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brain AND connectivity

Chao Zhang, Stefi A Baum, Viraj R Adduru, Bharat B Biswal, Andrew M Michael
While static functional connectivity (sFC) of resting state fMRI (rfMRI) measures the average functional connectivity (FC) over the entire rfMRI scan, dynamic FC (dFC) captures the temporal variations of FC at shorter time windows. Although numerous studies have implemented dFC analyses, only a few studies have investigated the reliability of dFC and this limits the biological interpretation of dFC. Here, we used a large cohort (N = 820) of subjects and four rfMRI scans from the Human Connectome Project to systematically explore the relationship between sFC, dFC and their test-retest reliabilities through intra-class correlation (ICC)...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jungsoo Lee, Ahee Lee, Heegoo Kim, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Most previous stroke studies have been performed in heterogeneous patient populations. Moreover, the brain network might demonstrate different recovery dynamics according to lesion location. In this study, we investigated variation in motor network alterations according to lesion location. Forty patients with subcortical ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: 21 patients with supratentorial stroke (STS) and 19 patients with infratentorial stroke (ITS). All patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral assessment at 2 weeks and 3 months poststroke...
August 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Juha I Peltonen, Teemu Mäkelä, Eero Salli
OBJECTIVE: Quality assurance (QA) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often relies on imaging phantoms with suitable structures and uniform regions. However, the connection between phantom measurements and actual clinical image quality is ambiguous. Thus, it is desirable to measure objective image quality directly from clinical images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, four measurements suitable for clinical image QA were presented: image resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio, quality index and bias index...
August 17, 2018: Magma
JeYoung Jung, Maya Visser, Richard J Binney, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Numerous neuroimaging studies have identified various brain networks using task-free analyses. While these networks undoubtedly support higher cognition, their precise functional characteristics are rarely probed directly. The frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes contain the majority of the tertiary association cortex, which are key substrates for higher cognition including executive function, language, memory, and attention. Accordingly, we established the cognitive signature of a set of contrastive brain networks on the main tertiary association cortices, identified in two task-independent datasets...
August 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Marta Cano, Raquel Vilar-López, Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle, Juan Verdejo-Román, Juan F Navas, Cristina Martín-Pérez, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, José Manuel Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas, Antonio Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Accumulation of visceral adiposity can disrupt the brain's sensitivity to interoceptive feedback, which is coded in the insula. This study aimed to test the link between visceral fat and the functional connectivity of two insulae regions relevant for eating behavior: the middle-dorsal insula (mIns), which codes homeostatic changes, and the rostral insula (rIns), which codes stable representations of food properties. We also assessed the impact of visceral adiposity-associated insulae networks on food craving...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Takuya Fuchigami, Yumi Shikauchi, Ken Nakae, Manabu Shikauchi, Takeshi Ogawa, Shin Ishii
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisitions include a great deal of individual variability. This individuality often generates obstacles to the efficient use of databanks from multiple subjects. Although recent studies have suggested that inter-regional connectivity reflects individuality, conventional three-dimensional (3D) registration methods that calibrate inter-subject variability are based on anatomical information about the gray matter shape (e.g., T1-weighted). Here, we present a new registration method focusing more on the white matter structure, which is directly related to the connectivity in the brain, and apply it to subject-transfer brain decoding...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Suzanne E de Bruijn, Sanne K Verbakel, Erik de Vrieze, Hannie Kremer, Frans P M Cremers, Carel B Hoyng, L Ingeborgh van den Born, Susanne Roosing
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows substantial genetic heterogeneity. It has been estimated that in approximately 60%-80% of RP cases, the genetic diagnosis can be found using whole exome sequencing (WES). In this study, the purpose was to identify causative variants in individuals with genetically unexplained retinal disease, which included one consanguineous family with two affected siblings and one case with RP. METHODS: To identify the genetic defect, WES was performed in both probands, and clinical analysis was performed...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Koen Bolhuis, Ryan L Muetzel, Argyris Stringaris, James J Hudziak, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Manon H J Hillegers, Tonya White, Steven A Kushner, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Studies of white matter connectivity in children with disruptive behavior have yielded inconsistent results, possibly owing to the trait's heterogeneity, which comprises diverse symptoms like physical aggression, irritability, and delinquency. This study examined associations of global and specific white matter connectivity with childhood disruptive behavior problems, while accounting for their complex multidimensionality. METHODS: In a large cross-sectional population-based study of 10-year-old preadolescents (n = 2567), we assessed four previously described empirically derived dimensions of disruptive behavior problems using the Child Behavior Checklist: physical aggression, irritability, disobedient behavior, and delinquent behavior...
August 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
George M Ibrahim, Alexander G Weil, Shaina Sedighim, Nathan B Schoen, Mirriam Mikhail, Priya Sharma, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Iahn Cajigas, Walter J Jermakowicz, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Evan C Lewis, Aria Fallah, Nolan Altman, Santiago Medina, Esperanza Pacheco-Jacome, Prasanna Jayakar, Ann Hyslop, Ian Miller, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia, Byron Bernal
PURPOSE: Magnetic Resonance-guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (MRgLITT) is an emerging minimally-invasive alternative to resective surgery for medically-intractable epilepsy. The precise lesioning effect produced by MRgLITT supplies opportunities to glean insights into epileptogenic regions and their interactions with functional brain networks. In this exploratory analysis, we sought to characterize associations between MRgLITT ablation zones and large-scale brain networks that portended seizure outcome using resting-state fMRI...
August 9, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Veronica Guadagni, Ford Burles, Michele Ferrara, Giuseppe Iaria
The human ability to vicariously share someone else's emotions (i.e., emotional empathy) relies on an extended neural network including regions in the anterior cingulate and insular cortex. Here, we tested the hypothesis that good sleep quality is associated with increased activation in the brain areas underlying emotional empathy. To this aim, we assessed subjective sleep quality in a large sample of healthy young volunteers, and asked participants to complete a computerized emotional empathy task. Then, we asked 16 participants to complete the same task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Vanessa R Kay, Matthew T Ratsep, Lindsay S Cahill, Andrew F Hickman, Bruno Zavan, Margaret E Newport, Jacob Ellegood, Christine L Laliberte, James N Reynolds, Peter Carmeliet, Chandrakant Tayade, John G Sled, B Anne Croy
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive syndrome occurring in 3-5% of human pregnancies, has lifelong health consequences for the fetus. Cognitive ability throughout life is altered and adult stroke risk is increased in these offspring. One potential etiological factor for altered brain development is low concentrations of pro-angiogenic placental growth factor (PGF). Impaired PGF production may promote an anti-angiogenic fetal environment during neural and cerebrovascular development. We previously reported delayed vascularization of the hindbrain, altered retinal vascular organization and less connectivity in the circle of Willis in Pgf-/- mice...
August 17, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Caroline Schlüter, Christoph Fraenz, Marlies Pinnow, Patrick Friedrich, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genç
Individuals differ in their ability to initiate self- and emotional-control mechanisms. These differences have been explicitly described in Kuhl's action-control theory. Although interindividual differences in action control make a major contribution to our everyday life, their neural foundation remains unknown. Here, we measured action control in a sample of 264 healthy adults and related interindividual differences in action control to variations in brain structure and resting-state connectivity. Our results demonstrate a significant negative correlation between decision-related action orientation (AOD) and amygdala volume...
August 17, 2018: Psychological Science
Casper A M M van Oers, Nadya Goldberg, Gaetano Fiorin, Martijn P van den Heuvel, L Jaap Kappelle, Frank N K Wijnen
Developmental dyslexia is commonly believed to result from a deficiency in the recognition and processing of speech sounds. According to the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, this phonological deficit is caused by deficient cerebellar function. In the current study, 26 adults with developmental dyslexia and 25 non-dyslexic participants underwent testing of reading-related skills, cerebellar functions, and MRI scanning of the brain. Anatomical assessment of the cerebellum was conducted with voxel-based morphometry...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Bianca A Silva, Allison M Burns, Johannes Gräff
RATIONALE: The experience of strong traumata leads to the formation of enduring fear memories that may degenerate into post-traumatic stress disorder. One of the most successful treatments for this condition consists of extinction training during which the repeated exposure to trauma-inducing stimuli in a safe environment results in an attenuation of the fearful component of trauma-related memories. While numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates of recent (e.g., 1-day-old) fear memory attenuation, much less is known about the neural networks mediating the attenuation of remote (e...
August 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mehdi Borjkhani, Fariba Bahrami, Mahyar Janahmadi
There are several experimental studies which suggest opioids consumption forms pathological memories in different brain regions. For example it has been empirically demonstrated that the theta rhythm which appears during chronic opioid consumption is correlated with the addiction memory formation. In this paper, we present a minimal computational model that shows how opioids can change firing patterns of the neurons during acute and chronic opioid consumption and also during withdrawal periods. The model consists of a pre- and post-synaptic neuronal circuits and the astrocyte that monitors the synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Thu Lan Nguyen, Arnaud Duchon, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Nadège Loaëc, Benoît Villiers, Guillaume Pani, Meltem Karatas, Anna E Mechling, Laura-Adela Harsan, Emmanuelle Limanton, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, François Carreaux, Spiros D Garbis, Laurent Meijer, Yann Herault
Growing evidence support the implication of DYRK1A in the development of cognitive deficits seen in Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of brain DYRK1A is able to correct recognition memory deficits in three DS mouse models with increasing genetic complexity (Tg( Dyrk1a ), Ts65Dn, Dp1Yey), all expressing an extra copy of Dyrk1a Overexpressed DYRK1A accumulates in the cytoplasm and at the synapse. Treatment of the three DS models with the pharmacological DYRK1A inhibitor Leucettine L41 leads to normalization of DYRK1A activity and corrects the novel object cognitive impairment observed in these models...
August 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Chao Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Chang Liu, Guojun Zhang, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
The aims of this study were to investigate the brain network connectivity alterations of intractable unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with cognitive dysfunction before and after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study and to further observe the correlation between the brain network connectivity with cognitive performance. Fourteen patients with unilateral left MTLE before and after ATL were compared with thirty healthy controls (HCs) on functional connectivity (FC) between resting-state networks (RSNs)...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Freyr Patterson, Jennifer Fleming, Emmah Doig
OBJECTIVES: The use of groups is common in healthcare. There is a paucity of research which captures patient experiences of group participation. The aims of this study were to explore the perceptions and experiences of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) about their participation in inpatient occupational therapy rehabilitation groups. METHOD: A phenomenological approach guided the study. Patients with a TBI who were participating in an inpatient occupational therapy group program were recruited...
August 2, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Jie Li, Qian Liu, Zihao Liu, Qian Xia, Zihao Zhang, Rui Zhang, Taihong Gao, Guangyan Gu, Yanan Wang, Dan Wang, Xiuyang Chen, Yihang Yang, Dong He, Tao Xin
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells maintain energy metabolism mainly by glycolysis, even under sufficient oxygen conditions. It gives cancer cells better growth advantages under complicated internal environment. KPNA2 is a novel oncogene that has received much attention in recent years, but the exact mechanisms of KPNA2 in tumorigenesis and progression are largely unknown. Especially its potential roles in the metabolic transformation of tumors still remain to be explored. METHODS: The expressions of KPNA2 in glioblastoma and normal human brain samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Laurens R Krol, Juliane Pawlitzki, Fabien Lotte, Klaus Gramann, Thorsten O Zander
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular method to monitor brain activity, but it is difficult to evaluate EEG-based analysis methods because no ground-truth brain activity is available for comparison. Therefore, in order to test and evaluate such methods, researchers often use simulated EEG data instead of actual EEG recordings. Simulated data can be used, among other things, to assess or compare signal processing and machine learning algorithms, to model EEG variabilities, and to design source reconstruction methods...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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