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emergency treatment

Ismail Altintop, Mehmet Tatli
AIM: Elderly physical abuse (EPA) is defined as injury or assault to or the restriction of an elderly person. Although EPA is an important social problem, its diagnosis is difficult because of tendency to cover up the event. In this study, patients aged 65 years and over who presented at the emergency department (ED) for forensic reasons and in whom physical abuse was suspected were examined. The aim of this study was to raise ED awareness of EPA and thereby to contribute to treatment plans for these patients in the ED...
August 13, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Marie Jalovecka, David Hartmann, Yukiko Miyamoto, Lars Eckmann, Ondrej Hajdusek, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Daniel Sojka
Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted zoonosis caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia. Treatment of this emerging malaria-related disease has relied on antimalarial drugs and antibiotics. The proteasome of Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, has recently been validated as a target for anti-malarial drug development and therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of epoxyketone (carfilzomib, ONX-0914 and epoxomicin) and boronic acid (bortezomib and ixazomib) proteasome inhibitors on the growth and survival of Babesia...
August 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Seung Woo Chung, Gui Chul Kim, Seho Kweon, Hanul Lee, Jeong Uk Choi, Foyez Mahmud, Hyo Won Chang, Ji Won Kim, Woo-Chan Son, Sang Yoon Kim, Youngro Byun
Metronomic chemotherapy, which is defined as a low-dose and frequent administration of cytotoxic drugs without drug-free breaks, has been recently emerged as an alternative to traditional MTD therapy and has shown therapeutic benefit in breast cancer patients in numbers of clinical studies. Unlike MTD, metronomic chemotherapy acts by multiple mechanisms including antiangiogenic effect and immunomodulation, but the direct cytotoxic effect only playing a minor role due to the lowered dose. In this light, within the limits of p53-deficient breast cancer, we demonstrate the enhanced anticancer effect of metronomic chemotherapy using doxorubicin when combined with Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 by specifically augmenting the direct cytotoxic effect on cancer cells...
August 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Lei Zhang, Yufeng Wang, Liang Wang, Guozhi Yin, Weimin Li, Yao Xian, Wei Yang, Qingguang Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a variety of development and physiologic processes, and play prominent roles in the initiation and progression of human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MiR-23c is recently emerging as a cancer-associated miRNA, while its expression status and functional role in HCC are unrevealed yet. Here, we found that miR-23c underexpression was associated with the tumorigenesis of HCC based on TCGA data. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that miR-23c expression was reduced in HCC tissues and cell lines...
August 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bridget E Shields, Misha Rosenbach, Zoe Brown-Joel, Anthony Berger, Bradley A Ford, Karolyn A Wanat
Angioinvasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality due to their propensity to invade blood vessel walls, resulting in catastrophic tissue ischemia, infarct, and necrosis. While occasionally seen in immunocompetent hosts, opportunistic fungi are emerging in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with hematologic malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), organ transplant, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has led to an "arms race" of emerging fungal resistance patterns...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kornelia Kreiser, Isabell Gröber, Claus Zimmer, Katharina Storck
BACKGROUND: Carotid blowout syndrome due to tumor infiltration, fistulas, and therapy-related necrosis can occur as late as years after the treatment. Reporting our experiences with preventive and acute treatment with stent grafts and discussing different ways of antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: We reviewed all patients between 2010 and 2016 who underwent stent graft placement and analyzed outcome, complications, and antiplatelet regime. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated in 24 sessions (n = 7 threatened, n = 5 imminent, and n = 12 acute bleeding)...
August 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Abner Barnuevo, Takashi Asaeda
The continuous degradation of mangrove habitats has encouraged governments and multi-lateral agencies to undertake rehabilitation initiatives to foster the recovery and biodiversity of these areas. However, some rehabilitation initiatives suffer high mortality because of incorrect species-site matching and failure to recognize the ecophysiology of mangrove species. This study investigated the effects of salinity, water depth and inundation on the growth, biochemical stress responses, and ecophysiology of Rhizophora stylosa in greenhouse conditions...
2018: PloS One
Akbar N Ashrafi, Alessandro Tafuri, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Daniel Park, Andre L de Castro Abreu, Inderbir S Gill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present a perspective on the current status and future directions of focal therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: Focal therapy for localized PCa is a rapidly evolving field. Various recent concepts - the index lesion driving prognosis, the enhanced detection of clinically significant PCa using multiparametric MRI and targeted biopsy, improved risk-stratification using novel blood/tissue biomarkers, the recognition that reducing radical treatment-related morbidity (along with reducing pathologic progression) is a clinically meaningful end-point - have all led to a growing interest in focal therapy...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Takumi Shiraishi, Osamu Ukimura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of low-to-intermediate risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, focal therapy has become one of the promising treatment options in the world. In Asia, same movement are occurring using several technologies including cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, brachytherapy and irreversible electroporation. However, these are still not common strategies to treat organ-confined PCa...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Lauren Scalercio, Jillian Vitter, Clint E Elliott
A patient with a history of Prinzmetal angina, refractory ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and obesity presented to the emergency department at 17 weeks gestational age with a chief complaint of angina and multiple episodes of defibrillation. A T3/4 thoracic epidural was placed to assess the effectiveness of a partial chemical sympathectomy in alleviating symptoms of angina as well as decreasing the amount of defibrillation episodes. Once this proved to be beneficial in accomplishing both of these goals, a more specific approach was designed...
August 10, 2018: A&A practice
Deborah Pencharz, Gopinath Gnanasegaran, Shaunak Navalkissoor
Theranostics and its principles: pre-treatment selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment by the use of a related, specific diagnostic test are integral to the treatment of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is due to NET's important, but variable, somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression, their heterogeneity and variation in site of primary and rate of progression. Only patients whose tumours have sufficient expression of SSTRs will benefit from SSTR based radionuclide therapy and demonstrating this expression prior to therapy is essential...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Thuc Hue Ly, Qingming Deng, Manh-Ha Doan, Lain-Jong Li, Jiong Zhao
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been emerging as potential candidates for the next generation materials in various technology fields. The performance of the devices based on these 2D materials depends on their intrinsic band structures as well as the extrinsic (doping) effects such as surrounding chemicals and environmental oxygen/moisture, which strongly determines their Fermi energy level. Herein, we report the UV treatments on the 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMdCs), to controllably dope the samples without damaging the crystal structures or quenching the luminescence properties...
August 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Barbara Jester, Timothy Uyeki, Daniel Jernigan
The 1918 H1N1 pandemic caused unprecedented mortality worldwide. The tools to deal with the global emergency were limited with insufficient surveillance systems and a dearth of diagnostic, treatment, and prevention options. With continuing focus on pandemic planning, technologic advances in surveillance, vaccine capabilities, and 21st century medical care and countermeasures, we are more prepared for a severe pandemic than 100 years ago; however, notable gaps remain.
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
A Rebecca L Hamilton, Karl W du Pré le Roux, Catherine W Young, Björn Södergård
BACKGROUND: The majority of global HIV infections in children under 10 years of age occur during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, despite improved coverage of 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' (PMTCT) guidelines to reduce vertical transmission. This article looks closer at one community-based peer mentorship programme [Mentor Mothers Zithulele (MMZ)] in the Eastern Cape, South Africa which aims to supplement the existing heavily burdened antenatal programmes and improve PMTCT care...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Suruchi Nepal, Florian Bonn, Stefano Grasso, Tim Stobernack, Anne de Jong, Kai Zhou, Ronald Wedema, Sigrid Rosema, Dörte Becher, Andreas Otto, John W Rossen, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Erik Bathoorn
The exchange of mobile genomic islands (MGIs) between microorganisms is often mediated by phages, which may provide benefits to the phage's host. The present study started with the identification of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates with exceptional cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance phenotypes from patients in a neonatal ward. To identify possible molecular connections between these isolates and their β-lactam resistance phenotypes, the respective bacterial genome sequences were compared...
August 13, 2018: Virulence
Jane C Davies, Isaac Martin
Cystic fibrosis is characterized by bacterial lung infection, a majority of adults being chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment is a major challenge, with frequent courses of antibiotics contributing to antimicrobial resistance. New approaches are clearly required. Over the last few years, a major shift in our approach to treating CF has occurred with the availability of the first drugs targeting the CFTR protein and leading to improvements in lung function, weight gain and frequency of exacerbations...
August 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ece Egilmezer, Gregory J Walker, Padmavathy Bakthavathsalam, Joshua R Peterson, J Justin Gooding, William Rawlinson, Sacha Stelzer-Braid
Acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant burden on the health care system. Laboratory testing is required to definitively distinguish infecting influenza virus from other pathogens, resulting in prolonged emergency department (ED) visits and unnecessary antibiotic use. Recently available rapid point-of-care tests (POCT) may allow for appropriate use of antiviral and antibiotic treatments and decrease patient lengths of stay. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effect of POCT for influenza on three outcomes: (1) antiviral prescription, (2) antibiotic prescription, and (3) patient length of stay in the ED...
August 13, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
D Hagins, C Orkin, E S Daar, A Mills, C Brinson, E DeJesus, F A Post, J Morales-Ramirez, M Thompson, O Osiyemi, B Rashbaum, H-J Stellbrink, C Martorell, H Liu, Y-P Liu, D Porter, S E Collins, D SenGupta, M Das
OBJECTIVES: The single-tablet regimen rilpivirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (RPV/FTC/TAF) for treatment of HIV-1-infected adults was approved based on bioequivalence. We assessed the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of switching to RPV/FTC/TAF from either RPV/FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF. METHODS: We conducted two distinct randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trials in participants taking RPV/FTC/TDF (Study 1216) and EFV/FTC/TDF (Study 1160)...
August 12, 2018: HIV Medicine
Giovanni Ribaudo, Enrico Zanforlin, Giuseppe Zagotto
The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical management of oncological patients spread the light on the use of selective, rationally designed small molecules for the treatment of cancer. First-generation TKIs bared high response against these malignancies, although the unavoidable shadow of resistance limits their long-term efficacy. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancer cases, and it is the first cause of cancer deaths worldwide for men and women. Traditional chemotherapy is marginally effective against this form, and erlotinib and gefitinib were introduced as first-line treatments based on the observation that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is mutated in several cases and, thus, represents a druggable target...
August 12, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
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