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critical interventions

Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Nathalie Swinnen, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the benefits of being active for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on cognition and the acknowledgement that MCI is a critical period for intervening to prevent dementia, little is known about the actual sedentary levels in people with MCI. This study investigates correlates of sedentary behavior (SB) in people with MCI. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
October 16, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Uwe Wahl, Ingmar Kaden, Andreas Köhler, Tobias Hirsch
Hypothenar or thenar hammer syndrome (HHS) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) are diseases caused by acute or chronic trauma to the upper extremities. Since both diseases are generally related to occupation and are recognised as occupational diseases in most countries, vascular physicians need to be able to distinguish between the two entities and differentiate them from other diagnoses. A total of 867 articles were identified as part of an Internet search on PubMed and in non-listed occupational journals...
October 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
M R Orchard, J Hooper, J A Wright, K McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome describes the condition of extreme electrolyte and fluid depletion caused by large distal colorectal tumours, usually the benign villous adenoma. Patients generally present critically unwell with severe hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia and/or acute kidney injury. METHODS: A structured literature review was undertaken to discover what is known about this condition, which is almost universally described as rare. Important features of the syndrome were identified, including common presenting symptoms, blood results, tumour location and size...
October 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Dimosthenis A Sarigiannis, Spyros P Karakitsios
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Assessment of the health impacts related to industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between ICSs and public health do not provide established mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, potentially resulting in suboptimal risk management measures. OBJECTIVES: to assess the potential of the exposome paradigm to overhaul ICS risk assessment and management leading to precision prevention and targeted interventions...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Sebastian Stange, Zsolt Sziklavari
BACKGROUND: Chylothorax is a multifactorial complication, usually caused by surgery or traumatic injury, and more rarely by malignant disease. Because of the lack of prospective, randomised trials, the evidence-based treatment rests upon personal experience, but ideally taking into account retrospective analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available modern treatment options. Another aspect is to show their advantages and disadvantages...
October 15, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Susana Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
The last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap in risk, comorbidity, and pathophysiological mechanisms across obesity, T2D and brain disturbances; settings that seem to be worsened when both obesity and T2D occur simultaneously, the so-called diabesity...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Lois Bayigga, David P Kateete, Deborah J Anderson, Musa Sekikubo, Damalie Nakanjako
The vaginal microbial community ("microbiota") is a key component of the reproductive health of women, providing protection against urogenital infections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by bacterial overgrowth and a shift away from a lactobacillus-dominated profile towards increased percentages of strict anaerobic species. BV is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections , pre-term births and pelvic inflammatory disease...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Manisha Gandhi, Rajshi Gandhi, Lauren M Mack, Roman Shypailo, Anne L Adolph, Maurice R Puyau, William W Wong, Russell L Deter, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Wesley Lee, Nancy F Butte
Background: Although the impact of gestational weight gain (GWG) on birth weight in twin pregnancies has been demonstrated, the specific components of GWG have not been delineated for twin gestations. Fetal body composition has been shown to be modifiable in singleton gestations based on nutritional intervention strategies and may prove to have similar modifications in twin gestations. Objective: We aimed to determine the relation of maternal body composition changes to birth weight, birth length, and neonatal fat mass (FM) in dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hiroshi Kurosaka
Proper craniofacial development in vertebrates depends on growth and fusion of the facial processes during embryogenesis. Failure of any step in this process could lead to craniofacial anomalies such as facial clefting, which has been well studied with regard to its molecular etiology and cellular pathogenesis. Nasal cavity invagination is also a critical event in proper craniofacial development, and is required for the formation of a functional nasal cavity and airway. The nasal cavity must connect the nasopharynx with the primitive choanae to complete an airway from the nostril to the nasopharynx...
October 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Wendell C Taylor, Richard R Suminski, Bhibha M Das, Raheem J Paxton, Derek W Craig
Background: Time spent in sedentary behaviors is an independent risk factor for several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiometabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension). Recently, interventions to reduce sitting time at work (a prominent sedentary behavior) have been developed and tested. Organizational culture plays a critical role in the success of workplace interventions. However, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the role of organizational culture in reducing sitting time in the workplace...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
M Ghoddusi Johari, M H Dabaghmanesh, H Zare, A R Safaeian, Gh Abdollahifard
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease, and its increasing prevalence is a global concern. If diabetes mellitus is left untreated, poor control of blood glucose may cause long-term complications. A big challenge encountered by clinicians is the clinical management of diabetes. Many IT-based interventions such ad CDSS have been made to improve the adherence to the standard care for chronic diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a decision support system of diabetes management based on diabetes care guidelines in order to reduce medical errors and increase adherence to guidelines...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Heejung Chun, Ian Marriott, C Justin Lee, Hansang Cho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative illness and the exact etiology of the disease remains unknown. It is characterized by long preclinical and prodromal phases with pathological features including an accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides into extracellular Aβ plaques in the brain parenchyma and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within neurons as a result of abnormal phosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau proteins. In addition, prominent activation of innate immune cells is also observed and/or followed by marked neuroinflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili, Afsaneh Vazin
Managing psychological problems in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) is a big challenge, requiring pharmacological interventions. On the other hand, these patients are more prone to side effects and drug interactions associated with psychotropic drugs use. Benzodiazepines (BZDs), antidepressants, and antipsychotics are commonly used in critically ill patients. Therefore, their therapeutic effects and adverse events are discussed in this study. Different studies have shown that non-BZD drugs are preferred to BZDs for agitation and pain management, but antipsychotic agents are not recommended...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
David John Burrows, Alexander McGown, Saurabh A Jain, Milena De Felice, Tennore M Ramesh, Basil Sharrack, Arshad Majid
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Animal models of MS have been critical for elucidating MS pathological mechanisms and how they may be targeted for therapeutic intervention. Here we review the most commonly used animal models of MS. Although these animal models cannot fully replicate the MS disease course, a number of models have been developed to recapitulate certain stages. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been used to explore neuroinflammatory mechanisms and toxin-induced demyelinating models to further our understanding of oligodendrocyte biology, demyelination and remyelination...
October 15, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Lauren F Lichty, L Kris Gowen
Adolescents and young adults face the highest incidence of sexual assault, yet only limited research focuses on the experience of adolescent survivors, adolescent rape myth acceptance, or the ways youth respond to rape. Survivors tend to disclose to at least one person, typically peers, and the response, whether positive or negative, can impact well-being and help-seeking behaviors. Focus groups across Oregon, a leader in state-level comprehensive sexuality education policy, solicited high school-student reactions to an alcohol-involved rape scenario...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lynn Gitlow, Blaire Janney, Caitlyn Lemery, Julianne McDonald, Bethany McGinley, Kristin Rabideau
Anxiety disorders and/or depression are the most frequently diagnosed mental health problems (MHP) among American college students. Everyday technology (EDT) is being used with those who have MHP to help them cope with the mental/cognitive disabilities arising from having anxiety and/or depression. Deveau investigated the types of EDT students with MHP use to manage their roles as college students. While this research indicated that individuals with MHP were open to learning about EDT they can use, the author recommended further investigation of the topic...
October 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Yohko Maki, Takashi Sakurai, Jiro Okochi, Haruyasu Yamaguchi, Kenji Toba
The goal of dementia treatment is to improve the quality of life for both people with dementia and their families. Rehabilitation as a non-pharmacological approach, coordinated with pharmacological treatment, aims to allow patients to live better by slowing the progression, and relieving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. In dementia, the manifestation of symptoms caused by neurological impairment is modified by various factors; thus, multidimensional assessment and approaches are effective based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, which emphasizes the healthy components of every person's functioning...
October 15, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Moira O'Connor, Georgia Kb Halkett
OBJECTIVE: Radiation therapy (RT) is a cornerstone for management of pediatric cancer. For younger patients, unintended radiation to critical organs is a concern and children need to remain immobile. Distress in children is common so many centres sedate pediatric patients. Children often are unable to remain still, due to anxiety. Interventions to reduce distress could also reduce sedation rates. The objectives of this systematic review were to: review the interventions used to address pediatric RT patients' distress and anxiety and assess their effectiveness...
September 29, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Serena B Gumusoglu, Hanna E Stevens
Early disruptions to neurodevelopment are highly relevant to understanding both psychiatric risk and underlying pathophysiology that can be targeted by new treatments. Much convergent evidence from the human literature associates inflammation during pregnancy with later neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Preclinical models of prenatal inflammation have been developed to examine the causal maternal physiological and offspring neural mechanisms underlying these findings. Here we review the strengths and limitations of preclinical models used for these purposes and describe selected studies that have shown maternal immune impacts on the brain and behavior of offspring...
August 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Rodrigo Calvillo-Ortiz, Danilo Acosta, Ammara A Watkins, Amy Evenson, Katharyn M Atkins, Tara S Kent
OBJECTIVE: Trainee mistreatment, either intentional or unintentional, negatively affects the learning environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention about mistreatment and the learning environment on general surgery residents. DESIGN: Video-based modules were developed and added to the residency curriculum. Modules provided definitions and examples of active and passive mistreatment and components of positive and negative learning environments...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
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