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critical interventions

Clayton J Shuman, Katherine Powers, Jane Banaszak-Holl, Marita G Titler
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to (a) describe nurse manager (NM) leadership behaviors for evidence-based practice, NM evidence-based practice competencies, and unit climates for evidence-based practice implementation in acute care, and (b) test for differences in NMs' and staff nurses' (RNs') perceptions. DESIGN: A multisite cross-sectional design was used to collect data from a sample of 24 NMs and 553 RNs from 24 adult medical-surgical units in seven U...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Savannah Norman, Frank DeCicco, Jennifer Sampson, Ian M Fraser
OBJECTIVES: Ensure early identification and timely management of patient deterioration as essential components of safe effective healthcare. Prompted by analyses of incident reports and deterioration events, a multicomponent organisational rescue from danger system was redesigned to decrease unexpected inpatient deterioration. DESIGN: Quality improvement before-after unblinded trial. SETTING: 430-bed Canadian community teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All admitted adult medical-surgical patients in a before-after 12-month interventional study...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Rebecca Richards, Paul Kinnersley, Kate Brain, Grace McCutchan, John Staffurth, Fiona Wood
BACKGROUND: The shift from inpatient to outpatient cancer care means that patients are now required to manage their condition at home, away from regular supervision by clinicians. Subsequently, research has consistently reported that many patients with cancer have unmet information needs during their illness. Mobile devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, provide an opportunity to deliver information to patients remotely. To date, no systematic reviews have evaluated how mobile devices have been used specifically to help patients meet to their information needs...
December 14, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Ghazaleh Eslamian, Seyed Hossein Ardehali, Ahmad-Reza Baghestani, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi
OBJECTIVES: In this study we sought to investigate the effect of early enteral bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability in intensive care unit (ICU)-hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 70 ICU-hospitalized adult patients were randomly assigned to receive a bovine colostrum supplement or placebo according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and admission category. Plasma endotoxin and zonulin concentrations were measured on days 5 and 10 of intervention...
October 12, 2018: Nutrition
Kristen Gilmore Powell, Peter Treitler, N Andrew Peterson, Suzanne Borys, Donald Hallcom
BACKGROUND: Fatal opioid overdose is a national public health concern in the United States and a critical problem confronting New Jersey's addiction treatment system. New Jersey developed an innovative program, the Opioid Overdose Recovery Program (OORP), to address the epidemic and the issue of low treatment admissions following a non-fatal overdose. The OORP utilizes an intervention model with peer recovery specialists (RSs) and patient navigators (PNs) to engage individuals within emergency departments (EDs) immediately following an opioid overdose reversal...
December 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ming Li, Jianqiang Zhao, Liang Jia
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disease. USP14, a deubiquitinating enzyme critical for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal protein degradation, is implicated in inflammation regulation. However, its role and mechanism in OA are poorly understood. Here, we report that USP14 is upregulated in OA articular cartilage as well as in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β in vitro. USP14 upregulation depends on NF-κB pathway activation, since inhibition of this pathway by ACHP, a selective inhibitor of IKK-β, abolishes USP14 upregulation...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Christopher F Basler, Nevan J Krogan, Daisy W Leung, Gaya K Amarasinghe
Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L)...
December 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Adamos Hadjipanayis
Childhood immunization is amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions for reducing children's morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is commonly used to assess the vaccination status of a community. Adherence to schedule is critical for providing maximum effectiveness against vaccine-preventable diseases in the community. This is of paramount importance for diseases that are continuously circulating because they can cause large outbreaks. All stakeholders (public health administrators and vaccination providers) should work together in order to increase both vaccination coverage and adherence to schedule...
December 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
S P Verney, L E Gibbons, N O Dmitrieva, A M Kueider, M W Williams, O L Meyer, J J Manly, S M Sisco, M Marsiske
OBJECTIVE: Health literacy is critical for understanding information from healthcare providers and correct use of medications and includes the capacity to filter other information in navigating health care systems. Older adults with low health literacy exhibit more chronic health conditions, worse physical functioning, and poorer mental health. This study examined the relationship between sociodemographic variables and health literacy, and the impact of cognitive training on change in health literacy over 10 years in older adults...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Matthew Hodes, Panos Vostanis
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, the numbers of refugees have increased and around half are under 18 years of age. It is known that experience of organised violence, displacement and resettlement increases the risk for psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment. This review integrates recent research into the risk and protective factors for psychopathology with service and treatment issues. METHODS: We draw on and critically evaluate key systematic reviews in the selected areas, innovative robust studies and relevant government reports...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Mary A Levasseur, Manuela Ferrari, Sarah McIlwaine, Srividya N Iyer
AIM: This paper aims to advance our understanding of the experience of participating in peer support groups for family members of persons with psychosis and to expand the scant body of literature on peer support in the context of early intervention services for psychosis. Such an examination is relevant because the implementation and uptake of family-focused interventions remain inconsistent in early intervention services, despite their proven benefits. METHODS: To enable family caregivers to support one another, a family peer support project was initiated at an early intervention service for psychosis in Montreal, Canada...
December 11, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Huiwen Zhang, Ying Gu, YaPing Mi, Yun Jin, Weijia Fu, Jos M Latour
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that feeding a high-energy formula (HF) to infants after cardiac surgery increases energy intake, with fewer side effects on cardiopulmonary function. However, impacts on weight gain and gastrointestinal function remain unclear. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of HF compared with standard formula on weight gain and gastrointestinal tolerance in postoperative infants with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled trial...
December 9, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
Mohammed Maqbali, Ciara Hughes, Lynn Dunwoody, Jane P Rankin, Eileen D Hacker, Jackie Gracey
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Fatigue has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients with cancer. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies on the effectiveness of exercise interventions in reducing fatigue in women with gynecologic cancer. LITERATURE SEARCH: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines using the CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, EMBASE, PsycINFO®, and Cochrane Library databases. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme was used for quality assessment...
January 13, 2019: Oncology Nursing Forum
Norma B Bulamu, Billingsley Kaambwa, Julie Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the methods and findings from a systematic review of economic evaluations conducted in the community aged care sector between 2000 and 2016. METHODS: Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and web of science, CINAHL and informit. Studies were included if they 1) were full economic evaluations that compared both the costs and outcomes of two or more interventions 2) in study population of people aged 65 years and over 3) dependent older people living in the community 4) alternatives being compared were care models or service delivery interventions in the community aged care sector (a group of programs that have been established as a support system to allow older people to remain living in their own homes for as long as possible, as an alternative to institutional or residential care) and 5) published in the English language between 2000 and November 2016...
December 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Xavier Debussche, Maryvette Balcou-Debussche
INTRODUCTION: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme. METHODS: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional ?Health Literacy Questionnaire?, and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015...
September 6, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Sabena C Thomas, Amna Umer, Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Danielle Davidov, Christiaan G Abildso
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) in the United States (U.S.). Afro-Caribbean (AC) immigrants comprise over 50% of the immigrant black population and are critical in understanding the health trajectories of blacks in the U.S. We assessed the relationship between length of residence (proxy measure for acculturation) and cardiovascular health (CVH) based on the American Heart Association's (AHA) seven ideal cardiovascular health components among AC immigrants in New York City (NYC)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anthony Jehn, Anna Zajacova
OBJECTIVES: Disability is a major concern for the health of midlife and older Canadians. Understanding disability trends is critical for detecting socio-economic and health precursors that could be amenable to policy interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess trends in rates of disability among Canadian adults age 40-64 and 65+. We also examine the impact of changing socio-demographic and health factors over time on the trends. METHODS: Data from the 2001-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a repeated cross-sectional nationally representative study, are used to estimate age- and gender-stratified logistic regression models of disability as a function of the year of interview to assess trends...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Ronald H L Li, Fern Tablin
Sepsis is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in human beings and animals. Neutrophils are the primary effector cells of innate immunity during sepsis. Besides degranulation and phagocytosis, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of cell-free DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins. Although NETs have protective roles in the initial stages of sepsis, excessive NET formation has been found to induce thrombosis and multiple organ failure in murine sepsis models...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Thomas Elmqvist, José Siri, Erik Andersson, Pippin Anderson, Xuemei Bai, Pranab Kishore Das, Tatu Gatere, Andrew Gonzalez, Julie Goodness, Steven N Handel, Ellika Hermansson Török, Jessica Kavonic, Jakub Kronenberg, Elisabet Lindgren, David Maddox, Raymond Maher, Cheikh Mbow, Timon McPhearson, Joe Mulligan, Guy Nordenson, Meggan Spires, Ulrika Stenkula, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Coleen Vogel
Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives...
2018: Sustainability science
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