entropy) have been successfully applied to EEG data, but have not been fully evaluated on functional MRI recordings, because only through the recent introduction of fast multiband fMRI sequences, feasable temporal resolutions are reached. Combining the Eigenspectrum normalization of Ω entropy and the scalable architecture of the so called Multivariate Principal Subspace Entropy (MPSE) leads to a new complexity measure, namely normalized MPSE (nMPSE)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shengdun Wu, Yangsong Zhang, Yan Cui, Heng Li, Jiakang Wang, Lijun Guo, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu, Daqing Guo
Our mysterious brain is believed to operate near a non-equilibrium point and generate critical self-organized avalanches in neuronal activity. A central topic in neuroscience is to elucidate the underlying circuitry mechanisms of neuronal avalanches in the brain. Recent experimental evidence has revealed significant heterogeneity in both synaptic input and output connectivity, but whether the structural heterogeneity participates in the regulation of neuronal avalanches remains poorly understood. By computational modeling, we predict that different types of structural heterogeneity contribute distinct effects on avalanche neurodynamics...
November 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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