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Yuanyue Zhang, Lingyun Li, Chang Qi, Shuyao Hua, Xiaoyuan Fei, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid compound, has been reported to be an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases including hepatitis. However, the mechanism by which glycyrrhizin inhibits inflammation is unclear. Using a Con A-induced hepatitis model in mice, we found that administration of glycyrrhizin ameliorates Con A-induced liver injury, which manifests as reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17, as well as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Junxia Mao, Xiaosen Zhang, Wenjing Zhang, Ying Tian, Xubo Wang, Zhenlin Hao, Yaqing Chang
The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the center of the regulator network of melanin synthesis in vertebrates. However, the role of MITF in shell color formation is poorly studied in mollusks. In the present study, an MITF gene, PyMITF, was first identified at the whole-genome level in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), an evolutionarily and economically important species, the shell color of which shows polymorphism. The PyMITF is a large gene spanning ~37 kb in the genome with 7 introns and 8 exons...
December 12, 2018: Gene
Babatunde Kazeem Bello, Yuxuan Hou, Juan Zhao, Guiai Jiao, Yawen Wu, Zhiyong Li, Yifeng Wang, Xiaohong Tong, Wei Wang, Wenya Yuan, Xiangjin Wei, Jian Zhang
Identification of seed development regulatory genes is the key for the genetic improvement of rice grain quality. NF-Ys are important transcription factors, but their roles in rice grain quality control and the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report the functional characterization a rice NF-Y heterotrimer complex NF-YB1-YC12-bHLH144, which is formed by the binding of NF-YB1 to NF-YC12 and then bHLH144 in a sequential order. Knock-out of each of the complex genes resulted in alteration of grain qualities in all the mutants as well as reduced grain size in crnf-yb1 and crnf-yc12...
December 15, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Liang Chen, Beiyao Gao, Yadong Zhang, Hanyu Lu, Xiaobo Li, Luanfeng Pan, Lianhua Yin, Xiuling Zhi
Macrophages polarization plays essential but different roles in most diseases such as atherosclerosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. Our previous study revealed that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G-protein coupled receptor influenced macrophage function, but little is known regarding the regulation of macrophage polarization process and its potential mechanisms. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from C57/BL6 mice and cultured with L929-conditional medium and murine macrophage cell line RAW264...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Bartolo Avendaño-Borromeo, Ravi Kumar Narayanasamy, Guillermina García-Rivera, María Luisa Labra-Barrios, Anel E Lagunes-Guillén, Bibiana Munguía-Chávez, Carlos Alberto Castañón-Sánchez, Esther Orozco, Juan Pedro Luna-Arias
Transcription factor IID (TFIID) is a cornerstone in the transcription initiation in eukaryotes. It is composed of TBP and approximately 14 different subunits named TBP-associated factors (TAFs). TFIID has a key role in transcription of many genes involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell cycle, cell cycle checkpoint, and various other processes as well. Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, represents a major global health concern. Our research group has previously reported the genes coding the TATA box-binding protein (EhTBP) and TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1), which displayed different mRNA levels in trophozoites under different stress conditions...
December 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
Kenichiro Taniguchi, Idse Heemskerk, Deborah L Gumucio
Proper development of the human embryo following its implantation into the uterine wall is critical for the successful continuation of pregnancy. However, the complex cellular and molecular changes that occur during this post-implantation period of human development are not amenable to study in vivo. Recently, several new embryo-like human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based platforms have emerged, which are beginning to illuminate the current black box state of early human post-implantation biology. In this review, we will discuss how these experimental models are carving a way for understanding novel molecular and cellular mechanisms during early human development...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Ganiyu Oboh, Adeniyi A Adebayo, Ayokunle O Ademosun, Oluwaseun A Abegunde
Hunteria umbellata has been reported useful in managing the male sexual related disorder, but there is a dearth of information on its possible mechanism of action. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the effect of H. umbellata on some sexual behavior parameters in male rats, in order to ascertain its acclaimed aphrodisiac property. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). The extract (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day) and sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavages for 28 days...
December 5, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Christelle Langevin, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Pierre Boudinot
Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species...
December 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Satoshi Nobusako, Michihiro Osumi, Atsushi Matsuo, Takahiro Fukuchi, Akio Nakai, Takuro Zama, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka
Mechanical and electrical noise stimulation to the body is known to improve the sensorimotor system. This improvement is related to stochastic resonance (SR), a phenomenon described as a "noise benefit" to various sensory and motor systems. The current study investigated the influence of SR on visuomotor temporal integration and hand motor function under delayed visual feedback in healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to measure the usefulness of SR as a neurorehabilitation device for disorders of visuomotor temporal integration...
2018: PloS One
Shima Shahbaz, Najmeh Bozorgmehr, Petya Koleva, Afshin Namdar, Juan Jovel, Roy A Fava, Shokrollah Elahi
Cell-surface transferrin receptor (CD71+) erythroid cells are abundant in newborns with immunomodulatory properties. Here, we show that neonatal CD71+ erythroid cells express significant levels of V-domain Immunoglobulin (Ig) Suppressor of T Cell Activation (VISTA) and, via constitutive production of transforming growth factor (TGF)- β, play a pivotal role in promotion of naïve CD4+ T cells into regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interestingly, we discovered that CD71+VISTA+ erythroid cells produce significantly higher levels of TGF-β compared to CD71+VISTA- erythroid cells and CD71+ erythroid cells from the VISTA knock-out (KO) mice...
December 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
M R Nagaraja, Satya Prakash Gubbala, C R Wilma Delphine Silvia, Ramars Amanchy
We aimed to survey the monogenic causes of disorders of sex development (DSD) and thereby its prevalence in India. This study revealed mutations resulting in androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency, and gonadal dysgenesis were commonly reported. Intriguingly, AR deficits were the most prevalent (32 mutations) and of 11/26 missense mutations were in exons 4-8 (encoding ligand binding domain). The unique features of SRD5A2 defects were p.R246Q (most prevalent) and p.G196S could be mutational hotspots, dual gene defects (p...
December 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Maayan Stavans, Yi Lin, Di Wu, Renée Baillargeon
Comparison of infant findings from the physical-reasoning and object-individuation literatures reveals a contradictory picture. On the one hand, physical-reasoning results indicate that young infants can use featural information to guide their actions on objects and to detect interaction violations (when objects interact in ways that are not physically possible) as well as change violations (when objects spontaneously undergo featural changes that are not physically possible). On the other hand, object-individuation results indicate that young infants typically cannot use featural information to detect individuation violations (when the number of objects revealed at the end of an event is less than the number of objects introduced during the event)...
December 13, 2018: Psychological Review
Frady G Adly, Kostiantyn O Marichev, Joseph A Jensen, Hadi Arman, Michael P Doyle
Enoldiazosulfones undergo [3 + 3]-cycloaddition with nitrones when catalyzed by copper(I) catalysts, but not with dirhodium(II) catalysts. Under mild reaction conditions with chiral bisoxazoline ligands, copper(I) catalysts produce 1,2-oxazine-sulfone derivatives in high yields and enantioselectivities. Dirhodium(II) catalysts form stable donor-acceptor cyclopropenes that undergo uncatalyzed [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions with nitrones.
December 14, 2018: Organic Letters
H Li, X C Sun, Q Liu, Y Q Li, L Hu, H P Yu, D H Wang
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of Th17/Treg imbalance in the pathogenesis of bacterial biofilm (BBF) induced chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS). Method: CRS nasal sinus mucosa was collected, and BBF was examined by BacLight/CSLM detection. Forty CRS cases(20 BBF positive cases and 20 negative cases) and 10 controls were enrolled. Clinical data were recorded before operation, and nasal sinus mucosa was collected during operation. The mRNA level of Forkhead box protein 3(Foxp3), retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (RORγt), and IL-17 were detected by Real-time PCR...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
A A Reyes-Sánchez, J A Estrada-Gómez, B Zarate-Kalfopulus, C García, A Alpizar-Aguirre, L M Rosales-Olivares
OBJECTIVE: To compare results of Plate-Graff, Plate-Cage and PEEK cage in patients with cervical stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective, with before and after intervention and comparative study. From January 2005 to October 2011 we included 37 patients (male: 48.6%, female: 51.4%) post-surgery by anterior approach; 3 groups via: Group I, arthrodesis with Plate-Graff n = 12 (M 41.7%, F 58.3%) with 22 levels, group II, Plate-Cage n = 11 (M 63.6% 36.4% F) 19 levels, group III, PEEK cage, n = 14 (M 0% F 50%) with 25 levels...
July 2018: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Xiaowei Wang, Yong Xu, Ying-Chun Zhu, Ya-Kun Wang, Ji Li, Xiao-Ying Li, Tingting Ji, Shou-Jun Bai
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a kind of microvascular complications of diabetes. Long noncoding RNAs (lnRNAs) can participate in the development of various diseases, including DN. However, the function of lncRNA NEAT1 is unclear. In our present study, we reported that NEAT1 was significantly increased in streptozotocin-induced DN rat models and high-glucose-induced mice mesangial cells. We observed that knockdown of NEAT1 greatly inhibited renal injury of DN rats. Meanwhile, downregulation of NEAT1-modulated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (ASK1, fibronectin, and TGF-β1) expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) in vitro...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Priscila Maria Colavite, Franco Cavalla, Thiago Pompermaier Garlet, Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Jessica Lima Melchiades, Ana Paula Campanelli, Ariadne Letra, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone, Renato Menezes Silva, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet
TBX21-1993T/C (rs4794067) polymorphism increases the transcriptional activity of the Tbx21, essential for interferon gamma (IFNg) transcription, but its functional impact on development Th1- response in vivo remains unclear, as well its potential influence over inflammatory osteolytic conditions, such as periapical lesions. Therefore, this study comprises a case-control and functional investigation of Tbx21 genetic variations impact on Th1 response in vivo and in vitro, and its impact on periapical lesions risk and outcome, performed with a population of healthy controls (H; N = 283) and patients presenting periapical lesions (L; N = 188) or deep caries (DC; N = 152)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Johanna Seitz, Marek Kubicki, Emily G Jacobs, Sara Cherkerzian, Blair K Weiss, George Papadimitriou, Palig Mouradian, Stephen Buka, Jill M Goldstein, Nikos Makris
Research on age-related memory alterations traditionally targets individuals aged ≥65 years. However, recent studies emphasize the importance of early aging processes. We therefore aimed to characterize variation in brain gray matter structure in early midlife as a function of sex and menopausal status. Subjects included 94 women (33 premenopausal, 29 perimenopausal, and 32 postmenopausal) and 99 demographically comparable men from the New England Family Study. Subjects were scanned with a high-resolution T1 sequence on a 3 T whole body scanner...
December 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Zhifang Li, Guiju Zhou, Longfan Jiang, Huifen Xiang, Yunxia Cao
STOX1 is a transcription factor that is implicated in the high prevalence of human gestational diseases. It has been studied in various types of gestational diseases using different molecular and cellular biological technologies. However, the effect and detailed mechanism of storkhead box 1 (STOX1) in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect and detailed mechanism of STOX1 in human trophoblast cells. The result showed that downregulation of STOX1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) led to a decrease in proliferation and migration in HTR-8/SVneo cells, while it induced the apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo cells...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zhuolin Zhou, Jing Liu, Chunchao Bi, Li Chen, Yang Jiao, Lijun Cui
Oxidative stress and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium cells are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Forkhead box class O 6 (FOXO6) is a member of the FOXO family that can regulate diabetes-induced oxidative stress. However, the role of FOXO6 in DR has not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FOXO6 on high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. The results showed that FOXO6 was overexpressed in clinical vitreous samples from DR patients and in HG-induced ARPE-19 cells...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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