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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326291/whether-visual-related-structural-and-functional-changes-occur-in-brain-of-patients-with-acute-incomplete-cervical-cord-injury-a-multimodal-based-mri-study
#1
Qian Chen, Weimin Zheng, Xin Chen, Xuejing Li, Ling Wang, Wen Qin, Kuncheng Li, Nan Chen
Visual-related cortex plays an important role in the process of movement. It is great of importance to clarify whether traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which is a typical disease resulted in sensorimotor dysfunction, leads to the alteration of visual-related brain structure and function area. To address this issue, multimodality MRI was applied on eleven patients with acute incomplete cervical cord injury (ICCI) and eleven healthy controls (HCs) to explore possible structural and functional changes of the brain...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326202/an-open-source-automated-surgical-instrument-for-microendoscope-implantation
#2
Bo Liang, Lifeng Zhang, Casey Moffitt, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin
BACKGROUND: Gradient index (GRIN) lenses can be used to image deep brain regions otherwise inaccessiblevia standard optical imaging methods. Brain tissue aspiration before GRIN lens implantation is a widely adopted approach. However, typical brain tissue aspiration methods still rely on a handheld vacuum needle, which is subjective to human error and low reproducibility. Therefore, a high-precision automated surgical instrument for brain tissue aspiration is desirable. NEW METHOD: We developed a robotic surgical instrument that utilizes robotic control of a needle connected to a vacuum pump to aspirate brain tissue...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325970/emergent-mechanisms-of-evidence-integration-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#3
Silvan Quax, Marcel van Gerven
Recent advances in machine learning have enabled neural networks to solve tasks humans typically perform. These networks offer an exciting new tool for neuroscience that can give us insight in the emergence of neural and behavioral mechanisms. A big gap remains though between the very deep neural networks that have risen in popularity and outperformed many existing shallow networks in the field of computer vision and the highly recurrently connected human brain. This trend towards ever-deeper architectures raises the question why the brain has not developed such an architecture...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325020/baroreflex-functionality-in-the-eye-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#4
Ching-Yi Tsai, Yan-Yuen Poon, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
By application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a physiological tool to evaluate changes in functional connectivity between key brain stem nuclei in the baroreflex neural circuits of mice and rats, recent work revealed several hitherto unidentified phenomena regarding baroreflex functionality. (1) The presence of robust functional connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and nucleus ambiguus (NA) or rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) offers a holistic view on the moment-to-moment modus operandi of the cardiac vagal baroreflex or baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324850/-express-pain-related-white-matter-tract-abnormalities-in-mtbi-patients-with-headache
#5
Albert Leung, Eric Yang, Michael Lim, Valerie Metzger-Smith, Rebecca Theilmann, David Song, Lisa Lin, Alice Tsai, Roland Lee
The occurrence of debilitating chronic persistent (24/7) headache after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) represents a central neuropathic pain state. Previous studies suggest that this chronic headache (HA) state can be attributed to altered supraspinal modulatory functional connectivity in both resting and evoked pain states. Abnormalities in the myelin sheaths along the supraspinal Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) and Anterior Thalamic Radiation (ATR) are frequently associated with alteration in pain modulation related to functional connectivity deficit with the prefrontal cortex...
October 16, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324609/non-rem-sleep-and-the-neural-correlates-of-consciousness-more-than-meets-the-eyes
#6
U Olcese
The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain...
September 1, 2018: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324181/impact-of-variable-rna-sequencing-depth-on-gene-expression-signatures-and-target-compound-robustness-case-study-examining-brain-tumor-glioma-disease-progression
#7
Alexey Stupnikov, Paul G O'Reilly, Caitriona E McInerney, Aideen C Roddy, Philip D Dunne, Alan Gilmore, Hayley P Ellis, Tom Flannery, Estelle Healy, Stuart A McIntosh, Kienan Savage, Kathreena M Kurian, Frank Emmert-Streib, Kevin M Prise, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Darragh G McArt
Purpose: Gene expression profiling can uncover biologic mechanisms underlying disease and is important in drug development. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is routinely used to assess gene expression, but costs remain high. Sample multiplexing reduces RNAseq costs; however, multiplexed samples have lower cDNA sequencing depth, which can hinder accurate differential gene expression detection. The impact of sequencing depth alteration on RNA-seq-based downstream analyses such as gene expression connectivity mapping is not known, where this method is used to identify potential therapeutic compounds for repurposing...
September 13, 2018: JCO Precision Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323648/modulation-of-prefrontal-connectivity-in-postherpetic-neuralgia-patients-with-chronic-pain-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Jun Li, Xuehua Huang, Kangning Sang, Mark Bodner, Ke Ma, Xiao-Wei Dong
Background: Although the interaction between pain and cognition has been recognized for decades, the neural substrates underlying their association remain unclear. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known as a critical brain area for higher cognitive functions, as well as for pain perception and modulation. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of the PFC in the interaction between chronic pain and cognitive functions by examining the relationship between spontaneous activity in the frontal lobe and pain intensity reported by postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) patients...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323562/evaluation-of-methotrexate-conjugated-gadolinium-iii-for-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
Dan Xu, Shu-Ting Lu, Yu-Shuang Li, Aju Baidya, Hao Mei, Yong He, Bo Wu
Background: Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. It is usually evaluated by gadolinium(III)-based contrast agents by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the clinic. Methotrexate (MTX), as a type of folate analog that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat gliomas in the experiment. Purpose: In this study, a novel theranostic agent MTX-DOTA-Gd (MTX-Gd) was synthesized, which integrates magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with anticancer treatment...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323317/a-gut-brain-neural-connection-for-rapid-nutrient-sensing
#10
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323122/apomorphine-effects-on-the-hippocampus
#11
REVIEW
Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322279/quantitative-and-qualitative-comparison-of-eeg-based-neural-network-organization-in-two-schizophrenia-groups-differing-in-the-duration-of-illness-and-disease-burden-graph-analysis-with-application-of-the-minimum-spanning-tree
#12
Kamil Jonak, Paweł Krukow, Katarzyna E Jonak, Cezary Grochowski, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
The aim of this study was to compare neural network topology of 30 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 30 multiepisode schizophrenia (mean number of psychotic relapses =4 years, duration of illness >5 years) patients, who were assessed with graph theory methods. This comparison was designed to identify network differences, which might be assigned to the burden of a mental disease. To estimate functional connectivity, we applied the phase lag index algorithm and the minimum spanning tree (MST) for the characterization of network topology...
October 16, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322151/chronic-upregulation-of-cleaved-caspase-3-associated-with-chronic-myelin-pathology-and-microvascular-reorganization-in-the-thalamus-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#13
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321791/cognitive-control-neuroimaging-measures-differentiate-between-those-with-and-without-future-recurrence-of-depression
#14
Scott A Langenecker, Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Yi-Shin Chang, Sophie R DelDonno, Katie L Bessette, Alessandra M Passarotti, Runa Bhaumik, Olusola Ajilore, Rachel H Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a prevalent, disruptive illness. A majority of those with MDD are at high risk for recurrence and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether multimodal baseline (and retest) Cognitive Control performance and neuroimaging markers (task activation and neural connectivity between key brain nodes) could differentiate between those with and without future recurrence of a major depressive (MD) episode within one year...
October 4, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321652/computational-models-of-memory-consolidation-and-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-during-sleep
#15
César Rennó-Costa, Ana Claudia Costa, Wilfredo Blanco, Sidarta Ribeiro
The brain stores memories by persistently changing the connectivity between neurons. Sleep is known to be critical for these changes to endure. Research on the neurobiology of sleep and the mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity has provided data in support of various theories of how brain activity during sleep affects long-term synaptic plasticity. The experimental findings - and therefore the theories - are apparently quite contradictory, with some evidence pointing to a role of sleep in the forgetting of irrelevant memories, whereas other results indicate that sleep supports the reinforcement of the most valuable recollections...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321600/imaging-biomarkers-of-epileptogenecity-after-traumatic-brain-injury-preclinical-frontiers
#16
REVIEW
Riikka Immonen, Neil G Harris, David Wright, Leigh Johnston, Eppu Manninen, Gregory Smith, Afshin Paydar, Craig Branch, Olli Grohn
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a major neurodegenerative disease accounting for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy cases. A long latent phase offers a potential window for prophylactic treatment strategies to prevent epilepsy onset, provided that the patients at risk can be identified. Some promising imaging biomarker candidates for posttraumatic epileptogenesis have been identified, but more are required to provide the specificity and sensitivity for accurate prediction. Experimental models and preclinical longitudinal, multimodal imaging studies allow follow-up of complex cascade of events initiated by traumatic brain injury, as well as monitoring of treatment effects...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321565/post-mortem-high-resolution-diffusion-mri-for-large-specimen-imaging-at-11-7-tesla-with-3d-segmented-echo-planar-imaging
#17
Sophie Bernadette Sébille, Anne-Sophie Rolland, Marie-Laure Welter, Eric Bardinet, Mathieu David Santin
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is the only in vivo technique allowing for the mapping of tissue fiber architecture. Post mortem DWI is an increasingly popular method, since longer acquisition times (compared to in vivo) allow higher spatial and angular resolutions to be achieved. However, DWI protocols must be adapted to post mortem tissue (e.g., tuning acquisition parameters to account for changes in T1/T2). NEW METHOD: In this work, we developed a framework to obtain high quality diffusion weighted images on post mortem large samples by using a combination of fast imaging with 3D diffusion-weighted segmented EPI (3D-DW seg-EPI), Gadolinium soaking and data denoising...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321291/preterm-birth-changes-networks-of-newborn-cortical-activity
#18
Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls...
February 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321025/converging-meta-analytic-and-connectomic-evidence-for-functional-subregions-within-the-human-retrosplenial-region
#19
Elizabeth R Chrastil, Sean M Tobyne, Rachel K Nauer, Allen E Chang, Chantal E Stern
Interest in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has surged in recent years, as this region has been implicated in a range of cognitive processes. Previously reported anatomical and functional definitions of the human RSC encompass a larger area than expected from underlying cytoarchitectonic profiles. Here, we used a large-scale, unbiased, and data-driven approach combining functional MRI meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods to test the nature of this heterogeneity. The automated toolset Neurosynth was used to conduct meta-analyses in order to (a) identify heterogeneous areas in the retrosplenial region (RS region) associated with one or more cognitive domains, and (b) contrast the activation profiles related to these domains...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320311/brain-decoding-from-functional-mri-using-long-short-term-memory-recurrent-neural-networks
#20
Hongming Li, Yong Fan
Decoding brain functional states underlying different cognitive processes using multivariate pattern recognition techniques has attracted increasing interests in brain imaging studies. Promising performance has been achieved using brain functional connectivity or brain activation signatures for a variety of brain decoding tasks. However, most of existing studies have built decoding models upon features extracted from imaging data at individual time points or temporal windows with a fixed interval, which might not be optimal across different cognitive processes due to varying temporal durations and dependency of different cognitive processes...
September 2018: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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