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Shupeng Shi, Mimi Tang, Honglei Li, Hui Ding, Yangfan Lu, Lijuan Gao, Qian Wu, Luo Zhou, Yujiao Fu, Bo Xiao, Mengqi Zhang
Angiogenesis is positively correlated with the survival rate of stroke patients. Therefore, studying factors that initiate and promote angiogenesis after ischemic stroke is crucial for finding novel and effective treatment targets that improve the prognosis of stroke. X-box binding protein l splicing (XBP1s) plays a positive regulatory role in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. However, the role and mechanism of XBP1s on the proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia remains unclear...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a low number of T-cell population under normal conditions, and they play key roles for maintaining immune system in homeostasis. The number of these cells is extensively increased in nearly all cancers, which is for dampening responses from immune system against cancer cells, metastasis, tumor recurrence, and treatment resistance. The interesting point is that apoptotic Tregs are stronger than their live counterparts for suppressing responses from immune system. Tregs within the tumor microenvironment have extensive positive cross-talks with other immunosuppressive cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer cells, macrophage type 2 cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and they have negative interactions with immunostimulatory cells including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Majid Ahmadi, Mehdi Yousefi, Sanaz Abbaspour-Aghdam, Sanam Dolati, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Shadi Eghbal-Fard, Alireza Khabbazi, Davood Rostamzadeh, Shahriar Alipour, Mahdi Shabani, Mohammad Nouri, Zohreh Babaloo
Impaired inflammatory immune cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD). In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, cytokine secretion, the expression of transcription factors related to Th17 and Treg cells, and microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting these transcription factors in BD patients. Blood samples from 47 BD patients and 58 healthy subjects were drawn, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated and isolated...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ana Carina Nogueira Vasconcelos, Danilo Pedro Streit, Anna Octavera, Misako Miwa, Naoki Kabeya, Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia, Daniel Antonio Rotili, Goro Yoshizaki
The native Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the second-largest scaled fish in South America and the most common native species in Brazil. To preserve genetic resources with sufficient genetic diversity through germ cell cryopreservation and transplantation techniques, a molecular marker for identifying the cells is required to trace them during the manipulation processes. The vasa gene is a promising candidate, as its specific expression in germ cell lineage has been well-conserved throughout animal evolution...
October 11, 2018: Gene
Kaori Yamamoto, Nishiho Makino, Masayoshi Nagai, Yoshimi Honma, Hiroyuki Araki, Takashi Ushimaru
Accurate DNA replication is at the heart of faithful genome transmission in dividing cells. DNA replication is strictly controlled by various factors. However, how environmental stresses such as nutrient starvation impact on these factors and DNA replication is largely unknown. Here we show that DNA replication is regulated by target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) protein kinase, which is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients. TORC1 inactivation reduced the levels of various proteins critical for DNA replication initiation, such as Mcm3, Orc3, Cdt1, and Sld2, and retarded DNA replication...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Patrick Harris
Lawless et al provide a valuable narrative of using program logic to develop an evaluation of Health in All Policies (HiAP) in South Australia. In this commentary I argue that the paper and analysis is an extremely useful example of navigating the supposed black box of policy-making. However the original makes the reader work too hard and is distracting from the main narrative of explaining the logic behind the HiAP approach in South Australia. My response covers avoiding epistemological traps and weighing up the pragmatics of collaborative policy research with more complex institutional policy issues like power...
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
David B Burr
It is well known that bone loss accompanies aging in both men and women and contributes to skeletal fragility in the older population, but changes that occur to the bone tissue matrix itself are less well known. These changes in bone quality aggravate the skeletal fragility associated with loss of bone mass. Bone tissue quality is affected by age-related changes in bone mineral, collagen and its cross-linking profiles, water compartments and even non-collagenous proteins. It is commonly assumed that greater tissue mineralization accompanies aging as bone turnover slows down in elderly individuals, but the data for this are weak...
October 10, 2018: Bone
Xiuhua Yang, Tao Meng
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by higher blood pressure, together with higher protein quantity presence in the urine, which occurs after 20 weeks of gestation leading to severity of adverse maternal and fetal consequences. Some special microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in placentas may be related to the occurrence of PE. Researchers have found that the expression of miR-431 in PE placentas was increased if compared with normal placentas; however, the effect and mechanism of miR-431 in PE are still unknown...
October 10, 2018: Gene
Benjamin Johansson, Helka Sahi, Virve Koljonen, Tom Böhling
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor samples frequently express B-lymphoid lineage markers. However, the reasons for expression of specific B-lymphoid lineage markers are still unclear. We studied in a large pool of tissue microarray MCC samples, validate in a larger cohort the expression of TdT and Pax-5, which are two B-lymphoid lineage markers. METHODS: Immunoexpression and staining intensities of TdT and Pax-5 were statistically correlated with patient, tumor, Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV), and disease-specific parameters...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Laura Chiossone, Pierre-Yves Dumas, Margaux Vienne, Eric Vivier
In Box 1 in the originally published version of this article, three key references referring to mouse and human killer inhibitory receptors were mistakenly deleted during revision of the article. These references have now been added to the corrected version of the article.
October 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Xue Gong, Weiguang Liu, Lele Wu, Zhifang Ma, Yuzhi Wang, Shiyi Yu, Jun Zhang, Hao Xie, Guanyun Wei, Fei Ma, Ling Lu, Liming Chen
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported in a variety of cancers. SRY-box 2 (SOX2) is a member of the SOX family of transcription factors and has been shown to play a critical role in maintaining the functions of CSCs and promoting tumor initiation. However, the underlying mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of the SOX2 gene in CSCs are unclear. In this study, using in silico and experimental approaches, we identified transcriptional repressor GATA binding 1 (TRPS1), an atypical GATA-type transcription factor, as a critical transcriptional regulator that represses SOX2 expression and thereby suppresses cancer stemness and tumorigenesis...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ilias Chantziaras, Jeroen Dewulf, Tommy Van Limbergen, Marlijn Klinkenberg, Andreas Palzer, Carlos Pineiro, Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen, Jarkko Niemi, Ilias Kyriazakis, Dominiek Maes
Production diseases are often of multi-factorial origin in which environment (housing, nutrition and management) health and reproductive challenges show complex interactions. The aim of this study was to identify specific environment-related factors and to discuss their associations with health, welfare and reproductive performance in sows and piglets, in diverse systems using data from 130 farms from five EU countries. Two sets of data were used: a) a questionnaire was developed for sows and piglets covering farm management, interventions and housing and b) farm production data covering various performance parameters...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Meihong Deng, Yiting Tang, Wenbo Li, Xiangyu Wang, Rui Zhang, Xianying Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jian Liu, Cheng Tang, Zhonghua Liu, Yongzhuo Huang, Huige Peng, Lehui Xiao, Daolin Tang, Melanie J Scott, Qingde Wang, Jing Liu, Xianzhong Xiao, Simon Watkins, Jianhua Li, Huan Yang, Haichao Wang, Fangping Chen, Kevin J Tracey, Timothy R Billiar, Ben Lu
Caspase-11, a cytosolic endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS) receptor, mediates pyroptosis, a lytic form of cell death. Caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis mediates lethality in endotoxemia, but it is unclear how LPS is delivered into the cytosol for the activation of caspase-11. Here we discovered that hepatocyte-released high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was required for caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis and lethality in endotoxemia and bacterial sepsis. Mechanistically, hepatocyte-released HMGB1 bound LPS and targeted its internalization into the lysosomes of macrophages and endothelial cells via the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)...
October 1, 2018: Immunity
Yahong Han, Zhenbiao Xu, Yanan Liu, Da Wei, Jing Zhang, Le Xue, Xiangmin Zhang, Jie Qin, Hongkuan Deng, Linxia Song
Y-box binding protein (YB protein) is an ancient conserved multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein. A novel YB protein DjY2 gene from planarian Dugesia japonica was cloned by RACE method and characterized. This cDNA contains 689 bp with a putative open reading frame of 197 amino acids. It has a predicted molecular mass of 22.14 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.67. Whole-mount in situ hybridization and relative quantitative real-time PCR were used to study the spatial and temporal expression pattern of DjY2 in the process of planarian regeneration...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Guohui Xiao, Bingjuan Li, Hongjun Chen, Wei Chen, Zhengyi Wang, Bizeng Mao, Renyi Gui, Xiaoqin Guo
BACKGROUND: In Arabidopsis, a long day flowering plant, CONSTANS (CO) acts as a transcriptional activator of flowering under long day (LD) condition. In rice, a short day flowering plant, Hd1, the ortholog of CO, plays dual functions in respond to day-length, activates flowering in short days and represses flowering in long days. In addition, alleles of Hd1 account for ~ 44% of the variation in flowering time observed in cultivated rice and sorghum. How does it work in bamboo? The function of CO in bamboo is similar to that in Arabidopsis? RESULTS: Two CO homologous genes, PvCO1 and PvCO2, in Phyllostachys violascens were identified...
October 12, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jinpeng Zhang, Jinming Zhang, Shan Yu
In the image object detection task, a huge number of candidate boxes are generated to match with a relatively very small amount of ground-truth boxes, and through this method the learning samples can be created. But in fact the vast majority of the candidate boxes do not contain valid object instances and should be recognized and rejected during the training and evaluation of the network. This leads to extra high computation burden and a serious imbalance problem between object and none-object samples, thereby impeding the algorithm's performance...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Andrei V Grischenko, Dennis P Gordon, Viacheslav P Melnik
This work describes Bryozoa of the orders Cyclostomata and Ctenostomata found associated with polymetallic nodules collected by box-coring in the eastern part of the Russian exploration area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) under contract to Yuzhmorgeologiya. Scanning electron microscopic study of 358 cyclostome colonies and 14 ctenostome colonies from 4510-5280 m depth has resulted in the recognition of two new species of Ctenostomata, and 14 new species, nine new genera and two new families of Cyclostomata; three additional species of Cyclostomata are left in open nomenclature pending the discovery of missing reproductive characters...
September 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Darren A Pollock
The North American (north of Mexico) species of Elacatis were revised, based on external and genitalic structures of adults. Seven species are recognized, though the historical inclusion of E. fasciatus Bland among Nearctic species is very likely based on an erroneous collecting locality. Two new species are described, with type localities (counties only) in parentheses: E. larsoni (Nebraska: Box Butte County) and E. stephani (Arizona: Cochise County). The following new synonym is proposed: Othnius umbrosus LeConte 1861 = Othnius lugubris Horn 1868; therefore, only E...
May 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Naoki Hayase, Kent Doi, Takahiro Hiruma, Ryota Inokuchi, Yoshifumi Hamasaki, Eisei Noiri, Masaomi Nangaku, Naoto Morimura
Acute liver injury (ALI) is frequently detected in an intensive care unit (ICU) and reportedly affects prognosis. Experimental animal studies suggested that increased extracellular histone and high morbidity group box-1 (HMGB1) levels might contribute to ALI development. Whether these damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play a crucial role in ALI remains unclear in the human clinical setting.We consecutively enrolled the patients admitted to our ICU. The patients with ALI were included in the analysis together with those without ALI by using frequency matching...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zijian Li
Exploring better models for evaluating the distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediment is necessary to assess and avoid population health risk. Frequentist philosophy and probability are widely used in many studies to apply a log-normal distribution associated with the maximum likelihood estimation, which assumes fixed parameters and relies on a large sample size for long-run frequency. However, frequentist probability might not be suitable for analyzing pesticide residue distribution, whose parameters are affected by many complex factors and should be treated as unfixed...
October 9, 2018: Environment International
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